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Scholem Essay:The Messianic Idea In Kabbahsm 

Scholem EssayiThe Crisis of Tradition in Jewish Messianism 

Scholem Essay: Redemption Through Sin 

Makow on Frankist/Sabbatean Globahsts 

The Rothschild -Frankist Money Link 

Sabbatai Tzvi,The Mystical Messiah 

288 Sparks & the Messiah 

Sabbatean/Frankists Illuminati a.k.a.The Cult of the All-Seing Eye 

Chamish's Sabbatean Insight 

Qy Vey! Is John Kerry a Frankist too? 

To Eliminate the Opiate'. Chapter 8: The Illuminati And Haskala 

To Eliminate the Opiate: Chapter 10: Dobrushka,The Red Kabbala and the Jacobins 

To Eliminate the Opiate: Chapter 11: The Frankist Ehte 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe: Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe: Chapter 2: Early Encounters 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe: Chapter 3: The Order of the Asiatic Brethren 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe: Chapter 4: The Frankfurt Judenloge 

The Rothschilds take Japan 

Rothschild's Family Resemblance 

Hertzl & the Rothschilds 

Rothschild Time Cover 

The House of Rothschild: Jewish Questions 

The Nazi Arrest of Baron Rothschild 

Was Stalin a Rothschild? 

The Rothschild Frontmen 

Modern Rothschild Russian Oil Interests 

M.A. Rothschild: The 7th Most Influential Businessman of All Time 

Rothschildian Eugenics & Jewish Breeding 

Karl Polanyi's The Great Transformation: the poHtical and economic origins of our time, 
Chapter 1 

Jewish & Armenian Genocide 

The Transfer Agreement 

Oil & the Holocaust 

Why the Holocaust Happened 

Secret Origin of the Holocaust 

The Privileged Nazi Transport? 

Was Hitler Jewish? 

Hitler's Secret Father 

The Rothschilds & Their Nazi Pope 

Hitler's Secret Origins 

Hitler's Jewish Bankers 

Hitler's Birthplace 

The Alhed Refusal to Bomb Auschwitz 

A Solution to the "Mid-East Conflict" 

The Origins of Modern Zionism 

The Origins of Modern Zionism Part 2 

Rabbi Antelman 

Why the Middle East Conflict Continues to Exist 

The Khazars 

Hijacking Kabbalah 

Who is a Jew? 


Israel & The Mysterious Execution of Journahst Matthiew Paoh 

Our Crowd: "Jew versus Jew" 

America's Sephardic Elite'. Chapter 1 

America's Sephardic E/fVg; Chapter 2 

America's Sephardic ^/fVg; Chapter 3 

The Beheading of Britain's King Charles I 

Marranos II 

Antony C. Sutton 

Mossad Question 

Who's guarding the henhouse? 

The Orders & The Holocaust Conspiracy 

Is the New World Order Jewish? 

Robison's "Proofs of a Conspiracy" 

Full Text of None Dare Call It Conspiracy 


Vatican Agenda 

Perpetual War for Perpetual Evolution 

Congressman Louis T. McFadden's speech against on the Federal Reserve 

Taxes and the "Crown" 

" Max Warburg" 

S.G. Warburg 

The Dungeon Democracy 

History of Rockerfeller & Standard Oil (Exxon) 

Was Arafat a Sabbatean-Frankist? 

Is President Bush a Sabbatean-Frankist? 

CIA, Dachau & Truth Drugs 

The CIA & LSD 

The Rothschilds & the Lincoln Assassination 

John J. McCloy's Sabbatean/Frankist Connection, The Holocaust & JFK 

Rothschild Book Resource 

Sabbatean/Frankist Illuminati Photos 

JFK's Sabbatean/Frankist Illuminati Enemies 

Was JFK's Mistress Murdered? 

Sabbatean/Frankist Illuminati & JFK 

JFK & the Sabbatean/Frankist Holocaust Secret 

The Israel/JFK Assassination Connection 

JFK Problem 

McCloy/Zinsser Holocaust Connection 

The Lee Oswald Allen W. Dulles Amazing Link 

Did CIA Give L.H. Oswald LSD? 

David Icke's important "The Land of the free" (Must read!) 

Sabbatean Frankist-Freemasonic Chronology 

A Question of Zion 

Prophesies from the Book of Offenbach 

Did Jacob Frank Predicted Holocaust? 

Sayings of the Messiah of the Sabbatean/Frankist Illuminati 

The Popular Rabbi & Shabbatai Tzvi 

Did the CIA Give Lee Harvey Osawald LSD? 



By Gershom Scholem 

•THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, and nineteenth-century Judaism, have bequeathed to the modern 
mind a complex of ideas about Messianism that have led to distortions and counterfeits from which it 
is by no means easy to free ourselves. We have been taught that the Messianic idea is part and parcel 
of the idea of the progress of the human race in the universe, that redemption is achieved by man's 
unassisted and continuous progress, leading to the ultimate liberation of all the goodness and nobihty 
hidden within him. This, in essence, is the content which the Messianic ideal acquired under the 
combined dominance of religious and political liberaHsm-the result of an attempt to adapt the 
Messianic conceptions of the prophets and of Jewish religious tradition to the ideals of the French 

Traditionally, however, the Messianic idea in Judaism was not so cheerful; the coming of the Messiah 
was supposed to shake the foundations of the world. In the view of the prophets and Aggadists, 
redemption would only follow upon a universal revolutionary disturbance, unparalleled disasters in 
which history would be dislodged and destroyed. The nineteenth-century view is blind to this 
catastrophic aspect. It looks only to progress toward infinite perfection. In probing into the roots of 
this new conception of the Messianic ideal as man's infinite progress and perfectibility, we find, 
surprisingly, that they stem from the Kabbalah. 

When we study the Messianic ideal we simultaneously study the nature of the Diaspora, the Galut. 
The medieval Jew thought of redemption as a state that would be brought about by the reversal of all 
that had produced Galut. The Messianic ideal of the prophets of the Bible and other classical Jewish 
Sources provided no precedent for this view. Both prophets and Aggadists conceived of redemption 
as a new state of the world wholly unrelated to anything that had gone before, not the product of a 
purifying development of the preceding state. Hence for them the world unredeemed and the world in 
process of redemption were separated by an abyss. History was not a development toward any goal. 
History would reach its terminus, and the new state that ensued would be the result of a totally new 
manifestation of the divine. In the Prophets this stage is called the "Day of the Lord," which is wholly 
unlike other days: it can only arrive after the old structure has been razed. Accordingly, upon the 
advent of the "Day of the Lord" all that man has built up in history will be destroyed. 

Classical Jewish tradition is fond of emphasizing the catastrophic strain in redemption. If we look at 
the tenth chapter of the tractate Sanhedrin, where the Talmudists discuss the question of redemption 
at length, we see that to them it means a colossal uprooting, destruction, revolution, disaster, with 
nothing of development or progress about it. 'The Son of David [the Messiah] will come only in a 
generation wholly guilty or a generation wholly innocent"-a condition beyond the realm of human 
possibility. Or "the Son of David will not come until the kingdom is subverted to heresy." These 
hopes for redemption always show a very strong nationalistic bent. Liberation of Israel is the essence, 
but it will march in step with the liberation of the whole world. 

It is well known that the whole broad area of Messianic expectations which appear in the aggadic 
tradition and in Midrashim was not deemed worthy of systematic treatment by the great Jewish 
philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages (with the sole exception of Saadia Gaon in the tenth 
century). Thus popular imagination and the religious impulse were left free to dream their own 
dreams and think their own thoughts, without encountering the opposition of the enlightened part of 
the community. A whole popular literature grew up in the Middle Ages which prophesied the final 
apocalyptic war that would bring history to an end, and vividly pictured redemption as the crowning 
event in the national and communal saga. In this way. Messianic expectation, looked down upon by 
the intellectual aristocracy, struck roots among the masses of the people, diverting their minds from 
efforts to solve the problems of the present to the Utopian realm of the "Day of the Lord." 

The early Kabbalists-from the twelfth century until the expulsion from Spain in 1492-had little to 
add to the popular myth of redemption, for their faces were turned not to the End of Days but to the 
primal days of Creation. They hoped for a particular and mystical redemption for each individual, to 
be achieved by escaping from the turbulence, perplexity, chaos, and storms of the actual course of 
history to the beginnings of history. 

These early Kabbalists assigned special importance to such questions as: What is the nature of 
Creation? and: Whence have we come? For they believed that to know the "ladder of ascent," or, 
more precisely, the ladder of descent, the order of rungs which link all creatures downward from the 
source of Creation, from God, "the root of all roots," down to our Own straitened existence -to know 
the secret of our beginnings, whence the imperfections of this distorted and dark world in which we 
are stranded, with all the storms and perturbations and afflictions within it-to know all this would 
teach us the way back to "our inward home." Just as we have descended, just as every creature 
descends by its particular path, so is it able also to ascend, and this ascent aims at a return to the 
origin of Creation and not to its end. Here, then, we have a view of redemption in which the 
foundations of the world are not moved by great Messianic disturbances. Instead, the world itself is 
rejected by ascent upon the rungs of the ladder which rises to the heavenly mansions in the bosom of 
God. The Kabbalist who was prepared to follow this path of inwardness would be liberated and 
redeemed by the fact that he himself in the depths of his own soul would seek a way of return to God, 
to the source whence he was hewn. 

The masterpiece of Spanish Kabbalism is the Zohar, which was written in the last quarter of the 
thirteenth century in Castile, the central part of Spain. In this book Kabbalah and Messianism are not 
yet dovetailed into a genuinely organic whole. On the subject of redemption we find utterances that 
give expression in new form and with the addition of interesting details, but without essential change, 
to the prophecies of the End recorded in the popular apocalyptic literature referred to above. 

The Zohar follows talmudic Aggadah in seeing redemption not as the product of inward progress in 
the historical world, but as a supernatural miracle involving the gradual illumination of the world by 
the light of the Messiah. It begins with an initial gleam and ends with full revelation: the light of the 

"At the time when the Holy One, blessed be He, shall set Israel upright and bring them up out of 
Galut He will open to them a small and scant window of light, and then He will open another that is 
larger, until He will open to them the portals on high to the four directions of the universe. So shall it 
be with all that the Holy One, blessed be He, does for Israel and for the righteous among them, so 

shall it be and not at a single instant, for neither does healing come to a sick man at a single instant, 
but gradually, until he is made strong." 

The Gentiles (who are designated Esau or Edom), however, will suffer the opposite fate. They 
received their light in this world at a single stroke, but it will depart from them gradually until Israel 
shall grow strong and destroy them. And when the spirit of uncleanliness shall pass from the world 
and the divine light shall shine upon Israel without let or hinderance, all things will return to their 
proper order—to the state of perfection which prevailed in the Garden of Eden before Adam sinned. 
The worlds will all be joined one to another and nothing will separate Creator from creature. All will 
rise upward by ascents of the spirit, and creatures will be purified until they behold the Shekhinah 
"eye to eye." 

In the last section of the Zohar, this prophecy is supplemented by another foretelling the liberation of 
Israel from all the limitations which the yoke of the Torah has laid upon her in Galut. The author 
expresses his vision in the imagery of the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge (from which death 
depends). Since Adam sinned, the world has been governed not by the Tree of Life (as it properly 
should be) but by the Tree of Knowledge. The Tree of Life is entirely and exclusively holy, with no 
admixture of evil, no adulteration or impurity or death or limitation. The Tree of Knowledge, on the 
other hand, contains both good and evil, purity and impurity, virtue and vice, and therefore under its 
rule there are things forbidden and things permitted, things fit for consumption and things unfit, the 
clean and the unclean .. In an unredeemed world the Torah is revealed in positive and negative 
commandments and all that these imply, but in the redeemed future uncleanliness and unfitness and 
death will be abolished. In an unredeemed world the Torah must be interpreted in manifold ways- 
literal, allegorical, mystical; but in the redeemed future it will be revealed in the pure spirituality of 
the Tree of Life, without the "clothing" it put on after Adam sinned. It will be wholly inward, entirely 

In this conception, redemption becomes a spiritual revolution which will uncover the mystic 
meaning, the "true interpretation," of the Torah. Thus a mystic Utopia takes the place of the national 
and secular Utopia of the early writers. But the author of these latest sections bestows special 
emphasis on the opposition between the Torah of the Galut and the Torah of the redemption without 
indicating any transition between them. The two states of the world were still separated by a chasm 
which history could never bridge. 

The efforts of the Spanish KabbaHsts had been bent upon a new understanding of Judaism. They re- 
examined Jewish life, the life of the commandments, the world of the Halakhah, no less than of the 
Aggadah, delving into the mystery of the Torah, of man's works in this world, of his relation to God. 
In these matters their convictions had no vital connection with the theme of redemption. But on the 
heels of the expulsion from Spain, the Kabbalah underwent a pronounced shift which was of 
momentous consequences for Jewish history generally, even more than for Kabbalah itself. Just as 
the Kabbalah of the thirteenth century sought to interpret Judaism in a way that would enable a 
thirteenth- or fourteenth-century man to be a Jew according to the religious conceptions of that 
period, so after the expulsion from Spain the Kabbalah sought to provide an answer for questions 
which arose from an event which had uprooted one of the principal branches of Judaism. 

But the attempt to reinterpret the nature of the universe and of Judaism in the light of this experience 
was not made in the years immediately following the catastrophe of 1492. The Kabbalists like their 

fellow Jews in general, believed that complete redemption was around the corner. In the expulsion 
from Spain they saw the beginnings of the "travail of the Messiah" -the beginnings of those disasters 
and frightful afflictions which would terminate history and usher in the redemption. There was no 
need for new religious concepts and principles; the end had already come. At any hour, any moment, 
the gates of redemption might swing open, and men's hearts must now be awakened to meet the 
future. For the span of one generation, during the forty years after the Spanish expulsion, we find a 
deep Messianic excitement and tension almost as intense as before the eruption of the Sabbatian 
movement. Traditional principles remained untouched; the teaching of the early Kabbalah continued 
without basic change; the important thing now was propaganda, the dissemination of the apocalyptic 

The master propagandist of this acute Messianism in the generation after the Spanish expulsion was 
Abraham ben Eliezer ha-Levi, a rabbi from Spain who lived in Jerusalem and was one of the great 
Kabbalists of his day. On the basis of all Hebrew literature, from the book of Daniel to the Zohar and 
the writings of the medieval sages, he proved that the travails of redemption had already begun in 
1492 and would end in full glory in 1531. We have other such ingenious books dating from the same 
period. The teaching of one of them, Kaf ha-Ketoret ("Spoon of Incense" ) , an anonymous 
commentary on the book of Psalms (which is extant only in manuscripts), runs like this: 

•According to the words of the sages the Torah has seventy aspects, and there are seventy aspects to 
each and every verse; in truth, therefore, the aspects are infinite. In each generation one of these 
aspects is revealed, and so in our generation the aspect which the Torah reveals to us concerns 
matters of redemption. Each and every verse (an be understood and explained in reference to 

•According to this author, every single verse in the Book of Psalms refers to the imminent 
redemption, and he declares that all the lyrics in the Psalms are battle songs of the final apocalyptic 
war. That a devout Jew should consider the Psalms as battle hymns is evidence of the depth of the 
new feelings which had seized the Jews upon the expulsion. But the implication is still that the 
notions of Galut and redemption do not require new 

The redemption, however, did not come, only disaster and travail, and all these powerful expectations 
were frustrated. And in the measure that hope was disappointed in the external world, the spiritual 
effects of the Spanish expulsion sought expression in the deeper reaches of the soul. The weight of 
the event gradually sank, as it were, from the outer strata of man to the deeper strata in the soul, to 
more fertile strata out of which are formed new visions and new symbols. The prophecy of the 
imminent end waned, and men began to think the matter out anew. Only then did there begin a 
movement which involved setting up a new religious climate around the ideas of Galut and 

What now took place can be defined as the merging of two hitherto disparate forces-the Messianic 
theme and Kabbalah- into a unified whole. In other words, the Messianic theme became a productive 
element in the speculations of the mystics themselves. They began to seek explanations for the 
expulsion from Spain: 

What had happened? What brought on the affliction and suffering? What is the nature of this gloomy 

world of Galut? They sought an answer to such questions in terms of their basic mystical outlook, 
which regarded all external being as the sign and symbol of the inward being that speaks through it. 
And by connecting the notions of Galut and redemption with the central question of the essence of 
the universe, they managed to elaborate a system which transformed the exile of the people of Israel 
into an exile of the whole world, and the redemption of their people into a universal, cosmic 

The result was that the Kabbalah succeeded in establishing its predominance over the broad masses 
of the Jewish people. This is a phenomenon which has always puzzled scholars. How did a 
movement so highly mystical, individual, and aristocratic as the Kabbalah become a social and 
historical force, a dynamic power in history? At least part of the explanation is that the sixteenth- 
century Kabbalah found in the expulsion itself a way of answering the most urgent question 
confronting the Jews of that period: the nature of Galut and the nature of redemption. 

This answer was formulated during the span of a single generation, from 1540 to 1580, by a small, 
albeit very intense, congregation of saints, devotees, priests, and reformers in the little Palestinian 
town of Safed. Since the question of Galut and redemption was everywhere troublesome in the same 
measure, and since the various Jewish communities throughout the world were still more or less 
homogenous, it was possible for the definitive answer given at Safed to be accepted as relevant in all 
parts of the Galut. 

Of the many systems formulated in Safed, the one which was most highly respected and which 
achieved authoritative status, both among mystics and the masses of the people, was the Kabbalah of 
Rabbi Isaac Luria Ashkenazi (1534-72), later called the Ari ("the Lion"). 

The Ari's basic conceptions are pictorial in character and work upon the imagination, and though 
their original formulation was quite simple, they lent themselves to extremely subtle and profound 
interpretation. The Galut the Ari's Kabbalah saw as a terrible and pitiless state permeating and 
embittering all of Jewish life, but Galut was also the condition of the universe as a whole, even of the 
deity. This is an extremely bold idea, and when the Lurianic Kabbalists came to speak of it, they 
shuddered at their own audacity, hedging it with such deprecatory expressions as "one might 
suppose," "as it were," "to stun the ear." Nevertheless, the idea was developed through the three 
central conceptions which shape the Lurianic system: limitation, destruction, reparation. 

According to the Ari and his school, the universe was created by an action of which the ancients 
generally were ignorant. God did not reveal Himself overtly in creation, but confined and concealed 
Himself, and by so doing enabled the world to be revealed. Then came the second act, the fashioning 
of the universal "emanations," the creations of the worlds, the revelation of the divine as mankind's 
deity, as the Creator, as the God of Israel. 

The original phase of concealment carries many implications. There is voluntary restraint and 
limitation, something related to the quality of harshness and rigidity in God, for all concentration and 
limitation imply the functioning of this quality. There is ruthlessness toward Himself, for He exiled 
Himself from boundless infinity to a more concentrated infinity. There is a profound inward Galut, 
not the Galut of one of the creatures but of God Himself, who limited Himself and thereby made 
place for the universe. This is the Lurianic concept of limitation or concentration, tzimtzum, which 
supplanted the simpler idea of creation held by the Spanish Kabbalists. 

To the question of how the world came into being the Spanish Kabbalists had proffered their doctrine 
of emanations. From the abundance of His being, from the treasure laid up within Himself, God 
"emanated" the sefirot, those divine luminaries, those modes and stages through which He manifests 
Himself externally. His resplendent light emanates from stage to stage, and the light spreads to ever 
wider spheres and becomes light ever more thickened. Through the descent of the lights from their 
infinite source all the worlds were emanated and created; our world is but the last and outward shell 
of the layers of divine glory. The process of Creation is thus something like progressive revelation. 

In the system of the Ari, the notion of concentration supplies a greater complexity. In order for a 
thing other than God to come into being, God must necessarily retreat within Himself. Only afterward 
does He emit beams of light into the vacuum of limitation and build our world. Moreover, at each 
stage there is need for both the force of limitation and the force of emanation. Without limitation 
everything would revert to the divine, and without emanation nothing would come into being. 
Nothing that exists can be uniform; everything has this basic Janus character-the limiting force and 
the emanating force, retreat and propagation. Only the concurrence of the two disparate motifs can 
produce being. 

The concept of limitation seems paradoxical, but it has vitality; it expresses the notion of a living 
God-a God thought of as a living organism. But let us consider the continuation of this process. 

God was revealed in His potencies and His various attributes (justice, mercy, etc., etc.). By these 
powers through which He willed to effect Creation He formed "vessels" destined to serve the 
manifestation of His own being. (It is a binding rule that whatever wishes to act or manifest itself 
requires garbs and vessels, for without them it would revert to infinity which has no differentiation 
and no stages.) The divine light entered these vessels in order to take forms appropriate to their 
function in creation, but the vessels could not contain the light and thus were broken. This is the 
phase which the Kabbalists call the "breaking of the vessels." And what was the consequence of the 
shattering of the vessels? The light was dispersed. Much of it returned to its source; some portions, or 
"sparks," fell downward and were scattered, some rose upward. 

This "breaking" introduces a dramatic aspect into the process of Creation, and it can explain the 
Galut. Henceforth nothing is perfect. The divine light which should have subsisted in specific forms 
and in places appointed for it from the beginning is no longer in its proper place because the vessels 
were broken, and thereafter all things went awry. There is nothing that was not damaged by the 
breaking. Nothing is in the place appointed for it; everything is either below or above, but not where 
it should be. In other words, all being is in Galut. 

And this is not all. Into the deep abyss of the forces of evil, the forces of darkness and impurity which 
the Kabbalists call "shells" or "offscourings," there fell, as a result of the breaking of the vessels, 
forces of holiness, sparks of divine light. Hence there is a Galut of the divine itself, of the "sparks of 
the Shekhinah": "These sparks of holiness are bound in fetters of steel in the depths of the shells, and 
yearningly aspire to rise to their source but cannot avail to do so until they have support"-so says 
Rabbi Hayyim Vital, a disciple of Luria. 

Here we have a cosmic picture of Galut, not the Galut of the people of Israel alone, but the Galut of 
the Shekhinah at the very inception of its being. All that befalls in the world is only an expression of 

this primal and fundamental Galut. All existence; including, "as it were," God, subsists in Galut. Such 
is the state of creation after the breaking of the vessels. 

Next comes reparation, the third juncture in the great process; the breaking can be healed. The primal 
flaw must be mended so that all things can return to their proper place, to their original posture. Man 
and God are partners in this enterprise. After the original breaking God began the process of 
reparation, but He left its completion to man. If Adam had not sinned the world would have entered 
the Messianic state on the first Sabbath after creation, with no historical process whatever. Adam's sin 
returned the universe, which had almost been amended, to its former broken state. What happened at 
the breaking of the vessels happened again. Again the worlds fell. Adam- who at first was a cosmic, 
spiritual, supernal being, a soul which contained all souls -fell from his station, whereupon the divine 
light in his soul was dispersed. Henceforward even the light of the soul would be imprisoned in a 
dungeon with the sparks of the Shekhinah under a single doom. All being was again scattered in 
Galut In all the expanse of creation there is imperfection, flaw, Galut. 

The Galut of Israel is only the expression compelling, concrete, and extremely cruel~of this phase 

of the world before reparation and redemption. The predicament of Israel, then, is not a historical 
accident but inherent in the world's being, and it is in Israel's power to repair the universal flaw. By 
amending themselves, the Jewish people can also amend the world, in its visible and invisible aspects 
alike. How can this be done? Through the Torah and the commandments. These are the secret 
remedies which by their spiritual action move things to their ordained station, free the imprisoned 
divine light and raise it to its proper level, liberate the sparks of Shekhinah from the domination of 
the "offscourings," complete the figure of the Creator to the full measure of His stature, which is now 
wanting in perfection, "as it were," because of the Galut of the Shekhinah. Through the "discernment" 
of good and evil, a decisive boundary is fixed between the areas of the holy and the unclean which 
became mixed up at the original breaking and then again when Adam sinned. Galut, then, is a 
mission for emendation and clarification. The children of Israel "lift up the sparks" not only from the 
places trodden by their feet in their Galut, but also, by their deeds, from the cosmos itself. 

Every man amends his own soul, and by the process of transmigration that of his neighbor. This is a 
crucial item in the doctrine of the "selection" of goodness from its exile in the spheres of evil. Belief 
in transmigration spread as a popular belief only upon the heels of the movement which emanated 
from Safed from the middle of the sixteenth century onward. The causes are easy to understand. In 
the system of the new Kabbalists, transmigration was not an appendage but an inextricable basic 
element. Transmigration, too, symbolized the state of the unamended world, the confusion of the 
orders of creation which was consequent upon Adam's sin. Just as bodies are in Galut, so also there is 
inward Galut for souls. And "Galut of souls" is transmigration. Isaiah Horovitz, one of the great 
Kabbalists of this school, writes: "In the blessing 'Sound Thou a great shofar for our liberation' we 
pray for the ingathering of the souls scattered to the four corners of the earth in their 
transmigrations .., and' also in 'Gather Thou our scattered from amongst the nations'; these apply to 
the ingathering of the Galut of souls which have been dispersed." Every living being is subject to the 
law of transmigration from form to form. There is no being, not even the lowliest, which may not 
serve as a prison for the sparks of the "banished souls" seeking restoration from their Galut. 

In this system, redemption is synonymous with emendation or restoration. After we have fulfilled our 
duty and the emendation is completed, and all things occupy their appropriate places in the universal 
scheme, then redemption will come of itself. Redemption merely signifies the perfect state, a flawless 

and harmonious world in which everything occupies its proper place. Hence the Messianic ideal, the 
ideal of redemption, receives a totally new aspect. We all work, or are at least expected to work, for 
the amendment of the world and the "selection" of good and evil. This provides an ideology for the 
commandments and the life of Halakhah~an ideology which connects traditional Judaism with the 
hidden forces operating in the world at large. A man who observes a commandment is no longer 
merely observing a commandment: his act has a universal significance, he is amending something. 

This conception of redemption is no longer catastrophic; when duty has been fulfilled the son of 
David, the Messiah, will come of himself, for his appearance at the End of Days is only a symbol for 
the completion of a process, a testimony that the world has in fact been amended. Thus it becomes 
possible to avoid the "travails of the Messiah." The transition from the state of imperfection to the 
state of perfection (which may still be very difficult) will nevertheless take place without revolution 
and disaster and great affliction. 

Here, for the first time, we have an organic connection between the state of redemption and the state 
preceding it. Redemption now appears not as the opposite of all that came before, but as the logical 
consequence of the historical process. We are all involved in one Messianic venture, and we all are 
called up to do our part. 

The Messiah himself will not bring the redemption; rather he symbolizes the advent of redemption, 
the completion of the task of emendation. It is therefore not surprising that little importance is given 
to the human personality of the Messiah in Lurianic literature, for the Kabbalists had no special need 
of a personal Messiah. But like all mystics, they were at once conservatives and radicals. Since 
tradition spoke of a personal Messiah they accepted him while revolutionizing the content of the 
traditional idea. 

We have, then, a complete array of conceptions in the new Kabbalah that show an inner logic. Galut 
and redemption are not historical manifestations peculiar to Israel, but manifestations of all being, up 
to and including the mystery of divinity itself. The Messiah here becomes the entire people of Israel 
rather than an individual Redeemer: the people of Israel as a whole prepares itself to amend the 
primal flaw. Redemption is a consequence of antecedents and not of revolution, and though the 
redemption of Israel in the national and secular sense remained a very real ideal, it was widened and 
deepened by making it the symbol of the redemption of the whole world, the restoration of the 
universe to the state it was to have attained when the Creator planned its creation. 

The new Kabbalah had a very important function in restoring to the Jew his sense of responsibility 
and his dignity. He could now look upon his state, whether in Galut or in the Messianic hope, as the 
symbol of a profound mystery which reached as high as God, and he could relate the fundamental 
experiences of his life to all cosmic being and integration. He saw no contradiction between the 
nationalist and secular aspect of redemption, and its mystic and universalist aspect. In the conviction 
of the Kabbalists the former served to adumbrate and symbolize the latter. The anguish of the 
historical experience of Galut was not blurred by this new interpretation; on the contrary, it may be 
said to have been emphasized and sharpened. But now there was added a conviction that the secret of 
Israel's anguish was rooted in the hidden sources of the vital sustenance of all creation. 


T^ ^ 

W !l 

Enter the Site Visit The Bloi</ 

Redemption Through Sin 

By Gershom Scholem 

There are three ways in which tradition evolves and develops in history. It can be carried forward 
with a retention of continuity; it can he transformed through a natural process of metamorphosis and 
assume a new configuration; and finally, it can be subjected to a break which is associated with the 
rejection of the tradition itself. 

In our time it is the break that stands in the foreground. Our attention is directed to the abandonment 
of tradition, even to the point of its total negation, in the interest of new construction. This break is 
the possibility most emphasized by those to whom we today listen most readily: the impetuous youth. 
But in their case as well the question which will force itself upon us during the course of the 
discussion remains: What persists even after the break? Is the break in a tradition really a break? 
Does the tradition not somehow manage to continue in new formulas and configurations even if 
metamorphosis is seemingly rejected? Is there anything that endures through all of this? And can this 
enduring element be formulated? Before I begin speaking about the specific problematics of the crisis 
of tradition and the radical forms in which it has appeared in Judaism under certain conditions, I 
should like to fill in the background against which my exposition will take place. 

Historical Judaism represents a classical form of religious community, one which is most 
emphatically grounded upon tradi'tion and in which tradition was the vehicle of the vital energies 
which found their expression through it. Six years ago I spoke at length before this same conference 
on the meaning and the significance of the concept of tradition in Judaism. Here I should first like to 
review in brief what at that time I developed in larger 

The concepts of revelation and tradition constitute two poles around which Judaism has grouped 
itself during two millennia. In the view that prevailed in the talmudic development of Judaism, 
revelation and tradition were both manifestations of Torah, of "teaching" on the shaping of human 
life. Revelation here comes to be regarded as the "Written Torah," which is represented by the 
Pentateuch, and as the tradition, which as "Oral Torah" serves as its ongoing interpretation, dealing 
with the possibility for application and execution of the revelation in historical time. The word of 
God in revelation, which is crystallized in the demands of the law, needs tradition in order to be 
capable of application. In the course of the history of the Jewish religion these categories of 
revelation and of the tradition in which revelation is refracted in the medium of history have become 
clearly established and have thereby pushed out all other forms. Thus there arose a traditionalism par 
excellence which was, however, accompanied and undergirded by powerful mystical accents. 

Revelation in Judaism is considered the voice which resounds from Sinai throughout the world, a 
voice which, although it can be heard, is not immediately meaningful. Rather it represents simply that 
which is capable of assuming meaning, which needs interpretation in the medium of language in 
order to be understood. Thus tradition in Judaism is taken to be the Oral Torah, the voice of God 
turned into words which only here become capable of interpretation, significant and comprehensible. 

This, then, is the great Hne of tradition in Judaism: an attempt to render the word of God utterable and 
usable in a way of Hfe determined by revelation. 

In juxtaposition to all of this in the history of Judaism stands Messianism in its manifold facets. It 
represents the intrusion of a new dimension of the present~redemption~into history, which enters 
into a problematic relation with tradition. The Messianic idea required a long period of time until it 
could emerge in post-biblical Jewish literature as the product of very diverse impulses, which in the 
Hebrew Bible still exist side by side without connection or unity. Only after the Bible did such 
varying conceptions as that of an idea! state of the world, of a catastrophic collapse of history, of the 
restoration of the Davidic kingdom, and of the "Suffering Servant" merge with the prophetic view of 
the "Day of the Lord" and a "Last Judgment." Initially, Messianism runs counter to the revelation 
idea of the Torah. It does not originate as a continuation or a further development of the idea of a law 
which obligates the living, or of a tradition regarding its appHcabihty, say, in the End of Days. Rather 
it comes from a different source. It has its origins in a historical experience, and above all in the 
counterpart of this experience present in the imagination of the Jews. 

Two elements are combined in the Messianic idea and they determine the historical configurations 
which Messianism has assumed in Judaism. These two elements are the restorative and the Utopian. 
Conceiving the content of redemption as a pubHc occurrence, which takes place at the end of history 
or even beyond it, affecting the collectivity and not the individual, Messianism could be, in the first 
place, the return to a primeval period, to a state of things which in the course of history, or perhaps 
even from the very beginning, became decadent and corrupt and which needs restoration, 
reconstitution, or reintegration. Redemption in this restorative sense means the restoration of a 
pristine state and, as such, contains an obvious conservative element. Here it is a matter of 
reinstituting a connection with something that was lost and that will be regained in the redemption. In 
contrast we find the second element, which was bound to enter into natural conflict with the first. It 
represents the conception of redemption as a phenomenon in which something emerges which has 
never before existed, in which something totally new is unmistakably expressed. These two elements 
appear dearly both in the theology of the Jews and in the historical forms of an at times acute 
Messianism. Of course these restorative and Utopian elements in the Messianic idea could exist side 
by side as long as it was simply a hope that was projected into the distant future, an affirmation of 
faith that corresponded to no real experience. As long as the Messianic hope remained abstract, not 
yet concretized in people's experience or demanding of concrete decisions, it was possible for it to 
embody even what was contradictory, without the latent contradiction being felt. 

In this form the behef in the future redemption itself became a piece of tradition; the state of tension 
it produced with the other segments of the tradition could be silently passed over or rhetorically 
veiled. In the imagination which gave shape to these things the still unreaHzed restorative and Utopian 
elements could live peacefully side by side or together with each other; for the imagination connects 
images and seeks to create bridges and roads between them. Thus Messianism could take over even a 
conservative attitude and in this way become part of the tradition. Messianic activity, however, could 
hardly do this. The moment that Messianism moved from the realm of affirmation of faith, abstract 
doctrine, and synthesizing imagination into Ufe and took on acute forms, it had to reach a point where 
the energies that lay dormant in these two elements would emerge into conflict with each other~the 
conflict of the tradition of the past versus the presence of redemption. 

It is for this reason that in Jewish theology there has not been the problem of a conflict between 

Messianism and tradition. The Messianic idea, even if it was not developed logically from the idea of 
tradition, was regarded as compatible with it. Only where historical experience stirred people's hearts 
could such experience also find a quasi-theological expression in which the crisis of tradition then 
very quickly erupted within Messianism. 

Thus the obvious question of the status of the Torah in the Messianic world was treated by the early 
Jewish literature (the Talmud, the Midrash, and the apocalypses) in purely imaginative fashion: in 
wishful dreams, in projections of the past upon the future, and in Utopian images which relegated 
everything new to a time yet to come. These images are more the products of hopes and desires than 
of historical experiences. Admittedly, here and there some scholars— Victor Aptowitzer with great 
emphasis —have asserted that certain historical experiences have played a lole in the formation of 
these conceptions; for example, the actions of the Hasmoneans of the second and first pre-Christian 
centuries, which wide circles viewed unsympathetically. Likewise, it has often enough been claimed 
that the polemical disputes with Paulinism and the early Christian conceptions of the redemption 
reactively influenced the development of Messianic ideas in Judaism itself. However, these theories 
seem to me unsubstantiated and dubious, although I naturally would not deny that Paulinism 
represents a genuine crisis of tradition within Jewish Messianism that is analogous to the one we 
must still analyze here more closely in the case of Sabbatianism. But the reactive influence of this 
crisis upon the development of Jewish conceptions is highly hypothetical in view of the early 
Church's exceedingly rapid break with Judaism. 

Therefore a conception of the redemption, which was not the product of Messianic experience (or 
anti-experience), required an essentially conservative notion which did not embody any conflict, let 
alone one that would have insisted upon any such conflict. In the sense of these speculations the 
redemption instead represents a more complete development of everything that previously was only 
partially capable of execution-but not its abrogation. This holds true for the familiar literary 
documents of early Messianism such as the Midrashim. 

At times the Messiah who brings about the redemption is viewed simply as a Moses of the new aeon, 
a Moses redivivus, and the question arises whether the parallel can be pursued any further. Is the 
Messiah as a new Moses who leads his people out of exile into the world of redemption also perhaps 
the giver of a Torah for the time of the redemption? Is the Torah and its radiation outward via the 
tradition the final word of God to Israel or is there in the Messianic or apocalyptic view a new 
revelation, a new form of the word of God? The Bible knows of no crisis of this kind. Isaiah (2:3) 
does know that at the End of Days "from Zion goes forth the Torah and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem." But it is simply Torah, not old Torah and not new Torah. It is the untouched Torah, 
which has not yet known any crisis and which in the prophetic vision is seen in its full development. 
Related to this is the notion, widely found in the rabbinic literature, that the Torah of the Messianic 
age will solve the contradictions and difficulties which now exist in regard to several points. On this 
issue the sources of Jewish tradition are nearly all dear. There is progress in the understanding of the 
Torah which in the Messianic age reaches its height. But the idea of a radical change or a questioning 
of the traditional element was eliminated and was not even perceived as a real possibility. "Since the 
Days of the Messiah represent the reUgious and political consummation of the national history and, 
however idealized, still belong to the world in which we live, it is only natural that in the Messianic 
age the Torah not only retain its validity but be better understood and better fulfilled than ever 
before." W. D. Davies, who has devoted a valuable study to the position of the Torah in the 
Messianic Age and on whom I have drawn to a considerable extent here, has rightly noted that even 

the new covenant, of which Jeremiah is the first to speak (3 1:3 Iff.) and which then plays such a large 
role in the sectarian writings of the Dead Sea Community, was not counterpoised as a contradiction to 
the old tradition but as its final establishment in the hearts of all mankind, as its final interiorization. 

One more factor must be stressed if we would understand why there could not originally he any 
awareness of a possible conflict between tradition and Messianism. As long as the historical process 
in which the Torah became the bedrock and life element of Judaism remained in flux, this positive 
factor of giving shape to life within the realm of the Torah made it possible to draw the productive 
energies inward. This process, which in the course of more than five hundred years had created the 
"tradition" itself, left no room for questions affecting the value or validity of this positive element of 
building a life under the law of the Torah. Only where this process reached its climax did such 
questions gain historical urgency, and even then, as I have already indicated, only when a new 
concrete element intruded as happened in the case of acute and activist Messianism. 

Quite logically, the infinite estimation of the Torah in its two aspects of "written" and "oral" Torah 
produced the conception of its essential immutability, even if the interpretation of this immutability 
could in the course of generations become subject to highly diverse conceptions, especially in the 
case of the Kabbalists. According to Davies, "The fully developed (rabbinic) Judaism revealed to us 
in our sources was not a soil in which the belief in any radical changes in the existing Torah was 
likely to grow nor a soil which would welcome a new kind of Torah."' This statement, however, holds 
up for the world of tradition only as long as the Messianic idea remains an abstraction. Here the only 
kind of Torah that could be foreseen was a more complete one, but not a radically new form of the 
Torah, For this reason it is frequently emphasized that in the future the precepts of the Torah wilt be 
followed ever more strictly. 

In contrast, as early as the Talmud we find hyperboles which express a Utopian vision and suppose a 
Messianic status of the Torah in which certain demands of the law lose their force. In such cases the 
hyperbolic nature of the statements is evident. "All sacrifices will be abolished except for the offering 
of thanksgiving", "all prayers will be abolished except for the prayer of thanksgiving." "All festivals 
will one day be abolished, except for Purim which will never be abolished. . .Rabbi Eleazar said: 

'Also the Day of Atonement [Yom ha-Kippurim] will never be abolished.'" The contrast between the 
holiest and the relatively least significant of all holidays—which likely also involves a pun ~ is quite 
characteristic. The pun is both witty and dangerous for it rests on the equivalent sound present in both 
the name of the most holy and thoroughly ascetic holiday of the Jewish calendar, Yom Kippurim, and 
Purim, a day of joy. The Day of Atonement, which is now a day of fasting, of the utmost self- 
restraint, and of return to God, will one day be "like Purim," and we have to remember that in 
rabbinic tradition Purim is a kind of Jewish carnival. Thus a Utopian element emerges here which 
splits apart the Day of Atonement and equates it with its opposite. To he sure, these are statements 
that are made almost in passing. 

Though still remaining in the purely speculative exegetical and literary realm, a remark concerning 
Psalm 146: 7 goes much further. It decisively removes the words "The Lord releases the prisoners" 
from the previous undialectical interpretation affording to which the tradition will be completely 
fulfilled in the Messianic age and, in most descriptions of it, shine forth with undiminished radiance. 
The Hebrew words of the Psalm lend themselves as well to a more daring but still faithful translation 
as: "The lord dissolves the commandments" or "The Lord allows the forbidden" (mattir isurim instead 

of mattir assurim). "What does this mean? Some say: 'All animals which were forbidden [to be eaten] 
in this world God will one day again allow, as was the case until the time of Noah. And why, in fact, 
has He forbidden them? In order to see who would accept His words and who would not. In the time 
to come, however. He will allow everything which He has forbidden:" This view is indeed 
immediately followed by another according to which even in the Messianic age the unclean animals 
will not be allowed. Little wonder that such passages, which were quoted gleefully by Christian 
apologists and anti-rabbinic polemicists, always disturbed conservative spirits and brought about 
protests and opposition. It remains unclear from which layer of the Midrash they originate. 

Such cannot be said of a no less disputed interpretation which often appears in the sources. It 
understands Isaiah 51 :4, "For Torah shall go forth from Me," as: "A new Torah shall go forth from 
me." There seem to have been manuscripts of the Bible in which the verse existed in this form. Here 
we find the .conception of a new Torah which some then associated with the Torah that the Messiah 
himself would teach. We are not told whether this new Torah is a reinterpretation of the old without 
its rejection or whether it represents an internal break, a new combination of the elements which 
constitute it. Both conceptions were possible and in fact are expressed in the different readings in 
which the Torah is cited. But as long as such statements could be found only in books and 
corresponded to no situation which could provide their contents with historical actuality, their 
ambiguity and equivocality bothered hardly anyone at all. 

We must make mention of an additional element as well. What I have called the imaginative 
conceptions and portraits of the Messianic age, which were embodied in the literature, represent no 
active promotion of such Messianic strivings. There seems to be hardly any bridge here leading from 
imagination to activity. The historian Gerson D. Cohen has recently stressed the great and totally 
consistent rabbinic opposition to Messianic movements during the 1600 years between the 
destruction of the Temple and the Sabbatian movement. We know of many Messianic movements in 
Judaism during this long span of time. But ever since the collapse of the Messianic resistance to 
Rome led by Bar Kokhba (Kosba) in the first half of the second century, which led to the ruin of the 
Jewish community in many parts of Palestine, they have always been geographically limited and 
remained without historical effect. Generally they were lay movements which emerged in every 
conceivable part of the Diaspora and only in the rarest instances received the support of the local 
rabbinical authorities. In most cases such movements provoked resistance and were eliminated-which 
can to a large extent be explained by the circumstances I have outlined here. The preservers of the 
traditional element—and in the Jewish Middle Ages that meant the bearers of rabbinical authority- 
perceived in these acute Messianic outbreaks an element of nonconformity which endangered the 
continuity of the authoritative tradition. Such apprehensions that acute Messianism would lead to a 
crisis, as also their fear of the anarchic element in Messianic utopianism which they did not 
acknowledge, without question play a large role in this nearly unanimous opposition to the rabbis. 
There were many good reasons for this: concern for the stability of the community, concern for the 
fate of the Jews after a disappointment as suggested by historical experience, combined with a deep- 
rooted aversion to the "Forcers of the End," as those people are called in Hebrew who could not wait 
for the arrival of the Messiah but thought to do something for it themselves. All of these factors 
operate in the direction of removing Messianism into the realm of pure faith and inaction, leaving the 
redemption to God alone and not requiring the activity of men. The bearers of reUgious authority, no 
less than the heads of the communities who were responsible to the powers reigning in the non- 
Jewish environment, were forced into a position of political quietism on account of the conditions 

necessary for sustaining Jewish life in the exile, and for many of them it then became second nature. 

If in this connection I have spoken of "lay movements," I use the word "lay" not in opposition to 
priestly, but to learned rabbinic authority to which representation and interpretation of the tradition 
were entrusted. After the destruction of the Temple, Judaism no longer recognized a priesthood 
exercising any real functions and it reserved only a few insignificant liturgical and social privileges to 
the descendants of priestly families in the male line. 

The aggressiveness, the revolutionary element which is part and parcel of the Messianic movements, 
was bound to scare away the bearers of authority. In turning itself against the status quo, such a 
movement also called into question its subjection to the existing structure of traditional forms. Thus 
we find in the reports of the chroniclers no lack of complaints about an attitude of rejection, and even 
an inclination to break with elements of the tradition, as we have it attested for the movement of 
David Alroy in Kurdistan in the twelfth century. The more intensive the outbreak and the larger the 
arena in which such a movement took place, the more clearly was a new situation created in which 
traditional exegeses were no longer as important as the confrontation with historical realities. 

In the history of Jewish Messianism there are two possibilities which determine the content of an 
actually experienced redemption and the manner of dealing with the emotional states it produces. 

A crisis in the tradition which finally leads to its abrogation could receive its direct impulse from the 
outside, i.e., from an element which demanded confrontation with it. This is abundantly true of the 
religious strategy of Paul when, as we know from the Acts of the Apostles, in the interest of Christian 
propaganda he had to forgo demanding of the gentile Christians that they keep the law or accept its 
obligation. This impulse from the outside did not arise out of any immanent logic which might have 
forced Paul himself, after accepting Christ as a Redeemer, to break with the law and its tradition in 
his own life. However, especially in the seventh chapter of Romans, it then received a far-reaching 
dialectical and downright antinomian justification in the logic whereby Christ could be proclaimed 
the "End of the Law" (Rom. 10:4). Here for the first time the crisis of the tradition is explained out of 
the inner dynamic of the redemption itself in which the considerations that led to this theology have 
become unimportant and have receded completely into the background. 

On the other hand, a development could take place on the basis of a Messianic experience which 
opened up new perspectives in the concept of Torah itself. In this instance the Torah as such was not 
abrogated by calling into question the validity of the law on account of the influence of 
propagandistic considerations. Rather the antinomian tendencies, which constitute the eruption of the 
Utopian elements in Messianism, were built into the Torah itself. The boldness and radicality with 
which this was done compares very well with the paradoxes of Pauline theology. The significant 
interest which this development has for the history of religions rests upon the fact that, in contrast to 
the very sparse documentation that exists for the movement accompanying these processes in early 
Christianity, we can here study the relevant processes in the full light of history and with manifold 
documentation. I am speaking of the Sabbatian movement, to which I shall devote the remainder of 
my remarks. It was the movement which, beginning in 1665, first encountered the collective Jewish 
community and later broke into radical and sectarian forms, and into forces smoldering beneath the 
surface-in all of this affecting wide circles of the Jewish people in Europe and the Near East. 

In Sabbatianism as well as in early Christianity the sudden appearance of the redemption, which is 

experienced as real and full of meaning, creates the element that releases the crisis of tradition. The 
Messiah has arrived, in whatever guise he may appear. In the light of such experience, what happens 
to the validity of the tradition which both at the time of Paul and at the time of Sabbatai Zevi had 
reached high points of its development: in the middle of the first century in the complete 
development of Pharisaic Judaism and in the seventeenth century in the complete development of the 
Kabbalistic world of ideas within rabbinism? The differences between Paulinism and Sabbatianism 
are great, but the kinship of the basic structures, their antinomianism and the crisis theologies they 
rapidly developed, should be neither overlooked nor mistaken. 

It will be advisable to review briefly the facts which serve as the foundation for our further 
considerations. By the middle of the seventeenth century Kabbalistic mysticism had become a 
historical force within the rabbinic tradition, and to a large extent influenced and determined not only 
the thinking of those circles most affected by religion but, in its consequences, the entire Jewish 
community as well. This later Kabbalah as it developed in classical forms in Safed in Palestine in the 
sixteenth century, was in its whole design electric with Messianism and pressing for its release; it was 
impelling a Messianic outburst which, as it turned out, came approximately one generation after the 
reception of this Kabbalah by the Judaism of that time. The movement that went forth from Safed 
required about three generations to gain general acceptance. But after that, one generation, fully 
imbued with these Messianic conceptions, was enough to create a situation in which a Messiah who 
seemed to fit these ideas could find a wide-ranging echo. This was true in the case of Sabbatai Zevi 
from -Smyrna who lived from 1626 to 1676 and who, under especially dramatic circumstances, in the 
year 1665 ignited a Messianic movement which began in Palestine and from this center reached out 
to the entire Diaspora. In the history of post-Christian Judaism it represents by far the most 
significant and extensive Messianic movement. Within it impulses that arose out of the historical 
situation of the Jews and out of the dynamics of Messianism itself were entwined with others that 
referred to the personality of the central figure of the Messiah. For the consciousness of the Jewish 
masses the specifically personal element was almost from the beginning covered by a thick web of 
legends which had little or nothing to do with the real figure, but which met their religious needs and 
accommodated traditional and widespread notions. These notions set forth how one should regard the 
signs which would accompany the corning of the Messiah and his activity. The real Sabbatai Zevi, 
however, whose figure we can today draw quite precisely, scarcely fits the scheme. That just such a 
man could become the central figure of this movement is one of the greatest enigmas posed by Jewish 

Sabbatai Zevi was a strange kind of saint and far removed from the type a conservative Jew would 
have acknowledged or even apperceived as the Messiah. He was not a Messiah who represented the 
consummation of the tradition in the conservative sense and he was certainly not a conqueror who 
could have made the kings of the world tremble. He was a man affected by the most severe mental 
imbalance, who tottered between heights of ecstasy and depths of melancholy in steeply alternating 
manic depressive stages. He was a rabbinically educated Jew, well versed in the talmudic tradition 
and deeply entwined in the world of the Kabbalah. He was highly unusual in only one respect: in 
moments of religious exaltation he tended to commit bizarre acts which violated the law. He enjoyed 
performing deeds which involved a violation of the law, or effecting fantastic demonstrations as if 
they were particularly meaningful religious ceremonies. In such acts he apparently found a certain 
meaning which they were to bear in the mystical process of the reintegration of all things. Carrying 
out such functions, which he dared to do only in ecstatic moments and without later being able to 

explain them, was hardly likely to win him adherents. 

The type of the "holy sinner" did not belong to the stock of the Messianic tradition in Judaism. As a 
matter of fact, from his first appearance in Smyrna in 1648 until his proclamation as the Messiah in 
Gaza in 1665, Sabbatai Zevi had not one adherent who would have regarded him as the Messiah. He 
was laughed at, declared insane, or pitied. No one cared about him until under especially peculiar 
circumstances he found a young rabbi of the Talmud schools in Jerusalem who had settled in Gaza. 
Nathan of Gaza had intensively studied the Talmud and the Kabbalistic mysticism of his time and 
possessed significant powers of imagination. In March 1665 he had had a vision in which this 
peculiar Sabbatai Zevi, who he must often have seen on the streets of Jerusalem, appeared to him as 
the Messiah. For his part, Nathan convinced the much older man, who was plagued by self-doubt and 
was struggling with the demons in his own soul, that his mission was legitimate. As the prophet of 
the Messiah he then embarked upon a wide range of activity and produced that great outburst of 
Messianism which in the eyes of the Diaspora Jews was substantiated precisely by the appearance of 
a true prophet—and Nathan of Gaza was considered such- confirming the mission of the Messiah. 

In a very short time the movement overwhelmed Jewish communities from Yemen and Persia to 
England, Holland, Russia, and Poland. It produced something to which the custodians of the tradition 
had paid all too little attention but which to the historian is quite comprehensible: the experience of 
redemption as a historical event is anticipated in the experience of redemption as an emotional reality 
and appears in broad circles with such force that this anticipation is even capable of surviving the 
conflict. For disappointment in the historical world was ineluctable and was bound to conflict with 
the religious experience which took place on a different level The fantastic wave of enthusiasm which 
swept up Jewish communities for an entire year created a mental reality which had not been 
anticipated by the rabbis or considered in the ancient books. After one year came the catastrophe: in 
September 1666 Sabbatai Zevi was brought before the Sultan in Adrianople and given the choice of 
upholding his Messianic claims and suffering martyrdom, or of converting to Islam. He preferred 
apostasy from Judaism which for him in some strange manner seemed to- confirm the paradoxical 
claim of his Messianic mission, a final step of holy sinfulness, in fact, its apotheosis. From that point 
on a choice between the two levels of outer and inner experience was unavoidable. 

We can estimate how strong the force of this Messianic eruption was if we consider that even this act 
of apostasy from Judaism and conversion to Islam-the most scandalous act imaginable from the 
viewpoint of faithful Jews-did not immediately lead to the total collapse of the high expectations. All 
other movements were destroyed by historical disappointment and left no trace in Jewish 
consciousness; we know about them only through the testimony of chroniclers. But here the 
transforming power of the movement was so strong that significant groups accepted even this totally 
unprecedented step of the Messiah, one of which no one had ever previously read in the ancient 
literature, and indicated they were ready to justify it out of these very writings. Suddenly there 
opened before the eyes of the "believers" -as the followers of Sabbatai Zevi called themselves-a new 
view of the ancient writings and documents of the tradition. Now it appeared to the theologians-or 
one might say ideologues-of the Sabbatian movement that all the pages of the old books really spoke 
of nothing other than the necessary apostasy of the Messiah, who was required to complete his 
mission by passing or descending into the underworld of the nations. For the sparks of the holy which 
are scattered among all peoples must be brought home if everything is to return to its proper place 
and the redemption thereby be completed. Induced by a historical event, the conception of the 
Messiah suffers a dialectical ruin. His mission takes on a destructive and paradoxical quality which 

must come into full effect before the positive part of the redemption can become visible. The figure 
of the Messiah himself takes on a sinister character which calls into question every traditional value. 
One cannot overlook the abyss which yawns between the figure of the Messiah who died for his 
cause upon the Cross and this figure who became an apostate and played his role in this disguise. 
Nonetheless, like the former, this ambiguous and treacherous twihght figure also exercised a 
seductive fascination. 


•We have become acquainted with the situation which posed the question of how the crisis of 
tradition would develop in such an acute Messianic outburst. This crisis emerged especially in the 
circle of the most determined "believers" indirect connection with attempts to understand the 
apostasy of the Messiah as a mission which leads into realms inaccessible to believing Jews; realms 
which the Messiah alone can penetrate and even there complete the mission of redemption. The 
apostasy of the Messiah necessarily produced a division. Those who regarded the verdict of history 
and of the exterior world as decisive-because everything exterior also symbolically expresses the 
inner state-had to turn away from such a Messiah. For some, anticipation of the redemption had 
become so vivid in their experience that they could endure the dialectical split between exterior and 
interior experience. But most could not remain loyal to this Messiah who seemed to have disowned 
himself and betrayed his mission. 

Thus Sabbatianism became a heretical movement within Judaism which in Central and Eastern 
Europe continued to proliferate down to the beginnings of the age of Emancipation in the first part of 
the nineteenth century while in Turkey, though now dying out, it has preserved itself even down to 
the present. It took on the forms of a sect operating in the underground of the ghetto, at first treated 
mainly with silent rejection by the Jewish authorities in the communities, and then in increasing 
measure vehemently persecuted by them. At first the crisis of tradition appears in an implicit 
antinomianism which in the radical wing of the "believers" later turns into an explicit one. This 
process is supported with concepts from the Jewish tradition itself and formulated in a thoroughly 
Jewish way of thinking. With amazing rapidity this crisis of tradition finds significant expression in 
the literature of the "believers." The decisive formulations were crystallized as early as the years 
1667-79. They by no means appear in the very small group which, while Sabbatai Zevi was still 
alive, imitated him by apostatizing to Islam, thinking the actions of the Messiah exemplary and 
obligatory also upon his followers. Rather they appeared just in those circles of "believers" who 
sought to give their new Messianic consciousness expression within the Jewish community and 
without taking symbolic steps of separation from it. Sabbatai Zevi himself, who in the last decade of 
his life led a double life as Muslim and Jew, did indeed possess a very lively imagination and he 
remained very influential in circles that were dose to him personally. But he did not have the ability 
to formulate his concepts with persuasive force. This was left to the prophets, especially to Nathan of 
Gaza, and to the theologians of this group. 

After 1683, the year or the mass conversion of several hundred families in Salonika, there arose in 
that city the sect of the Donmeh (literally Apostates), as they were simply called by the Turks, whose 
members were ostensibly Muslim but in reality crypto- Jewish Sabbatians who felt themselves 
obligated to carry through in their lives that imitation of Sabbatai Zevi which I just mentioned. This 
sect maintained itself for more than 250 years, and several of its most important writings have only 
very recently come into the hands of scholars. They sought to solve the conflict between the exterior 

and their interior worlds, which their faith laid bare, by attaching themselves on the outside to the 
unredeemed world of Islam but on the inside to a mystical. Messianic Judaism which very soon 
assumed orgiastic-anarchic features. The theological capacity for formulating the crisis of tradition 
was, however, already forged earlier, and by men who never left the framework of Judaism. They had 
to justify the same contradiction which loomed in the first Christian generation after the death of 
Jesus between the apparent reality which knew nothing of any Messianic transformation of the world 
and their Messianic faith which daily expected the return of the Messiah in his glory. Just as at that 
time the theology of Christianity emerged from this contradiction, so in this case there arose the 
theology of Sabbatianism which was all too long neglected by Jewish historiography. Thus it is that 
the three most upsetting and astonishing texts which document this transformation and crisis of 
tradition were unable to induce any scholar before my generation to read them. 

Here are three men and three texts which show what is possible in an atmosphere saturated with the 
tradition and the concepts of Judaism when the situation is felt to be revolutionary. The first name 
that must be mentioned is that of Nathan of Gaza., who died in Skoplje ( Turkish: Uskup), Macedonia 
in 1680, and who appeared in his writings both as prophet and theologian-a very rare combination in 
the history of religions. He elaborated his ideas in numerous open letters and treatises, but especially 
in a manuscript the Hebrew title of which (Zemir Aritzim; cf. Isa. 25:5) implies: "Overthrow of the 
Enemy Forces" or "Overthrow of the Tyrants," i.e., of those who hinder redemption. It was written 
about 1670. The second author is Abraham Miguel Cardozo (1627-1706) who was born into a crypto- 
Jewish Marrano family in Spain, returned to Judaism in Venice in 1648, and whose attachment to the 
Sabbatian movement grew out of Marrano currents of thought. For him the apostasy of the Messiah 
represented a kind of highest justification of the apostasy of the Spanish Marranos in 1391 and 1492. 
Under the influence of the prophet Nathan, with whose writings he was familiar, he composed in 
Tripoli (North Africa) as early as 1668-two years after the conversion of Sabbatai Zevi-a long open 
letter entitled Magen Abraham ("Shield of Abraham") .19 His later writings scarcely exceed the 
sharpness with which his ideas were formulated here. The third author is Israel Hazan from Kastoria 
in Macedonia, a student and for many years the secretary of Nathan of Gaza. We possess from his 
hand a commentary to a large number of psalms which he composed about 1678-79 in Kastoria; it is 
one of the most moving personal documents of Sabbatianism. He interprets every psalm either as a 
lament of the Messiah who has apostatized in fulfillment of his mission and speaks of his destitution 
and his hope, or as a triumphal ode for the redemption which has begun and for the upheavals which 
are associated with it. All of these writings were composed while Sabbatai Zevi was still alive or 
shortly after his death. They prove how quickly the crisis of Jewish tradition manifested itself within 
this acute Messianism, while in the case of Paul this crisis received literary expression only about 
fifteen years after the death of Jesus. 

Of what sort, then, are the currents of thought which are presented here and are repeated and varied in 
manifold ways in the later literature of the Sabbatians, both of those who remained within Judaism 
and of the Donmeh? In this case we are not concerned with the question of how the apostasy of the 
Messiah was explained as a necessary descent into the realm of darkness. Our authors do not doubt 
the legitimacy of Sabbatai Zevi's Messianic mission nor its paradoxical character. The question which 
agitates the "believers" is: What about the Torah and everything associated with it now that the 
Messiah has appeared in the flesh and our hearts are filled with this experience? Something must now 
follow for our lives in the immediate future and even more after his expected return from those 
realms of darkness. In addition, the new eyes with which the "believers" read the old books had 

revealed to them that those books, in fact, spoke throughout of that seeming apostasy of the Messiah 
which no one had noted there until it actually came about. Thus they searched for conceptions and 
symbols in which that unnoticed crisis of tradition, which had come to life in the feelings of the 
Sabbatians, could have manifested itself. The attitude of Sabbatai Zevi, even before his apostasy, had 
made dear to them that the Messiah himself at particular moments stood above the way of life 
prescribed by tradition, violated it in a downright challenging fashion in several of his actions, and 
thus showed himself a figure standing at the boundary between the validity of the old law and the 
coming into view of a new level of the Torah's fulfillment. By his concrete appearance the problem of 
the validity of all previous tradition had become acute. As proof of their faith, Sabbatai Zevi had 
demanded of a few adherents that they transgress certain prohibitions which were in themselves 
incomprehensible and meaningless but were expressed with great emphasis in the Torah, such as 
eating the fat of animals (Lev. 7:23 ff.), a ritual gesture of decidedly symbolic nature since it was not 
connected with any sensual gratification. After his apostasy he had also required a number of the 
"believers" to take this same step. Thus from the beginning the problem was not limited to the figure 
of the Messiah himself but—as some of our authors put it-was posed for all those who came from the 
same "root" as the soul of the Messiah and were designated "the kin of the Messiah." 

As early as 1668 Cardozo expressed this crisis in a radical formulation: "The Torah as it now exists 
[or: as it is now observed] will not exist in the Messianic age." For him the reason is dear: at that time 
the world will be cleansed of every defect and be restored to its original state or tikkun. Since 
fulfillment of the precepts of the Torah serves as the instrument of this reintegration-a fundamental 
teaching of the Lurianic Kabbalah— the status of the Torah must necessarily change in the Messianic 
world where the reasons for this fulfillment lose their force. According to later Kabbalistic lines of 
thought, the Messiah, more than bringing about the redemption, signalizes in symbolic fashion the 
conclusion of a. process which we realize ourselves through our actions. Once we have carried 
through this process of the integration of all things in their original place-and it is a mystical process 
in the interior of the cosmos-then the redemption will appear entirely of itself and conclude this 
process in the exterior realm as well. Once the interior world is put in order, the exterior must 
manifest it also: it is put into effect because everything exterior is nothing more than a symbol of the 
interior. Cardozo says: 

The two Torahs [the Written and the Oral] correspond to the situation of a person who has fallen 
"from a high roof into a deep well." Whoever plunges from a height down to the ground, his body 
becomes bruised all over and he needs various medicaments and cures until all of his 365 blood 
vessels and 248 organs [i.e., his entire physical organism] are healed. The same is true of events in 
the upper [divine] lights which are the mystical figure of the Creator. These lights are the precepts of 
the Torah whose number not by chance corresponds to the number of organs in the human body 
which they are supposed to cure if wounded or broken. Just as someone who has become injured or 
wounded must abstain from foods and beverages which could harm him and must keep to his diet for 
as long a time as an experienced physician prescribes, so it is also with the observance of the 
commandments. When the new era and the time of healing will have come and brought about the 
ascension of the holy sparks [of the divine light] to their original place, the patient will surely no 
longer have need of the prescriptions of the physician nor of the diet affecting foods and beverages 
which previously would have hurt him. And this analogy holds directly for the status of the 
commandments which correspond to the physician's cures. For at that time the lights and all worlds 
will surely arise to their former level, which of course will become possible only in the days of the 

redeemer; he has the power of restoring all worlds because he himself is the first Adam [in his 
Messianic reincarnation]. 

At the end of this exposition Cardozo manifestly casts aside the traditional Lurianic conception of the 
character and the function of the Messiah, which corresponds to his own analogy, in favor of an 
extravagant conception, widely found among the Sabbatians, according to which the mystical 
abundance of power resident in the Messiah himself brings the process of healing salvation to its 
conclusion- According to Cardozo, this gradual advance in the process of salvation manifests itself in 
the giving of the Torah and its commandments in different stages according to the requirements of 
various generations; some commandments had already been given to Adam, others to Noah and his 
sons, still others to Abraham, until finally Israel received the Torah in its entirety "in order to purify 
all the holy sparks, cleanse them from their admixture [with the unholy powers } and raise them up to 
their point of origin, for they possess the ability and power to raise those sparks up into the primeval 
thoughts [of God] since they themselves originate there." 

However, in this exposition of the function of the Torah and the concrete fulfillment of the 
commandments, Cardozo at other points makes a clear distinction between the Written and the Oral 
Torah. Leaning upon the mystical speculations of the Kabbalists, he no longer takes the Written 
Torah to mean what it meant to the Talmudists, i.e., a realm circumscribed by the Bible itself, 
containing concrete commandments and prohibitions to which the oral law added only further, more 
explicit statements. Following the mystics, the Written Torah, the revelation as such, is seen as not 
calling for concrete execution in any realm of application whatever. The Torah becomes applicable 
only through the medium of the Oral Torah in which the word of God is appropriated to the 
contingencies of its fulfillment. The concept of the Oral Torah, identical with that of the tradition, 
encompasses the actual historical tradition of rabbinic Judaism, of the historical form of Judaism 
which the Kabbalists sought to interpret. Thus there could be a differentiation here: the crisis of 
tradition, which the beginning of the redemption was bound to bring about, could conceivably remain 
limited to the realm of the Oral Torah if the Written Torah were understood as an essentially mystical 
realm of pure revelation, of the absolute word of God which by nature is immutable-though it may be 
received in different ways by those who hear it. In this view, the translations of the absolute word 
into humanly intelligible words capable of articulation already belong to the realm of tradition; they 
represent a permutation into something that can be spoken and fulfilled. The written law in the 
normal sense, as a readable book and concrete instruction, thereby becomes itself an initial 
manifestation of the Oral Torah. Only in this sense does a crisis take place even within the written 
law, since in the Messianic age the letters which constitute the Written Torah will become subject to 
different combinations and thus take on new meanings, or at least their old combinations will be 
interpreted in an entirely new way. 

Likewise in the writings of the Sabbatians the differentiations in the concept of the Torah play a part 
when its position in the Messianic age is to be defined. Cardozo expUcitly states that the crisis of the 
Torah affects the forms of the tradition, of the Oral Torah. For the six orders of the Mishnah and its 
sixty tractates in which the tradition was first codified correspond to its status in a cosmic order, or 
rather disorder, which has its symbolic expression in Israel's exile. He therefore has good reason to 
refer to a passage in the Zohar which gives a mystical interpretation of a verse in the Midrash 
regarding the beginning of the redemption: "The heart does not reveal it to the mouth." Originally this 
meant that the date of the Messianic redemption washidden. One cannot find out anything about the 
redemption until it begins. However, this was interpreted mystically to mean that where the heart, i.e.. 

the heart of the Torah as the secret, absolute word of God, becomes manifest it no longer needs the 
mouth of tradition by which it has hitherto expressed itself. Where the inner mystical essence breaks 
forth undisguised and no longer needs any intermediary, the masking expression which veiled this 
"heart" becomes unnecessary. Whereas the talmudic eschatology expected an infinitely rich 
development of the oral law in the Messianic age, for Cardozo the law will be "no longer necessary"; 
in fact, it undergoes a distinct transvaluation, as we shall see shortly. 

In their endeavor to develop the crisis of tradition out of the concepts of the tradition itself the 
Sabbatians were able to refer back to symbols of the earlier Kabbalistic literature whose implicit 
antinomianism had for more than three hundred years hardly aroused any attention, let alone protests- 
But now, in the excitement of the Messianic uprising and in the hands of the Sabbatians, these 
symbols showed their explosive power in shattering the tradition. There are, above all, three 
typological descriptions which recur here again and again, and which originate in the most recent 
layer of the Zohar. In these sections, especially in the "Faithful Shepherd" (Ra'ya Mehemna), and in 
the Tikkune Zohar, an extensive commentary to the first chapters of Genesis composed as an 
independent volume, these typological figures are used at many points and are varied in the most 
diverse ways. 

They are: 

1 . The figure of the two trees of Paradise, the Tree of Life and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good 
and Evil. 

2. The figure of the two pairs of the tablets of the law which Moses received at Sinai. For when 
Moses came down from the mountain with a pair of tablets and was forced to witness the dance of 
Israel around the golden calf they had made in his absence, he smashed them upon the ground. Only 
later, after Israel had again been humbled by Moses' anger, did he receive a second pair of tablets 
whose content is conveyed in the Torah (Exod. 34). 

3. The figure of the six days of the week and the Sabbath as archetypes of world history which runs 
its course in a great cosmic week and a Sabbath which follows thereafter. 

Let us examine the conceptions lying behind these figures. 

What do the two trees in Paradise represent? Already in biblical metaphor wisdom, identified by 
Jewish tradition with Torah, is designated as Tree of Life (Prov. 3:18); thus opens the whole realm of 
typology. The trees in Paradise are not merely physical trees; beyond this they point to a state of 
things which they represent symbolically. In the opinion of the Jewish mystics both trees are in 
essence one. They grow out into two directions from a common trunk. Genesis tells us that the Tree 
of Life stood in the center of Paradise, but it does not indicate the exact position of the Tree of 
Knowledge. The Kabbalists took this to mean that it had no special place of its own but sprouted 
together with the Tree of Life out of the common matrix of the divine world. The two trees are 
different aspects of the Torah, which have their common origin in revelation. The Tree of Life 
represents that aspect which has hitherto been unrealizable because, due to the sin of Adam, it 
remained virtually hidden and inaccessible, and we do not know the taste of its fruits. The law which 
is concealed in the life of this tree is that of a creative force manifesting itself in infinite harmonies, a 
force which knows no limitations or boundaries. The paradisaic life under this law never came into 

being. The sin of Adam was that he isolated the Tree of Life from the Tree of Knowledge to which he 
directed his desire. Once the unity of the two trees in men's lives was destroyed, there began the 
dominion of the Tree of Knowledge. No longer did unitary gushing, unrestrained life prevail, but the 
duality of good and evil in which the Torah appears in this aspect of revelation. Since the expulsion 
from Paradise, in the exile in which we all now find ourselves, we can no longer apperceive the world 
as a unified whole. The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil under whose law the world now 
stands corresponds to a condition of this world in which distinctions must be made before the unity of 
life can be regained: the distinctions between good and evil, commandment and prohibition, holy and 
profane, pure and impure. For the author of those sections of the Zohar the two trees were not only, 
as they were for the other Kabbalists, symbols of the sefirot, of the manifestations of God in Creation, 
of which the Tree of Knowledge represented the tenth and last sefirah, but beyond this they were 
models for two possible forms of life in the light of revelation. Of course at the present only the one 
is tangible and capable of fulfillment. Precisely out of those very distinctions and limitations man is 
to restore the lost form and the violated image of the divine in himself and thus bring the Tree of 
Knowledge, with which he is mystically associated, to its full development. This Torah of the Tree of 
Knowledge is, however, nothing other than the world of tradition which represents the law of the 
unredeemed world since the expulsion from Paradise. Only the redemption, breaking the dominion of 
exile, puts an end to the order of the Tree of Knowledge and restores the Utopian order of the Tree of 
Life in which the heart of life beats unconcealed and the isolation in which everything now finds 
itself is overcome. Thus the inner logic of this conception of the dominion of the Tree of the 
Knowledge of Good and Evil as the legitimate form of revelation in an unredeemed world had to 
regard the redemption itself as a return home to Paradise where all things will again be in their true 
place. Although it is not a matter of a physical return to a geographical Paradise, it is in any case life 
in a state of the world which corresponds to that of Paradise or in which Paradise, for its part, 
expands into the world. The Torah of the Messianic age will then be that of the Tree of Life, which 
no longer knows anything of all those separations and limitations. This Torah is still revelation and, 
in Kabbalistic terms, an evolution of the divine name; but it has nothing further to do with the form 
under which we have known it until now. It is a Utopian Torah for a Utopian state of the world. The 
Sabbatians saw in such a vision no contradiction to acknowledging the forms of the tradition, i.e., 
those of historical Judaism, for the period of exile. Without question this thinking of the Jewish 
Messianic heretics is structurally connected closely to that of the spiritualistic sects in Christianity. It 
was not, however, influenced by them in its specific historical appearance and formulation, which 
remained entirely Jewish. 

According to the conception of the Sabbatians, who here again followed the intimations of these 
same sections of the Zohar, such a state of redemption, of liberation from exile, was achieved at the 
time of the revelation on Sinai. It is not surprising that when this typological thinking was applied to 
the exodus from Egypt-the very archetype of exile-revelation should seem the opportunity of 
redemption. But Israel, which was to receive this revelation, was not equal to the opportunity and it 
lapsed into worship of the golden calf. Thereupon the Torah under the aspect of the Tree of Life, 
which would have made up the content of the revelation, reverted to its hidden state, and the 
tradition, the Oral Torah which encompassed the real revelation like a husk enclosing a kernel, began 
its dominion under the aspect of the Tree of Knowledge; only in this form could it be realized in 

At this point the figure of the two trees in Paradise is brought into relation with that of the two pairs 

of tablets of the law. The first tablets, which were given to Moses before the people lapsed into the 
heathen cult of the golden calf, were the laws for a redeemed world and represented a revelation of 
the Tree of Life. They were the law of freedom. To this the spiritualistic exegesis of the Tikkune 
Zohar applied the famous passage of the Mishnah regarding these first tablets of which the Torah 
says (Exod. 32:16) : "And the tablets were God's work, and the writing was God's writing, incised, 
harut, upon the tablets." The word harut, however, can also be read as herut, which means freedom. 
While the talmudic exegesis still understood this reading to mean that it was precisely the study of the 
Torah which lent true freedom, a freedom under the law, the mystical interpretation of the Zohar saw 
it as the freedom of the redemption expressed through the Torah on the first set of tablets. This idea is 
taken up and stressed by both Nathan of Gaza and Cardozo. No one has yet read the Torah of the 
Tree of Life which was inscribed on the first tablets. Israel was entrusted only with that second set of 
tablets, and they render the Torah as it is read under the dominion of the Tree of Knowledge and 
Differentiation, which is also called the Tree of Death. But with the redemption the first tablets will 
again be raised up; they will be a Torah in which the restoration of the state of Paradise is associated 
with a Utopia that as yet has never been, that as yet has never been capable of realization. In this 
exegesis of the Zohar we can already notice the unconcern with a passage of the Torah such as 
Exodus 34:1 which says explicitly that the second set of tablets contained the same words as the first. 
It did not matter. The parallel between the trees in the primeval history of man and the tablets in the 
story of the revelation was simply too seductive for the radicals of mysticism. 

The third typology is that which saw a parallel between the course of world history and the history of 
the Creation. A day for God, according to one interpretation of a verse in Psalms, is a thousand years. 
Thus the six thousand years of world history correspond to the six workdays leading up to the great 
cosmic Sabbath, to redemption on the seventh day of the universe. Like a good Jewish exegete, 
Cardozo argues-even though he carries this exegesis over into heresy-that other laws hold on the 
Sabbath than on a workday. The activities of the workday are to a large extent prohibited on the 
Sabbath and other activities take their place. Whoever performs the actions of a workday on the 
Sabbath violates the law. But on the cosmic Sabbath the Tree of Life reigns, and not the Tree of 
Knowledge. "Thus there dearly follows from all of this that, with the onset of the order of the Tree of 
Life on the great cosmic Sabbath, not only shall we no longer need to observe the order of the six 
weekdays, which corresponds to the mode of life prescribed in the six orders of the Mishnah. But 
beyond this, everyone who wants to serve God as he does now [i.e., by the traditional way of life} 
will in those days [of the Messiah} be called a desecrator of the Sabbath and a destroyer of the 
plantings [i.e., a downright heretic]." The Mishnah is the first codification of the oral Torah and the 
six orders into which it is divided by subject constitute the framework of halakhic Judaism. The 
author of the above-mentioned parts of the Zohar indulged abundantly in remarks regarding the 
inferiority of the Mishnah; he opposes it to the mystical order of life of the Kabbalah and to the 
Messianic abrogation of those aspects of the Torah which it contains. Cardozo, who was very much 
attracted by these seditious passages, in his above-mentioned formulation simply drew the 
consequences. He presents us with the palpable intrusion of implicit antinomianism into the world of 
tradition. What was commandment becomes downright prohibition. And from here it was only a 
short step to a further consequence, of which we have yet to speak: acts that had previously been 
prohibited now become not only permissible but are even considered holy. 

However Cardozo, who remained loyal to the tradition in his personal observance, established a 
safeguard within these channels of thought which put off any explicit antinomianism, at least for a 

transitional period. As long as the Messiah has not returned from his mission into those realms where 
Cardozo does not dare to follow him, believing that they can be entered only by the Messiah-he 
decisively rejected mystical apostasy for anyone other than the Messiah himself-so long does the 
tradition retain its undiminished validity. The restoration of the true figure of man, Adam, is not 
complete as long as the Redeemer himself remains in the world of the "husks," of the powers of the 
"other side," where he gathers up the holy sparks. With his return, which corresponds to the New 
Testament conception of the parousia, the law of the renewed world-the Torah of the Tree of Life- 
will come into effect. Thus the world of the tradition is liable to collapse at any time, and for the 
Sabbatians the reasons for this collapse have been given long before it actually takes place. 
According to the immanent logic of their conceptions, its crisis cannot be averted. 

The real Adam is restored in the figure of the Messiah and now begins his career in a renewed world 
which stands under the law of freedom. In the writings of the Sabbatians hidden conflicts come to 
light on this issue and are expressed, for example, in the differences between the positions of Cardozo 
and Nathan of Gaza. The Messiah could be conceived as one who has completely mastered the Tree 
of Knowledge and its Torah, and from this experience, which is that of the Jew in exile as well as that 
of suffering mankind, pushes forward into the new realms of the Tree of Life. He could appear as the 
heir of the millennia who thereby gives the redemption a plenitude which it might have never had if 
Adam had not succumbed to temptation. For according to the Lurianic Kabbalah the first opportunity 
for redemption presented itself to Adam on the day of his creation. Had Adam decided otherwise on 
the proposition of the serpent, the redemption of all worlds would already have begun then and the 
first Sabbath would also have been the last-the final cosmic Sabbath. 'But whether the Adam who 
would never have tasted the fruit of 'the Tree of Knowledge would have been richer than the one who 
went through this experience could remain doubtful. In fact we find, especially in the writings of 
Nathan of Gaza, a very different conception of the Messiah which stands in opposition to this one. 
According to Nathan's view, the soul of the Messiah was from the first and since the beginning of the 
world inextricably bound up with the Tree of Life and was never subjected to the law of the Tree of 
Knowledge. Thus he always stood beyond good and evil, commandment and prohibition, because he 
never left the state of Paradise. Only from our perspective do his actions often seem reprehensible, 
illicit, and scandalous, when in truth they conform to the laws of his origin. He must be measured by 
other criteria. But this is not to say that passage through the world of tradition, which is incumbent 
upon all other holy souls and soul sparks, does not exist at all for the Messiah. In the pre-natal history 
of his soul— about which Nathan of Gaza relates astonishing things—as well as in his earthly career, 
he represents the rebellious dement which sterns from his root and is bound by no tradition, the "holy 
serpent"' which from the very beginning struggles against its rival. Motifs which the Zohar carries 
through in a variety of ways the Sabbatians combine into a coherent imagery of antinomianism. It is 
by no means disobedience or apostasy which appears in this abrogation of the Torah, but rather a 
changed situation of the world." When Adam was driven from Paradise and came under the law of 
the Tree of Knowledge, he had need of clothing and raiment in his exile into the world because in his 
present situation he could no longer reveal his naked essence. The same is true of the Godhead, the 
Shekhinah, who manifests herself in the Torah and who accompanies Israel on their way through 
exile. She too needs clothing that must cover her real nature. In exile the Shekhinah wears the somber 
dress of mourning. The pure spirituality of the Torah requires the physical garments of the 
commandments and prohibitions. An unveiled Torah would be the Torah of the Tree of Life. But the 
Torah of the Tree of Knowledge is a veiled Torah and its garments are identical with the tradition, 
with the Judaism of the commandments and the Halakhah, with Judaism as it is known by history. At 

the time of redemption it will no longer need these garments since that redemption will signify a 
restoration of the state of Paradise in which Adam and Eve stood naked within the context of the 
pristine life. In exile the inner Torah was unrecognizable, or rather recognizable only by great 
initiates. But in the redemption it will be visible to every man. Cardozo says: "When the dross of the 
husks is removed [i.e., after the reintegration of all things}, the world will no longer need to keep 
those garments in good condition." This keeping in good order, however, is nothing other than the 
fulfillment of the commandments and prohibitions; in their stead "the Torah will youthfully renew 

Following upon these trains of thought we find as early as Nathan of Gaza and Cardozo the 
appearance of an additional motif which in the Sabbatian heresy of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries proves to be very effective, but also especially offensive and objectionable: the abrogation 
of sexual taboos, and of the incest prohibition in particular, as indices of the Messianic Torah. Here 
the crisis of tradition achieves a symbolically very visible, if also scandalous, expression. The 
restrictions which originate in the curse of woman after the Fall lose their force in the Messianic 
world. These restrictions, however, according to a talmudic interpretation, are above all of a sexual 
character. In Cardozo's view. Eve might, at least in principle, have belonged to several men while she 
was still in Paradise. In the redemption this promiscuity, be it animal or paradisaic, will be restored, 
as it were, on a new and hitherto unattained level. The restorative and Utopian elements interpenetrate 
here in a most characteristic fashion. The abrogation of the sexual taboos finds its expression in 
heretical rituals. When fulfilling each commandment, the pious Jew says a blessing. But according to 
the new Messianic formulation, introduced by Sabbatai Zevi himself, he says: "Praised be He who 
permits the forbidden," a formula which the defenders of Jewish tradition rightly regarded as the 
epitome of this revolutionary heresy. As so often in the history of spiritualistic sects, the sexual 
taboos provided a point of application at which Messianic freedom-through libertinism-could find its 
confirmation and concrete content. Orgiastic rituals were preserved for a long time among Sabbatian 
groups, and in the circles of the Donmeh until about 1900. As late as the seventeenth century a 
festival was introduced called Purim that was celebrated at the beginning of spring. It reached its 
climax in the "extinguishing of the lights" and in an orgiastic exchange of wives. That such rituals, 
which anticipated the Messianic Utopia, struck at the heart of the strict sexual morality of the Jewish 
tradition is obvious. And in fact the bitter struggle against the Sabbatians began in earnest only when 
the performance of such rituals, about which the Sabbatian texts could leave no doubt, became known 
to wider circles. Here was an obvious reversal of values that could destroy the moral structure of the 
Jewish communities. 

Especially embittering in this regard was the behavior of a certain Baruchya Russo who about the 
year 1700 was the leader of the most radical wing of the Sabbatians in Salonika. The Torah knows of 
thirty-six prohibitions that are punishable by "extirpation of the soul" Varying speculations existed as 
to the meaning of this punishment, but one thing was clear: it involved particularly heinous sins. Half 
of them are the prohibitions against incest mentioned in the Torah (Lev. 18). Baruchya not only 
declared these prohibitions abrogated but went so far as to transform their contents into 
commandments of the new Messianic Torah. 

The new Torah is designated the Torah of atzilut, the Torah of the highest condition of the world, as 
opposed to the Torah of beriah, the Torah of the sensual creaturely world which exists before the 
redemption. This pair of concepts also originates in the Tikkune Zohar. There, however, the meaning 
is somewhat different. The "Torah of Creation" represents the aspect of the one absolute Torah in 

which it exoterically presents itself to us in the circumstances of our world; the "Torah of the World 
of Emanation" represents the Torah on the mystical level, the Torah read with the eyes of the 
Kabbalist. The creaturely Torah with its explicit commandments and prohibitions is the shell 
enfolding a mystical kernel which the Kabbalist can reveal. But as early as the Kabbalah of Safed 
there is a shift in the meaning of this mystical Torah. It contains not only the mysteries of the 
Kabbalah, but also the law of pure spirituality which win one day be revealed, a kind of Evangelium 
Eternum as the Franciscan spiritualists understood this concept. As the word of God, this Torah of 
atzilut existed even in the earliest aeons in the form of combinations and permutations of the name of 
God and of lights which shine forth with this name. But even before the Creation of the lower, visible 
world, it was woven into the world of divine emanation as its determining power. It had not yet, 
however, become-one could say: flowed into-that applicable Torah as which it appears in our world 
of Creation. 

The higher form of the Torah could also easily take on a Messianic dimension in which at the final 
redemption it could appear as a higher revelation replacing the existing Torah. In such fashion this 
pair of concepts was closely identified with the two trees discussed earlier. To be sure, this Torah is 
still not accessible since it can become visible only in a world transformed in every respect, even 
externally. Such was the opinion of Nathan of Gaza and his circle. His disciple Israel Kazan of 
Kastoria says: 

"Only at the second and final appearance of the Messiah [the parousia} shall we who have the true 
faith [in the mission of the Messiah Sabbatai Zevi] apprehend the mystery of our holy Torah, the 
Torah of atzilut, from the mouth of the Most High." For whereas the previous forms of the Torah 
come from the tenth sefirah, malkhut, or the central sefirah, tiferet, this final form of revelation win 
originate in the first sefirah, the highest manifestation of the Godhead which in the Zohar is called 
"the Holy Ancient One," atika kadisha. This Torah will be the gift of God to the redeemed world and 
will replace that Torah which was given in the desert under the conditions of a desolate, unredeemed 
world. Instead of reading the word of God in the form of the Torah of Moses as it has come down to 
us, we shall receive the gift of reading it as the Torah of atzilut which the Messiah one day will teach 
us. In other words: as yet he has not taught it, even though he has already-before his apostasy- made 
his first appearance. We stand in an in-between realm, in transition between the two phases of the 
Messiah's mission. The Torah of atzilut is thus not identical with the teaching of the historical 
Sabbatai Zevi, either before or after his apostasy. At that moment it could not even have been 
described or conceived and therefore could be transmitted only in the most general terms. Only after 
the passage of thirty years, long after the death of Sabbatai Zevi, was that further step taken whereby 
Baruchya set up his nihiUstic Torah as the content of the teachings propounded by Sabbatai Zevi. 
From that point on the Torah of atzilut becomes the symbol of a Messianic, anarchic Judaism, even in 
the circles of those sectarians who remain in the confines of Judaism. This new Judaism has in 
principle already completed the inner break with the Jewish tradition even where it continues to draw 
sustenance from it, and it has confirmed that break by symboUc acts and rituals. 

The Sabbatian "behevers" felt that they were champions of a new world which was to be estabUshed 
by overthrowing the values of all positive reUgions. And so, from the pen of their last significant 
leader, Jacob Frank, who appeared as a successor to Baruchya in Poland in 1756, we have a 
watchword which matchlessly expresses the situation of these mystical "soldiers" in the army of the 
Messiah: "Soldiers are not allowed to have a reUgion." In its positive valuation of both the situation 
of the soldier and the lack of reUgion in the service of a mystically understood world revolution, this 

statement represents the extreme consequence to which a Messianic crisis of tradition, erupting in the 
very heart of Judaism, could lead. The old mystical KabbaHstic symbols in which this crisis was 
formulated disappeared. What remained was a wild revolt against all traditions, a movement that 
found anew, popular content in the biblical books and translated them into a totally untheological, 
even vulgar language. And all this was happening in the generation directly preceding the outbreak of 
the French Revolution, the event which left in its wake an intense crisis of a totally different sort, one 
that shook the very foundations of the realm of Jewish tradition. 


Redemption Through Sin 

By Gershom Scholem 


•NO CHAPTER IN the history of the Jewish people during the last several hundred years has been as 
shrouded in mystery as that of the Sabbatian movement. On one point, at least, there is no longer any 
disagreement: the dramatic events and widespread religious revival that preceded the apostasy of 
Sabbatai Zevi in 1666 form an important and integral part of Jewish history and deserve to be studied 
objectively, to the exclusion of moralistic condemnations of the historical figures involved. It has 
come increasingly to be realized that a true understanding of the rise of Sabbatianism will never be 
possible as long as scholars continue to appraise it by inappropriate standards, whether these be the 
conventional beliefs of their own age or the values of traditional Judaism itself. Today indeed one 
rarely encounters the baseless assumptions of "charlatanry" and "imposture" which occupy so 
prominent a place in earlier historical literature on the subject. On the contrary: in these times of 
Jewish national rebirth it is only natural that the deep though ultimately tragic yearning for national 
redemption to which the initial stages of Sabbatianism gave expression should meet with greater 
comprehension than in the past. 

In turning to consider the Sabbatian movement after Sabbatai Zevi's conversion to Islam, however, 
we are faced with an entirely different situation. Here we find ourselves still standing before a blank 
wall, not only of misunderstanding, but often of an actual refusal to understand. Even in recent times 
there has been a definite tendency among scholars to minimize at all costs the significance of this 
"heretical" Sabbatianism, with the result that no adequate investigation yet exists of its spiritual 
foundations, its over-all impact on eighteenth-century Jewry, or its ultimate fate. It is impossible, in 
fact, to read any of the studies that have been done in these areas without being astounded by the 
amount of invective directed against the leaders and adherents of the various Sabbatian sects. Typical 
of this approach is David Kahana's A History of the Kabbalists, Sabbatians, and Hasidim (in 
Hebrew), but the angry moralizing that characterizes this volume has not been confined to anyone 
historical school; rather, it has been shared by writers of widely differing points of view, secular as 
well as religious. The problem itself, meanwhile, remains as recondite as ever. 

Two enormous difficulties, therefore, confront the student of the Sabbatian "heresies": on the one 
hand, there are the obstacles posed by the sources themselves, and on the other, those created by the 
attitude generally taken toward them. To a great extent, moreover, these two sets of difficulties have 
always been related. 

Why should this be so? 

The Sabbatian movement in its various shadings and configurations persisted with remarkable 
obstinacy among certain sectors of the Jewish people for approximately 150 years after Sabbatai 

Zevi's conversion. In a number of countries it grew to be powerful, but for various reasons, internal as 
well as external, its affairs were deliberately hidden from the public eye. In particular, its spokesmen 
refrained from committing their beliefs to print, and the few books that they actually published 
concealed twice what they revealed. They did, however, produce a rich Hterature, which circulated 
only among groups of "believers" (ma'aminim) - the term by which Sabbatian sectarians generally 
chose to refer to themselves down to the last of the Donmeh in Salonika and the last Frankists in the 
Austro-Hungarian Empire. As long as Sabbatianism remained a vital force within the Jewish ghetto, 
threatening to undermine the very existence of rabbinic Judaism, its opponents labored ceaselessly to 
root it out and systematically destroyed whatever of its writings came into their possession, including 
{even} the sacred names of God {azkarot} which they contain," as the bans upon them read. As a 
result many of their writings were lost without a trace, and had it been left solely up to the rabbinical 
authorities nothing would have come down to us at all except for certain tendentiously chosen 
fragments quoted in anti-Sabbatian polemics. In addition, although an extensive religious literature 
was still to be found in the hands of Frankists in Moravia and Bohemia at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, the children and grandchildren of these "believers" in Prague and other Jewish 
centers themselves attempted to obliterate every shred of evidence bearing on their ancestors' beliefs 
and practices. The well-known philosopher and historian of atheism Fritz Mauthner has preserved the 
following interesting story in his memoirs: in the declining days of the movement in Bohemia, 
Frankist "emissaries" came to his grandfather (and undoubtedly to other members of the sect as well) 
and requested that he surrender to them a picture of "the Lady" and "all kinds of writings" which he 
had in his possession. The emissaries took them and left. The incident took place sometime during 
the 1820's or 1830's. In spite of all this, at least two large manuscripts from these circles have 

One must therefore bear in mind that in dealing with the history of Sabbatianism powerful interests 
and emotions have often been at stake. Each for reasons of his own, all those who have written on the 
subject in the past shared one belief: the less importance attributed to it, the better. 

Authors and historians of the orthodox camp, for their part, have been anxious to belittle and even 
distort the over-all role of Sabbatianism in order to safeguard the reputations, as they have conceived 
of them, of certain honored religious figures of the past. Such apologetics have had their inevitable 
effect upon the writing of history, as has the fundamental outlook of their proponents, tending as it 
does to idealize religious life in the ghetto at the expense of completely ignoring the deep inner 
conflicts and divisions to which not even the rabbis were necessarily immune. To acknowledge the 
Sabbatianism of eminent rabbis in Jerusalem, Adrianople, Constantinople, or Izmir, Prague, 
Hamburg, or Berlin, has been in the eyes of such authors to openly impeach the integrity of an entire 
body of men who were never supposed to be other than learned and virtuous defenders of Jewish 
tradition. Given such an attitude, it is hardly to be wondered at that one should instinctively avoid the 
kinds of inquiry that might lead to the discovery of heretical opinion, to say nothing of actual 
licentiousness, in the most unlikely places. One might cite endless examples of this kind of mentality 
in historical literature dealing with rabbinical and congregational life in the eighteenth century and in 
at least one case, A. L. Frumkin's A Historical Account of the Scholars of Jerusalem (in Hebrew), the 
author goes so far as to "acquit" some of the most dedicated Sabbatians we know of the "scandal" of 
heterodoxy ! 

Secularist historians, on the other hand, have been at pains to de-emphasize the role of Sabbatianism 
for a different reason. Not only did most of the families once associated with the Sabbatian 

movement in Western and Central Europe continue to remain afterwards within the Jewish fold, but 
many of their descendants, particularly in Austria, rose to positions of importance during the 
nineteenth century as prominent intellectuals, great financiers, and men of high political connections. 
Such persons, needless to say, could scarcely have been expected to approve of attempts to "expose" 
their "tainted" lineage, and in view of their stature in the Jewish community it is not surprising that 
their wishes should have carried weight. Furthermore, in an age when Jewish scholarship itself was 
considered to be in part an extension of the struggle for political emancipation, the climate for 
research in so sensitive an area was by no means generally favorable. In consequence, those Jewish 
scholars who had access to the wealth of Sabbatian documents and eyewitness reports that were still 
to be found early in the century failed to take advantage of the opportunity, while by the time a later 
generation arrived on the scene the sources had been destroyed and were no longer available even to 
anyone who might have desired to make use of them. 

The survivors of the Frankists in Poland and of the Donmeh or "Apostates" in Salonika formed yet a 
third group having a direct interest in disguising the historical facts. These two Sabbatian sects, both 
of which formally renounced the Jewish religion (the Donmeh converting to Islam in 1683, the 
Frankists to Catholicism in 1759), continued to adhere to their secret identities long after their 
defection from their mother faith; the Donmeh, in fact, did not disappear until the present generation, 
while in the case of the Frankists, whose history in the course of the nineteenth century is obscure, it 
is impossible to determine at exactly what point in time they were finally swallowed up by the rest of 
Polish society. There is reason to suspect that until the eve of World War II many original 
manuscripts and documents were preserved by both these groups, particularly by a number of 
Frankist families in Warsaw; but how much of this material may yet be uncovered, and how much 
has been purposely destroyed by its owners in order to conceal forever the secret of their descent, is 
in no way ascertainable. 

Nevertheless, the total picture is not as dark as it may seem to have been painted: despite the many 
efforts at suppression, which supplemented, as it were, the inevitable "selective" process of time 
itself, a considerable amount of valuable material has been 

saved. Many of the accusations made against the "believers" by their opponents can now be weighed 
(and more often than not confirmed!) on the basis of a number of the "behevers' " own books which 
were not allowed to perish. Little by little our knowledge bas grown, and although many of the 
historical details we would like to know will undoubtedly never come to light at all, there is reason to 
hope that this important chapter in Jewish history will yet be fully written. In any event, it is dear that 
a correct understanding of the Sabbatian movement after the apostasy of Sabbatai Zevi will provide a 
new due toward understanding the history of the Jews in the eighteenth century as a whole, and in 
particular, the beginnings of the Haskalah [Enlightenment} movement in a number of countries. 

I do not propose in this article to trace the outward history of Sabbatianism in its several 
manifestations over the century and a half in which it retained its vitality, nor (although I can hardly 
conceal my opinion that the entire movement was far more widespread than is generally conceded 
even today) do I mean to debate the question of whether this or that particular individual was or was 
not a Sabbatian himself. Suffice it to say that the sources in our possession, meager as they are, make 
it perfectly dear that the number of Sabbatian rabbis was far greater than has been commonly 
estimated, greater even than was believed by that anti-Sabbatian zealot Rabbi Jacob Emden, who has 
almost always been accused of exaggeration. In the present essay, however, I shall put such questions 
aside and limit myself to the area that has been the most sadly neglected in the entire field, namely. 

the origins and development of Sabbatian thought per se. 

If one accepts what Heinrich Graetz and David Kahana have to say on the subject of Sabbatian 
theology, it is impossible to understand what its essential attraction ever was; indeed, if it is true, as 
both these writers claim, that the entire movement was a colossal hoax perpetrated by degenerates 
and frauds, one might well ask why a serious historian should bother to waste his time on it in the 
first place. And if this is the case with Sabbatianism in general, how much more so when one 
ventures to consider what is undoubtedly the most tragic episode in the entire drama, that of the 
Frankists, the psychological barriers to the understanding of which are incomparably greater. How, 
for instance, can one get around the historical fact that in the course of their public disputation with 
Jewish rabbis in Lvov in 1759 the members of this sect did not even shrink from resorting to the 
notorious blood libel, an accusation far more painful to Jewish sensitivities than any of their actual 
beliefs? A great deal has been written about this incident, particularly by the eminent historian Meir 
Balaban, in whose book. On the History of the Frankist Movement (in Hebrew), it is exhaustively 
dealt with. Balaban, who makes the Lvov libel a starting point for his over-all inquiry, reaches the 
significant conclusion that there was no organic connection between it and the Frankist "articles of 
faith" presented at the disputation. The members of the sect, in fact, were reluctant to make the 
accusation at all, and did so only at the instigation of the Catholic clergy, which was interested in 
using them for purposes of its own, having nothing to do with their Sabbatian background. That they 
finally agreed to collaborate in the scheme can be explained by their desire to wreak vengeance on 
their rabbinical persecutors. 

Thus, though the behavior of the Frankists at Lvov must certainly be judged harshly from both a 
universal-ethical and a Jewish-national point of view, it is important to keep in mind that the blood 
libels against the Jews (the indications are that there was more than one) do not in themselves tell us 
anything about the inner spiritual world of the sect, in all of whose literature (written one and two 
generations after the Lvov disputation) not a single allusion to such a belief is to be found. The truly 
astonishing thing is that although several important texts of Frankist teachings actually do exist, not a 
single serious attempt has so far been made to analyze their contents. The reason for this is simple. 
Graetz and A. Kraushar, two reputable scholars, one of whom wrote a full-length study of Jacob 
Frank and his Polish followers, were both of the opinion that there was no such thing as a Frankist 
"creed," and that The Sayings of the Lord (Slowa Paskie) which has come down to us in a Polish 
version alone, was incoherent nonsense. According to Kraushar, Frank's sayings are "grotesque, 
comical, and incomprehensible," while Graetz, whose attitude toward all forms of mysticism is well 
known, could hardly have been expected to show much insight into the religious motivations of the 
sect. Balaban, on the other hand, is mainly concerned with the outward history of the Frankists up to 
the time of their mass conversion, and his reconstruction of their theology is based solely on the 
positions publicly taken by them in their disputations with the rabbis. It is his reliance on these 
"articles of faith," in fact, which were actually far from accurate reflections of the Frankists' true 
beliefs, that leads him to conclude that after 1759 the history of the sect was "determined more by the 
personalities of Jacob Frank and his disciples than by any intrinsic religious relationship to Judaism." 

I myself cannot agree with Balaban on this point, and in the following pages I shall attempt to show, 
at least summarily, that Sabbatianism must be regarded not only as a single continuous development 
which retained its identity in the eyes of its adherents regardless of whether they themselves remained 
Jews or not, but also, paradoxical though it may seem, as a specifically Jewish phenomenon to the 

end. I shall endeavor to show that the nihilism of the Sabbatian and Frankist movements, with its 
doctrine so profoundly shocking to the Jewish conception of things that the violation of the Torah 
could become its true fulfillment (bittulah shel torah zehu kiyyumah), was a dialectical outgrowth of 
the belief in the Messiahship of Sabbatai Zevi, and that this nihilism, in turn, helped pave the way for 
the Haskalah and the reform movement of the nineteenth century, once its original religious impulse 
was exhausted. Beyond this, I hope to make the reader see how within the spiritual world of the 
Sabbatian sects, within the very sanctum sanctorum of Kabbalistic mysticism, as it were, the crisis of 
faith which overtook the Jewish people as a whole upon its emergence from its medieval isolation 
was first anticipated, and how groups of Jews within the walls of the ghetto, while still outwardly 
adhering to the practices of their forefathers, had begun to embark on a radically new inner life of 
their own. Prior to the French Revolution the historical conditions were lacking which might have 
caused this upheaval to break forth in the form of an open struggle for social change, with the result 
that it turned further inward upon itself to act upon the hidden recesses of the Jewish psyche; but it 
would be mistaken to conclude from this that Sabbatianism did not permanently affect the outward 
course of Jewish history. The desire for total liberation which played so tragic a role in the 
development of Sabbatian nihilism was by no means a purely self-destructive force; on the contrary, 
beneath the surface of lawlessness, antinomianism, and catastrophic negation, powerful constructive 
impulses were at work, and these, I maintain, it is the duty of the historian to uncover. 

Undeniably, the difficulties in the face of this are great, and it is not to be wondered at that Jewish 
historians until now have not had the inner freedom to attempt the task. In our own times we owe 
much to the experience of Zionism for enabling us to detect in Sabbatianism's throes those gropings 
toward a healthier national existence which must have seemed like an undiluted nightmare to the 
peaceable Jewish bourgeois of the nineteenth century. Even today, however, the writing of Jewish 
history suffers unduly from the influence of nineteenth-century Jewish historiography. To be sure, as 
Jewish historians we have clearly advanced beyond the vantage point of our predecessors, having 
learned to insist, and rightly so, that Jewish history is a process that can only be understood when 
viewed from within; but in spite of all this, our progress in applying this truth to concrete historical 
situations; as opposed to general historiosophical theories has been slow. Up to the present' only two 
men, Siegmund Hurwitz in his From Whither to Where (in Hebrew) and Zalman Rubashov [Shazar] 
in his essay "Upon the Ruins of Frankism" (in Hebrew), have shown any true appreciation of the 
complexities of Sabbatian Psychology, and their work has by and large failed to attract the attention it 

And now, one last introductory comment. In dismissing the need for objective research on the 
Sabbatian and Frankist movements, it has often been asserted that since the phenomena in question 
are essentially pathological, they belong more properly to the study of medicine than to the study of 
history. Indeed, an article on "Frank and His Sect in the Light of Psychiatry" (Bychowski, Ha- 
Tekufah, Vol. XIV) has actually been published, but it only succeeds in demonstrating how incapable 
such an approach is of dealing satisfactorily with the problem. From the standpoint of sexual 
pathology it can hardly be doubted that Frank himself was a diseased individual, just as there can be 
no question that at the center and among the ranks of the Sabbatian movement (as in all radical 
movements that spring from certain particular tensions, some of which are not so far removed from 
those of "ordinary" life) it would be possible to find cases of marked mental aberrance. But what is 
the significance of all this? We are not, after all, so much concerned with this or that prominent 
Sabbatian personality as with the question of why such people were able to attract the following that 

they did. The diagnosis of a neurologist would be of little value in determining why thousands of 
human beings were able to find a spiritual home in the labyrinth of Sabbatian theology, We must 
refuse to be deluded by such convenient tags as "hysteria" or "mass psychosis,'- which only confuse 
the issue at the same time that they provide an excuse for avoiding it and comfortably reassure one of 
one's own comparative "normality." It is undoubtedly true that Jamb Frank was every bit the 
depraved and unscrupulous person he is supposed to have been, and yet the moment we seriously 
ponder his, "teachings," or attempt to understand why masses of men should have regarded him as 
their leader -and prophet, this same individual becomes highly problematic. Even more than the 
psychology of the leader, however, it is the psychology of the led that demands to be understood, and 
in the case of Sabbatianism, a movement built entirely upon paradoxes, this question is crucial 
indeed. Whatever we may think of Sabbatai Zevi and Jacob Frank, the fact is: their followers, while 
they were certainly not "innocents"-if there was one thing lacking in the paradoxical religion of the 
Sabbatians it was innocence - were sincere in their faith, and it is the nature of this faith, which 
penetrated to the hidden depths and abysses of the human spirit, that we wish to understand. 


•As a mystical heterodoxy Sabbatianism assumed different and changing forms: it splintered into 
many sects, so that even from the polemical writings against it we learn that the "heretics" quarreled 
among themselves over practically everything. The word "practically," however, must be stressed, for 
on one essential, the underlying ground of their "holy faith," as they called it, the "believers" all 
agreed. Let us proceed then to examine this common ground of faith as it manifested itself both 
psychologically and dogmatically. 

By all accounts, the Messianic revival of 1665-66 spread to every sector of the Jewish people 
throughout the Diaspora. Among the believers and penitents a new emotion, which was not restricted 
to the traditional expectation of a political deliverance of Israel alone, began to make itself felt. This 
is not to say that hope for a divine liberation from the bondage and degradation of exile was not an 
important element in the general contagion, but rather that various psychological reactions which 
accompanied it soon took on an independent existence of their own. Prior to Sabbatai Zevi's apostasy, 
great masses of people were able to believe in perfect simplicity that a new era of history was being 
ushered in and that they themselves had already begun to inhabit a new and redeemed world. Such a 
belief could not but have a profound effect on those who held it: their innermost feelings, which 
assured them of the presence of a Messianic reality, seemed entirely in harmony with the outward 
course of events, those climactic developments in a historico-political realm that Sabbatai Zevi was 
soon to overthrow by means of his miraculous journey to the Turkish sultan, whom he would depose 
from his throne and strip of all his powers. 

In the generation preceding Sabbatai Zevi's advent the rapid spread of the teachings of Rabbi Isaac 
Luria and his school had resulted in a grafting of the theories of the Kabbalists, the de facto 
theologians of the Jewish people in the seventeenth century, onto the traditional Jewish view of the 
role and personality of the Messiah. Mystical Lurianic speculations about the nature of the 
redemption and "the restored world" (olam ha-tikkun) which was to follow upon its heels added new 
contents and dimensions to the popular Messianic folk-myth of a conquering national hero, raising it 
to the level of a supreme cosmic drama: the redemptive process was now no longer conceived of as 
simply a working-out of Israel's temporal emancipation from the yoke of the Gentiles, but rather as a 
fundamental transformation of the entire Creation, affecting material and spiritual worlds alike and 

leading to a rectification of the primordial catastrophe of the "breaking of the vessels" (shevirat ha- 
kelim), in the course of which the divine worlds would be returned to their original unity and 
perfection. By stressing the spiritual side of the redemption far more than its outward aspect the 
Kabbalists of the Lurianic school, though by no means overlooking the latter, gradually converted it 
into a symbol of purely spiritual processes and ends. As long as the Messianic expectancies they 
encouraged were not put to the test in the actual crucible of history, the dangers inherent in this shift 
of emphasis went unnoticed, for the Kabbalists themselves never once imagined that a conflict might 
arise between the symbol and the reality it was intended to represent. To be sure, Lurianic Kabbalah 
had openly educated its followers to prepare themselves more for an inner than for an outer renewal; 
but inasmuch as it was commonly assumed that the one could not take place without the other, the 
procedure seemed in no way questionable. On the contrary: the spread of Lurianic teachings, so it 
was thought, was in itself bound to hasten the coming of the historical Redeemer. 

The appearance of Sabbatai Zevi and the growth of popular faith in his mission caused this inner 
sense of freedom, of "a world made pure again," to become an immediate reality for thousands. This 
did not of course mean that Sabbatai Zevi himself was no longer expected to fulfill the various 
Messianic tasks assigned him by Jewish tradition, but in the meantime an irreversible change had 
taken place in the souls of the faithful. Who could deny that the Shekhinah, the earthly presence of 
God, had risen from the dust? 

"Heretical" Sabbatianism was born at the moment of Sabbatai Zevi's totally unexpected conversion, 
when for the :first time a contradiction appeared between the two levels of the drama of redemption, 
that of the subjective experience of the individual on the one hand, and that of the objective historical 
facts on the other. The conflict was no less intense than unforeseen. One had to choose: either one 
heard the voice of God in the decree of history, or else one heard it in the newly revealed reality 
within. "Heretical" Sabbatianism was the result of the refusal of large sections of the Jewish people to 
submit to the sentence of history by admitting that their own personal experience had been false and 

Thus, the various attempts to construct a Sabbatian theology were all motivated by a similar purpose, 
namely, to rationalize the abyss that had suddenly opened between the objective order of things and 
that inward certainty which it could no longer serve to symbolize, and to render the tension between 
the two more endurable for those who continued to live with it. The sense of contradiction from 
which Sabbatianism sprung became a lasting characteristic of the movement: following upon the 
initial paradox of an apostate Messiah, paradox engendered paradox. Above all, the "believers," those 
who remained loyal to their inward experience, were compelled to find an answer to the simple 
question: what could be the value of a historical reality that had proved to be so bitterly 
disappointing, and how might it be related to the hopes it had betrayed? 

The essence of the Sabbatian' s conviction, in other words, can be summarized in a sentence: it is 
inconceivable that all of God's people should inwardly err, and so, if their vital experience is 
contradicted by the facts, it is the facts that stand in need of explanation. In the words of a Sabbatian 
"moderate"' writing thirty years after Sabbatai Zevi's apostasy: "The Holy One, blessed be He, does 
not ensnare even the animals of the righteous, much less the righteous themselves, to say nothing of 
so terribly deceiving an entire people .... And how is it possible that all of Israel be deceived unless 
this be part of some great divine plan?" This line of argument, which was adopted by many persons 
from the very beginning of the Sabbatian movement, is known to have impressed even the 

movement's opponents, who were equally disinclined to find fault with the entire Jewish people and 
sought instead some other explanation for what had happened. 

During the century and a half of its existence Sabbatianism was embraced by those Jewish circles 
which desired to prolong the novel sensation of living in a "restored world" by developing attitudes 
and institutions that seemed commensurate with a new divine order. Inasmuch as this deliberately 
maintained state of consciousness was directly opposed to the outlook of ghetto Jewry as a whole, or 
which the "believers" themselves formed a part, the latter of necessity tended to become innovators 
and rebels, particularly the radicals among them. Herein lay the psychological basis of that spirit of 
revolt which so infuriated the champions of orthodoxy, who, though they may at first have had no 
inkling of the lengths to which it would be ultimately carried, rightly suspected it from the outset of 
striving to subvert the authority of rabbinic Judaism. Herein, too, lay the basis of all future efforts to 
construct a Sabbatian theology, to the consideration of which we must now turn our attention. 

In the history of religion we frequently encounter types of individuals known as 
"pneumatics" (Pneumatikoi) or "spiritualists" (spirituales). Such persons, who played a major role in 
the development of Sabbatianism, were known in Jewish tradition as "spiritual" or "extra-spirited" 
men or, in the language of the Zohar, as "masters of a holy soul." These terms did not refer to just 
anyone who may have had occasion in the course of his life to be "moved by the spirit"; rather, they 
applied only to those few who abode in the "palace of the king" (hekhal ha-melekh), that is, who 
lived in continual communion with a spiritual realm through whose gates they had passed, whether 
by actually dwelling within it to the point of abandoning their previous existence, or by appropriating 
from it a "spark" or "holy soul," as only the elect were privileged to do. One so favored was in certain 
respects no longer considered to be subject to, the laws of everyday reality, having realized within 
himself the hidden world of divine light. Naturally, spiritualistic types of this sort have always 
regarded themselves as forming a group apart, and hence the special sense of their own "superiority" 
by which they are characterized: from their lofty perspective the world of material affairs tends to 
look lowly indeed. Here, then, we have all the prerequisites for the sectarian disposition, for the sect 
serves the illuminati as both a rallying point for their own kind and a refuge from the 
incomprehension of the carnal and unenlightened masses. The sectarians regard themselves as the 
vanguard of a new world, but they do not therefore need to renounce the parent religion which 
inspired them, for they can always reinterpret it in the light of the supreme reality to which they owe 
their newly discovered allegiance. 

For a number of reasons, which cannot be gone into here, such spiritualists were rarely allowed to 
develop within the Jewish community after the period of the Second Temple. In part this was a 
consequence of Christianity, to which many of them ultimately passed; but even when they continued 
to exist within Judaism itself, it was always as isolated and unorganized individuals. It is a well 
"known fact, for instance, that spiritualism particularly abounds in the domain of religious mysticism; 
and yet, as the history of Kabbalism amply demonstrates, despite the opposition between 
conventional religion and the ecstasy, at times even abandon, of the pneumatic, medieval Judaism 
was capable of absorbing the latter into its orbit. Such was not the case, however, with either 
Christianity or Islam: here the conflict broke out openly and fiercely on numerous occasions, and the 
spiritualist sects which it produced went on to play important roles in the development of new social 
and religious institutions, often giving birth, albeit in religious guise, to the most revolutionary ideas. 
To take but one example, historical research during the last several decades has clearly shown the 
direct connection between Christian sectarianism in Europe and the growth of the Enlightenment and 

the ideal of toleration in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

The existence of similar forces in Jewish history, on the other hand, has been all but neglected by the 
historians, an oversight facilitated by the fact that Jewish spiritualism has either long been outwardly 
dormant or else, as in the case of Kabbalism, has always preferred to work invisibly and 
unsystematically beneath the surface. Indeed, as long as Jewish historiography was dominated by a 
spirit of assimilation, no one so much as suspected that positivism and religious reform were the 
progeny not only of the rational mind, but of an entirely different sort of psychology as well, that of 
the Kabbalah and the Sabbatian crisis-in other words, of that very "lawless heresy" which was so 
soundly excoriated in their name! 

In the Sabbatian movement, which was the first clear manifestation (one might better say explosion) 
of spiritualistic sectarianism in Judaism since the days of the Second Temple, the type of the radical 
spiritualist found its perfect expression. To be sure, illuminati of the same class were later prevalent 
in Hasidism too, particularly during the golden age of the movement; but Hasidism, rather than allow 
itself to be taken over by such types, forced them after a period of initial equivocation to curb their 
unruly spirituality, and did so with such success that it was able to overcome the most difficult and 
hazardous challenge of all, that of safely incorporating them into its own collective body. Unlike 
Sabbatianism, whose followers were determined to carry their doctrine to its ultimate conclusion, it 
was the genius of Hasidism that it knew where to set itself limits. But the Sabbatians pressed on to 
the end, into the abyss of the mythical "gates of impurity" (sha'are tum'ah), where the pure spiritual 
awareness of a world made new became a pitfall fraught with peril for the moral life. 

Here, then, were all the materials necessary to cause a true conflagration in the heart of Jewry. A new 
type of Jew had appeared for whom the world of exile and Diaspora Judaism was partly or wholly 
abolished and who uncompromisingly believed that a "restored world," whose laws and practices he 
was commanded to obey, was in the process of coming into being. The great historical 
disappointment experienced by the Sabbatian had instilled in him the paradoxical conviction that he 
and his like were privy to a secret whose time had not yet come to be generally revealed, and it was 
this certainty which, in Hebrew literature of the period, imparted a special meaning to his use of the 
terms "believer" and "holy faith," the peculiar shadings of which immediately inform us that we are 
dealing with a Sabbatian document even when there is not the slightest allusion therein to Sabbatai 
Zevi himself: by virtue of his "holy faith" in the mysterious realignment of the divine worlds and in 
the special relationship to them of the Creator during the transitional period of cosmic restitution 
(tikkun), the "believer," he who trusted in the mission of Sabbatai Zevi, was exalted above all other 
men. Hidden in the "believer's" soul was a precious jewel, the pearl of Messianic freedom, which 
shone forth from its chamber of chambers to pierce the opaqueness of evil and materiality; he who 
possessed it was a free man by power of his own personal experience, and to this inner sense of 
freedom, whether gotten during the mass revival that preceded Sabbatai Zevi's apostasy, or 
afterwards, in the ranks of the "holy faith," he would continue to cling no matter how much he knew 
it to be contradicted by the outward facts. 

All Sabbatian doctrine had as its aim the resolution of this contradiction. The conflict was bitterly 
clear. Those who were disillusioned by Sabbatai Zevi's apostasy were able to claim that nothing had 
really changed: the world was the same as ever, the exile was no different than before; therefore the 
Torah was the same Torah and the familiar Kabbalistic teachings about the nature of the Godhead 
and the divine worlds remained in force, A great opportunity had perhaps existed, but it had been 

missed; henceforth the one recourse was a return to Israel's traditional faith in its God, The 
"believers," on the other hand, could say in paraphrase of Job, "our eyes have beheld and not 
another's": the redemption had begun indeed, only its ways were mysterious and its outward aspect 
was -still incomplete. Externals might seem the same, but inwardly all was in the process of renewal. 
Both the Torah and the exile had been fundamentally altered, as had the nature of the Godhead, but 
for the time being all these transformations bore "inward faces" alone. 

The Sabbatian movement soon developed all the psychological characteristics of a spiritualist sect, 
and before long many of its followers proceeded to organize themselves along such lines. The 
persecutions against them on the part of various rabbinical and congregational authorities, their own 
special feeling of apartness and of the need to preserve their secret, and the novel practices which 
their beliefs eventually compelled them to pursue, were all factors in bringing this about. I do not 
propose to dwell at length on the history of any of these groups, but I do wish to emphasize briefly at 
this point that large numbers of Jews, especially among the Sephardim, continued to remain faithful 
to Sabbatai Zevi after his conversion. Even such opponents or Sabbatianism as Jacob Sasportas, who 
claimed that the followers of the movement were now an "insubstantial minority," was forced to 
admit on other occasions that the minority in question was considerable indeed, particularly in 
Morocco, Palestine, Egypt, and most of Turkey and the Balkans. Most of the Sabbatian groups in 
these areas maintained constant contact with each other and kept up a running battle over the correct 
interpretation of their "holy faith." From these regions came the first theoreticians of the movement, 
men such as Nathan of Gaza, Samuel Primo, Abraham Miguel Cardozo, and Nehemiah Hay on, as 
well as the believers in "voluntary Marranism." who went on to form the sect of the Donmeh in 
Salonika, in Italy the number of Sabbatians was smaller, though it included some of the country's 
most important Kabbalists; within a generation after its appearance there, Sabbatianism had dwindled 
into the concern of a few rabbis and scholars (chief among them Rabbi Benjamin Cohen of Reggio 
and Rabbi Abraham Rovigo of Modena), in whose hands it remained for a century without ever 
penetrating into wider -circles. In Northern Europe Sabbatianism was also restricted at first to small 
groups of adherents, devotees of such "prophets" as Heshel Zoref of Vilna and Mordecai of 
Eisenstadt in Hungary; but after 1700; following the commencement of a "Palestinian period" during 
which organized Sabbatian emigrations to the Holy Land took place from several countries, the 
movement spread rapidly through Germany and the Austro- Hungarian Empire. In Lithuania it failed 
to take root, but in Podolia and Moravia it became so entrenched that it was soon able to claim the 
allegiance of many ordinary Jewish burghers and small businessmen (according to Jacob Emden, the 
numerical value of the Hebrew letters in the verse in Psalms 14, "There is none that doeth good, not 
even one," was equivalent to the numerical value of the letters in the Hebrew word for Moravia!) In 
Prague and Mannheim Sabbatian-oriented centers of learning came into being. The influence of the 
"graduates" of these institutions was great; one of them, in fact, was the author of the heretical 
treatise Va-Avo ha-Yom El ha-Ayin ("And I Came This Day Unto the Fountain") which provoked so 
much furor at the time of the controversy surrounding Jonathan Eibeschtz (1751) and led to a 
polemical "battle of the books" which has enabled us to trace the identities of many Sabbatians of 
whom otherwise we would have known nothing at all. In the middle of the eighteenth century many 
of the Sabbatians in Podolia converted to Christianity after the example of their leader Jacob Frank, 
but still others remained within the Jewish fold. Finally, a Sabbatian stronghold sprang up again in 
Prague, where Frankism was propagated in a Jewish form. After 1815, however, the movement fell 
apart and its members were absorbed into secular Jewish society, like the Frankist ancestors of Louis 

It is now time to turn our attention to the actual content of the spiritualism of these Sabbatian groups, 
for although the details of their theosophical teachings cannot be understood by anyone not already 
familiar with the intricacies of Kabbalistic speculation in both the Zohar and the writings of the 
Lurianic school, other vital questions which concerned them, as well as their doctrine of the Godhead 
in its more general form, can be rendered intelligible even to those who are not fully versed in the 
esoteric side of Jewish mystical thought. 


•The question which first confronted the "believers" after the apostasy -of Sabbatai Zevi, and one to 
which they never ceased returning, was of the following order: since by all external tokens the 
redemption had already been at hand, and since the Messiah, the authenticity of whose mission was 
beyond doubt, had actually revealed himself to his people, why had he forsaken them and his 
religion, and why had the historical and political deliverance from bondage which was to have 
naturally accompanied the cosmic process of tikkun been delayed? To this a paradoxically 
compelling answer was quickly offered: the apostasy of the Messiah was itself a religious mystery of 
the most crucial importance! No less an authority than Maimonides himself, it was argued, had stated 
that the actual details of the redemptive process were not to be known in advance; and although the 
truth of the matter was that everything that had happened was fully alluded to in the Holy Scriptures, 
these allusions themselves could not he correctly understood until the events they foretold had come 
to pass. All might be found to have been predicted in the relevant prophecies and legends, which 
Nathan of Gaza, and even more so Abraham Cardozo, now proceeded to expound in the form of a 
new doctrine to which Sabbatai Zevi himself apparently subscribed. 

As long as the last divine sparks (nitzotzot) of holiness and good which fell at the time of Adam's 
primordial sin into the impure realm of the kelipot (the hylic forces of evil whose hold in the world is 
particularly strong among the Gentiles) have not been gathered back again to their source—so the 
explanation ran -the process of redemption is incomplete. It is therefore left to the Redeemer, the 
holiest of men, to accomplish what not even the most righteous souls in the past have been able to do: 
to descend through the gates of impurity into the realm of the kelipot and to rescue the divine sparks 
still imprisoned there. As soon as this task is performed the Kingdom of Evil will collapse of itself, 
for its existence is made possible only by the divine sparks in its midst. The Messiah is constrained to 
commit "strange acts" (ma'asim zarim; a concept hereafter to occupy a central place in Sabbatian 
theology), of which his apostasy is the most startling; all of these, however, are necessary for the 
fulfillment of his mission. In the formulation of Cardozo; "It is ordained that the King Messiah don 
the garments of a Marrano and so go unrecognized by his fellow Jews. In a word, it is ordained that 
he become a Marrano like me." 

Before proceeding to take a closer look at this bold and heretical doctrine, one might well dwell for a 
moment on Cardozo's own words, which provide in my opinion an invaluable clue to the motivation 
behind it, as they do in fact to nearly every other feature of the Sabbatian movement as well. 
Underlying the novelty of Sabbatian thought more than anything else was the deeply paradoxical 
religious sensibility of the Marranos and their descendants, who constituted a large portion of 
Sephardic Jewry. Had it not been for the unique psychology of these reconverts to Judaism, the new 
theology would never have found the fertile ground to flourish in that it did. Regardless of what the 

actual backgrounds of its first disseminators may have been, the Sabbatian doctrine of the Messiah 
was perfectly tailored to the needs of the Marranic mentality. Indeed, we know for a fact that 
Abraham Cardozo, one of the movement's most successful proselytizers, was of definite Marrano 
origin-he was born in Spain in 1627~a particular which goes far to explain the remarkable zeal and 
sincerity with which he defended the new doctrine. Historians in our own day have pointed out at 
length the degree of contradiction, of duplicity and duality, which was involved in the religious 
consciousness of the Marranos. For these undercover Jews "to don the garments of a Marrano" was 
by no means an unjustifiable act; in its defense they were fond of citing the story of Queen Esther, as 
well as various other biblical fragments and verses. Formal apostasy had never been considered by 
them to represent an irreconcilable break with their mother faith. And now along came a religious 
metaphysic which exalted just such a form of life to the highest possible level by attributing it to the 
person of the Redeemer himself! Certainly all kinds of implications, which we shall deal with later 
on, were contained in this original idea. Let us examine it more closely. 

To begin with, the new doctrine could no longer be harmonized with the traditional Messianic folk- 
myth held to by the Jewish masses unless room could be found in the latter for such a "contradiction 
in terms" as the apostasy of the Redeemer. At first it was no doubt believed that the Messiah's descent 
into the realm of the kelipot was but an incidental aspect of his mission, "as happened to King David 
[when he sojourned] with Achish King of Gath," but it soon came to be realized that such an 
extraordinary event must occupy the center of any Messianic schema, which if necessary would have 
to be rebuilt around it: if the Messiah's task indeed contained a tragic element, as was now being 
proposed, support for this belief would have to be found in the sources and attitudes of Jewish 
tradition. What now took place in Sabbatianism was similar to what happened in Christianity at the 
time of the apostles, the chief difference being the shifting of the tragic moment in the Messiah's 
destiny from his crucifixion to his apostasy, a change which rendered the paradox in question even 
more severe. And to this novel conception another was soon added, one which indeed had a basis in 
aggadic literature, but whose hidden implications had gone unnoticed as long as no pressing reality 
had existed to force its application outside of the domain of pure theory and imagination; this was the 
notion that the King Messiah was to give "a new Torah" and that the commandments of the Law 
( mitzvah) were to be abrogated in Messianic times. Speculations of this nature could be found in 
various Midrashim and Aggadot, but possessed no particular authority -and were easily challenged by 
means of other exegetical passages to the opposite effect, with the consequence that, in Jewish 
tradition, the entire question had hitherto been allowed to remain in abeyance. Even those visionaries 
who dreamt through the ages of a new Word of God in a redeemed world did not, in fact, particularly 
connect this idea with the activities of the Messiah himself, and it was not until it was seized upon by 
the new "Marranic" doctrine that its latent explosive power was revealed. 

The doctrine of the necessary apostasy of the Messiah did not originate in the realm of literature, but 
was rather rooted in new religious feelings that had come to exist. It was only after the initial 
manifestation of these that the effort to justify them on the basis of authoritative sources began, and 
with truly remarkable results, for practically overnight a new rehgious language was born. From bits 
and pieces of Scripture, from scattered paradoxes and sayings in the writings of the Kabbalah, from 
all the remotest corners of Jewish religious Uterature, an unprecedented theology of Judaism was 
brought into being. The cynicism of most Jewish historians toward these "inanities" does not reveal 
any great understanding of what actually took place. Suddenly we find ourselves confronted by an 
original Jewish terminology, far removed from that of Christianity, yet equally determined to express 

the contradictions inherent in the life of the Redeemer and in redemption itself Striking as it did a 
hidden wellspring of deep religious emotion, one can hardly deny that this gospel must have 
possessed a powerful attraction, nor that it often managed to inject new meanings into familiar 
phrases and figures of speech with a fascinating profundity. Such a dialectical eruption of new forces 
in the midst of old concepts is rare indeed. Because Graetz and other historians insisted on regarding 
its articulation as being nothing more than a pretext for a monstrous debauchment of moral and 
spiritual values, they completely overlooked its true significance. To be sure, the doctrine of an 
apostate Messiah did serve as a pretext too, but it was also a great deal more; and had it not appealed 
(and by virtue of its very paradoxicality !) to vital components in the spiritual make-up of the Jew, and 
above all to his sense of spiritual mission, it would never have succeeded in attracting a following in 
the first place. This missionary ideology reached a peak in the writings of the Lurianic Kabbalah, 
which strove to inculcate in every Jew a sense of duty to "elevate the sparks'" and so help bring about 
the ultimate tikkun of the Creation. 

Here the 53rd chapter of Isaiah played a key role, for as it was now reinterpreted the verse "But he 
was wounded because of our transgressions" was taken to be an allusion not only to the Messiah ben 
Joseph, the legendary forerunner of the Redeemer who according to tradition was to suffer death at 
the hands of the Gentiles, but to the Messiah ben David as well, who "would be forceably prevented 
from observing the Torah." By a play on words, the Hebrew ve-hu meholal, "but he was wounded," 
was interpreted as meaning "from sacred he [the Messiah] will be made profane [hoi].'- Thus, 
all Gentiles are referred to as profane [hoi] and kelipah, and whereas Israel alone is called sacred, all 
the other nations are profane. And even though a Jew commit a transgression, as long as he remains a 
Jew among Jews he is called sacred and an Israelite, for as the rabbis have said, "Even though he has 
sinned, he is still an Israelite." It follows that there is no way for the King Messiah to be made 
profane except he be removed from the Community of Israel into another domain. 

Many similar homilies were written on the rest of the chapter, especially on the verse, "And he made 
his grave with the wicked," Yet another favorite verse was Deuteronomy 33:7 ("And this for Judah, 
and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him unto his people"), which was assumed to 
allude to the Davidic Messiah of the House of Judah, whose destiny it was to be taken from his 
people (hence Moses" prayer that Gad bring him back to them), 6 Endless biblical verses were cited to 
prove that the Messiah was fated to be contemned as an outcast and criminal by his own people. 
Clothed in Messianic radiance, all the typical arguments of the Marranos were applied to Sabbatai 

•And similar to this [the apostasy of Sabbatai Zevi} is what happened to Esther, who was the cause of 
great salvation to Israel; for although most of the people, being ignorant, most certainly despised her 
for having given herself to an idol- worshiper and a Gentile in dear violation of the bidding of the 
Torah, the sages of old, who knew the secret [of her action), did not regard her as a sinner, for it is 
said of her in the Talmud: "Esther was the ground of the entire world." 

•In the same vein, the familiar aggadic saying that "the last Redeemer will be as the first" was taken 
to mean that just as Moses lived for many years at the court of Pharaoh, so the Messiah must live 
with "the Turk," for as the exile draws to a close the Messiah himself must be exiled to atone for 
Israel's sins. 

Next came the turn of the Zohar, and here too, with the help of major or minor distortions, a world of 

new symbols was made to emerge, such as the figure of "the king who is good within but clothed in 
evil garments." In vain it was argued against this interpretation that the passage does not refer in this 
context to a king at all, much less to the Messiah; the image, so expressive in its obscurity, penetrated 
deep into the Sabbatian consciousness where it remained for generations to come. Two other writers 
whose works were mined in this fashion were Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel of Prague and Rabbi 
Joseph Taitatsak of Salonika, one of the emigrs from Spain in 1492: the former was found to have 
cryptically predicted that the Messiah would be bound to the world of Islam, while the latter was 
supposed to have stated, "when the rabbis said that the Son of David would not come until the 
kingdom was entirely given over to unbelief [Sanhedrin 97a], they were thinking of the Kingdom of 
Heaven, for the Shekhinah is destined to don the garments of Ishmael." In a word, the attempt to 
justify the belief that the fall and apostasy of the Messiah were necessary actions was carried out 
assiduously and successfully and led to the composition of many homilies, treatises, and books, some 
of which have not yet been recovered from their resting places. Endless vindications and defenses of 
the new doctrine were brought from practically every corner of Jewish literature. At first the tendency 
was to assert that although the Messiah's conversion had been forced upon him, it was qualitatively to 
be considered as a deliberate act; gradually, however, this motif disappeared, and the emphasis came 
to be placed squarely on the paradox that the Messiah should convert of his own free will. The 
descent into the kelipot was, indeed had to be, a voluntary one. 

It was at this point that a radically new content was bestowed upon the old rabbinic concept of 
mitzvah ha-ba'ah ba-averah, literally, "a commandment which is fulfilled by means of a 
transgression ." Once it could be claimed that the Messiah's apostasy was in no way a transgression, 
but was rather a fulfillment of the commandment of God, "for it is known throughout Israel that the 
prophets can do and command things which are not in accord with the Torah and its laws; the entire 
question of the continued validity of the Law had reached a critical stage. We know that even before 
his apostasy Sabbatai Zevi violated several of the commandments by eating the fat of animals and 
administering it to others, directing that the paschal sacrifice be performed outside of the Land of 
Israel, and canceling the fast days. His followers soon began to seek explanations for these acts, and 
here began a division which was to lead eventually to an open split in the movement. 


•The new doctrine of the necessary apostasy of the Messiah was accepted by all the "believers." In 
fact, it proved to be symbolically richer than was at first assumed, for it expertly expressed the 
contradiction between the outward reality of history and the inward reality of the "believers' " lives. It 
was now no longer to be wondered at that the outward deliverance had been delayed, for this could be 
explained by the mystic principle of "good within but clothed in evil garments." In turn, however, 
other questions arose which the doctrine of necessary apostasy was in itself insufficient to answer. 

•First of all, it was asked, what was the nature of the Messiah's act? Was it intended to be an 
exemplar for others? Were all Jews enjoined to follow suit or was it essentially inimitable and to be 
looked upon as a theoretical model only? 

Second, what was the nature of the transitional period during which the Messiah was in the clutches 
of the kelipot? Could it properly be called the redemption or not? Since it was agreed by all that the 
Shekhinah had "risen from the dust," where was the Shekhinah now? Did it still make sense to speak 
of her "exile" and to mourn for her? What exactly was the relationship of inwardness to outwardness 

in the present age? 

Third, what was the status of the Torah during this period? Had a new aspect of it been revealed? 
How was the principle of mitzvah ha-ba'ah ba-avel-ah to be understood? Could it not be argued that 
the change which had taken place in the relationship of the divine worlds necessitated a 
corresponding change in the performance of the commandments, the purpose of which had been to 
restore the harmony of the old, unredeemed cosmos that had been shattered by the primordial sin? 
Was not the Lurianic Kabbalah in its traditional form now outdated? 

These were the principal dilemmas which were to shape the development of Sabbatianism in the 
course of the following hundred years, and in several countries to transform it from a Messianic 
movement into a nihilistic movement operating within a religious framework. And just as these 
questions were themselves mutually related, so the nihilism which resulted from them was to be 
characterized by its internal unity and consistency. 

Here, then, it is necessary to distinguish between two opposing Sabbatian factions which emerged 
from the dashes or opinion surrounding these disputed points, as well as from differing interpretations 
of the theosophical "mystery of the Godhead" (sod ha-elohut) revealed by Sabbatai Zevi to his 
disciples: a moderate and rather piously inclined wing of the movement on the one hand, and a 
radical: antinomian, and nihilistic wing on the other. (Both of these factions, in turn, contained many 
subdivisions, but here we are concerned only with the more general features of each.) In the case of 
some Sabbatians, who have left us no completely candid record of their feelings, it is difficult to 
determine to which of these two camps they belonged. As might naturally be expected, in face of the 
persecutions against them the "beUevers" were not often in a position to expound their beliefs 
undisguisedly, and certainly not to permit them to appear in print. This was particularly true of the 
nihilists, who had good and compelling reasons for concealing their doctrines. 

Moderate Sabbatianism, which we shall consider first, was a view shared by many rabbis and was 
represented by men like Nathan of Gaza, Abraham Cardozo, and Abraham Rovigo. Of these three, 
Cardozo and Rovigo are the more valuable sources, especially the former, a large number of whose 
many treatises have survived thanks to the refusal of his disciples in London, Turkey, and Morocco to 
bum them in compliance with the injunctions of the rabbinical courts. 

According to the "moderates,'- the apostasy of the Messiah was not intended to serve as an example 
for others. To be sure, Sabbatai Zevi had done what was necessary, but to attempt to follow in his 
footsteps was to belie the significance of his act, which was performed in behalf of everybody. In the 
words of Isaiah 53: "The Lord hath made to light on him the iniquity of us all. "Strictly speaking, all 
were [originally] under the obligation to convert," but God in His mercy permitted the apostasy of the 
Messiah to atone for the sins of his people. Besides being strange and scandalous in its nature, 
Sabbatai Zevi's conversion was in a class by itself and was not an object of imitation. The Jew was 
expected to remain a Jew. True, a new world-era had undoubtedly been ushered in, the spiritual 
worlds had undergone tikkun, and their structure was now permanently altered; nonetheless, as long 
as the redemption did not manifest itself outwardly in the realm of objective events in history, as long 
as the external bondage continued and the phenomenal world remained unchanged, no aspect or 
commandment of the Torah was to be openly tampered with except for the small number of 
innovations, such as the cancellation of the fast of Tish'ah be'Av (the day of the destruction of the 
Temple), which had been proclaimed by the Messiah and his prophets as symbolic tokens of the 

redemption's commencement. Even on this point, however, there was disagreement, for several 
Sabbatians, including Abraham Rovigo himself, decided to reinstate the fast after a period of 
hesitation lasting a number of years during which they disregarded it-not because they had "gone 
back" on their beliefs, but because of the questionable nature of the practice itself, as witnessed by the 
fact that Rovigo's disciple Mordecai Ashkenazi had been bidden by a maggid or "spiritual 
intelligence" to desist from it. On the whole, it was the view of the "moderates" that during the 
transitional period under way the kelipot still retained a good deal of their power, which could only 
be eliminated by continued performance of the mitzvot: the "faade" of rabbinic Judaism must be 
allowed to remain temporarily standing, although great changes had already taken place within the 
edifice. One unmistakable testimony to this inner transformation was the abandonment by many of 
the "moderates" of the mystical meditations (kavvanot) of Isaac Luria. The first to discontinue their 
use was Nathan of Gaza, whose reasons for doing so were as follows: 

The kavvanot of the Lurianic Kabbalists were inward actions of thought designed to relate the 
performance of given commandments or prayers to specific stages in the dynamic chain of the divine 
worlds and thereby to reintegrate the latter by helping to restore them to the places they had occupied 
before their catastrophic fall. Thus, each kavvanah was a spiritual act demonstrating that the outward 
undertaking which occasioned it harmonized invisibly with the over- all structure of the cosmos. Now, 
however, with the advent of the Messiah, this structure had changed. The sense of inner freedom 
possessed by the "believers" was not a subjective illusion, but was caused by a real reorganization of 
the worlds illuminating the soul, as a result of which the Lurianic kavvanot had become obsolete. 
This in turn led to a re-evaluation of the entire Lurianic Kabbalah, and on occasion both Nathan of 
Gaza and Abraham Cardozo went so far as to direct veiled criticisms at Isaac Luria himself. Nathan, 
for example, writes: "In the present age it is no longer in order to read the tikkunim composed by 
Isaac Luria of blessed memory and his disciples, nor to meditate according to their kavvanot, for the 
times have changed. The kavvanot of Rabbi Isaac Luria were meant for his own age, which was [Hke] 
an ordinary day of the week, whereas now it is the eve of the Sabbath, and it is not proper to treat the 
Sabbath as though it were a weekday." Elsewhere he writes: "My meaning is that the kavvanot 
discovered by our teacher Rabbi Isaac Luria, may his saintly and righteous memory be blessed, are 
no longer appropriate to our own time) because the raising up [of the divine worlds] has entered a 
new phase, so that it would be Uke employing kavvanot intended for a weekday on the Sabbath. 
Therefore, let everyone beware of using them, and likewise let none of the kavvanot or homihes or 
writings of Rabbi Isaac Luria be read henceforward, for they are abstruse and no living man has 
understood them except Rabbi Hayyim Vital, who was a disciple of the master [Isaac Luria] for 
several years, at the end of which he surpassed him in knowledge." In a similar vein: "It is no longer 
in order to perform the midnight vigil, that is, to weep and mourn for the exile of the Shekhinah, for 
she has already begun to rise from the earth, so that whoever mourns for her is a blunderer and 
attracts the company of that guilty [demon] LiUth, since it is she who now weeps and wails." Many 
other passages like these could be cited. As a matter of Course Cardozo hastened to compose a new 
series of updated kavvanot, but these were never to prove popular with his fellow Sabbatians, who 
either gave up the practice of mystical meditations entirely, or else, Hke many of the Hasidim who 
came after them, took to composing their own as they individually saw fit. 

It was generally held by all the Sabbatians that now, on the "eve of the Sabbath," the mystery of the 
Godhead (sod ha-elohut) that had eluded the rabbis, philosophers, and KabbaUsts throughout the ages 
was finally to be revealed. This was not to say that the secret had not been hinted at by the last of the 

Gnostics living in the Tannaitic period, who cryptically concealed it in the pages of the Zohar and in 
several Aggadot, particularly those known as the aggadot shel dofi or "offensive Aggadot," which 
had served as milestones for the contemplation of the mystics and as obscure hints at the mysteries 
during the dark night of exile. But the true meaning of these had been overlooked; nor could it be 
fully comprehended until the End of Days. On the other hand, although the "mystery of the Godhead" 
was yet to be revealed in its entirety, a part of it had now been made known. Here again a rejection of 
Lurianism and the substitution of a new Sabbatian Kabbalah in its place were involved! The first 
written exposition of the new system, which was to be subject to a great many differing inferences 
and interpretations, was the small tract Raza de-Mehemanuta ("The Secret of the Faith") which was 
orally dictated by Sabbatai Zevi to a disciple after his apostasy. Its effect was to prefix yet another 
stage to the theogonic speculations of the Kabbalists, for it treated (and quite remarkably) of the 
mysterious inner life of the Godhead before its tzimtzum or primordial contraction, whereas Lurianic 
Kabbalah had dealt only with the counter-expansion of the deity once the tzimtzum had taken place. 

We have already seen in regard to their doctrine of the apostate Messiah that the Sabbatians were not 
in the least bit chary of paradoxes, and indeed, their theological reflections on the true nature of "the 
Faith" and its history in Israel reveal a dialectical daring that cannot but be respected. Here we are 
given our deepest glimpse yet into the souls of these revolutionaries who regarded themselves as 
loyal Jews while at the same time completely overturning the traditional religious categories of 
Judaism- 1 am not of course speaking of a feeling of "loyalty" to the Jewish religion as it was defined 
by rabbinical authority. For many, if not for most Sabbatians, the Judaism of the rabbis, which they 
identified with the Judaism of the exile, had come to assume an entirely dubious character. Even 
when they continued to live within its jurisdiction it was not out of any sense of positive 
commitment; no doubt it had been suited to its time, but in the light of the soul- shaking truth of the 
redemption that time had passed. Taking into account all that has been said here, it is hardly 
surprising that this attitude should have existed. What is surprising, however, indeed astoundingly so, 
is the nature of the spiritual world that the Sabbatians should have stumbled upon in the course of 
their search through the Bible for "the mystery of the Godhead" which exilic Judaism had allowed to 
perish, for here we are confronted with nothing less than the totally unexpected revival of the 
religious beliefs of the ancient Gnostics, albeit in a transvalued form. 

The Gnostics, who were the contemporaries of the Jewish Tannaim of the second century, believed 
that it was necessary to distinguish between a good but hidden God who alone was worthy of being 
worshiped by the elect, and a Demiurge or creator of the physical universe, whom they identified 
with the "just" God of the Old Testament. In effect they did not so much reject the Jewish Scriptures, 
whose account of events they conceded to be at least partly true, as they denied the superiority of the 
Jewish God, for whom they reserved the most pejorative terms. Salvation was brought to mankind by 
messengers sent by the hidden God to rescue the soul from the cruel law or "justice" of the Demiurge, 
whose dominion over the evil material world, as testified to by the Bible, was but an indication of his 
lowly status. The hidden God Himself was unknown, but he had entrusted Jesus and the gnostic 
faithful with the task of overthrowing the "God of the Jews". As for the claim of both Jews and 
orthodox Christians that the God of Israel who created the world and the transcendent God of 
goodness were one and the same, this was a great falsehood which stood in the way of true gnosis. 
This kind of "metaphysical anti-Semitism," as is well known, did not vanish from history with the 
disappearance of the gnostic sects, but continued to reassert itself within the Catholic Church and its 
heretical offshoots throughout the Middle Ages. 

"The mystery of the Godhead" which Sabbatianism now "discovered" and which it believed to be 
identical with "the mystery of the God of Israel" and "the faith of Father Abraham," was founded 
entirely on a new formulation of this ancient gnostic paradox. In the version made current by Cardozo 
it was expounded as follows: 

All nations and philosophers have been led by irrefutable laws of the intellect to acknowledge the 
existence of a First Cause responsible for setting all else in motion. Given the fact, therefore, that 
anyone capable of logical reasoning can demonstrate to his own satisfaction that such a Cause exists, 
what need is there for it to be specially revealed to mankind? What possible religious difference can 
such a revelation make when we are no less the wiser without it? The answer is, none at all. The First 
Cause, which was worshiped by Pharaoh and Nimrod and the wise men of India alike, is not the 
concern of reUgion at all, for it has nothing to do with the affairs of this world or its creation and 
exerts no influence on it for good or for bad. The purpose of a divine revelation must be to make 
something known which cannot be grasped by the intellect on its own, something which has 
specifically religious value and content. And indeed, this is precisely the case with the Jewish Torah, 
which does not dwell at all on that Hidden Principle whose existence can be adequately proven by the 
intellect, but speaks only of the God of Israel, Elohei Yisrael, who is the creator of the world and the 
first emanation to proceed from the First Cause. This God, in turn, has two aspects, or 
"countenances" (partzufim), one male and one female, the latter being known as the Shekhinah; He 
alone it is who creates and reveals Himself and redeems, and to Him alone are prayer and worship to 
be rendered. It is this paradox of a God of religion who is distinct from the First Cause that is the 
essence of true Judaism, that "faith of our fathers" which is concealed in the books of the Bible and in 
the dark sayings of the Aggadot and the Kabbalah. In the course of the confusion and demoralization 
brought on by the exile this mystery (of which even Christianity was nothing but a distorted 
expression) was forgotten and the Jewish People was mistakenly led to identify the impersonal First 
Cause with the personal God of the Bible, a spiritual disaster for which Saadia Gaon, Maimonides, 
and the other philosophers will yet be held accountable. It was thus that the words of the prophet 
Hosea, "For the Children of Israel shall sit solitary many days without a king" (3:4), came to be 
fulfilled. At the exile's end, however, Israel's God will reveal Himself once more, and this secret is a 
source of precious comfort to the "believers." 

Here we have a typically gnostic scheme, only inverted: the good God is no longer the deus 
absconditus, who has now become the deity of the philosophers for whom there is no room in 
religion proper, but rather the God of Israel who created the world and presented it with His Torah. 
What daring labyrinths of the spirit are revealed in this new creed! What yearnings for a regeneration 
of faith and what disdainful negation of the exile! Like true spiritual revolutionaries, with an 
unfeigned enthusiasm which even today cannot fail to impress the reader of Cardozo's books, the 
"believers" unflinchingly proclaimed their belief that all during the exile the Jewish People had 
worshiped a powerless divinity and had clung to a way of life that was fundamentally in need of 
reform. When one considers how wildly extravagant all this may appear even now, it is easy enough 
to appreciate the wrath and indignation with which such a theology was greeted by the orthodox 
camp in its own day. Determined to avoid a full-scale revolution within the heart of Jewry, the 
rabbinical traditionalists and their supporters did all they could to drive the "believers" beyond the 
pale. And yet in spite of all this, one can hardly deny that a great deal that is authentically Jewish was 
embodied in these paradoxical individuals too, in their desire to start afresh and in their realization of 
the fact that negating the exile meant negating its religious and institutional forms as well and 

returning to the original fountaintieads of tlie Jewish faith. This last practice—a tendency to rely in 
matters of behef upon the Bible and the Aggadah—grew to be particularly strong among the nihilists 
in the movement. Here too, faith in paradox reigned supreme: the stranger the Aggadah, the more 
offensive to reason and common sense, the more likely it was to be seized upon as a symbol of that 
"mystery of faith" which naturally tended to conceal itself in the most frightful and fanciful tales. 

I have alluded to the fierce discussions that broke out among the Sabbatians over the issue of how 
"the mystery of the Godhead" was to be interpreted. Several of the elucidations of the doctrine that 
are known to us differ substantially from the version given by Cardozo, who devoted his very best 
speculative powers to the question. All of these treatises employ the terminology of the Zohar and the 
Lurianic Kabbalah, but proceed to attribute to it meanings that are entirely their own. Among the 
speculations on the subject that have come down to us in detail are those of Nehemiah Hayon, 
Samuel Primo, and Jonathan Eibeschtz. Despite their division of the Godhead into three hypostases 
(partzufim), the First Cause or "Holy Ancient One" (atika kadisha), the God of Israel or "Holy 
King" (malka kadisha), and the Shekhinah, all of these writers sought to uphold the essential dynamic 
unity of the divinity. The central problems as they saw them problems, be it said, which did not exist 
for non-Sabbatian Kabbalah at all- were first of all to determine the nature of the relationship, the 
"three knots of faith" as they called it, between the First Cause, the God of Israel; and the Shekhinah, 
and secondly to establish the exact content of the new revelation concerning the essence of the God 
of Israel. Characteristic of the approach of these Sabbatian "moderates" was their stubborn refusal to 
leave any room in their gnostic theories for a doctrine of divine incarnation. Indeed, the literature of 
"moderate" Sabbatianism is in general filled with violent denunciations of Christianity and of the 
Christian dogma of the Trinity. 

According to several of the "moderates," "the mystery of the Godhead" had not yet been fully 
revealed: during the original Messianic revival of 1665-66, they argued, there had been an initial 
revelation which it was permitted to freely make known, but now, during the period of transition, 
eclipse, and uncertainty the situation was no longer the same. The Shekhinah had indeed "begun to 
rise," but "she has still not returned to her place entirely, for had she returned we would no longer be 
in exile," These words were written by Abraham Rovigo more than thirty years after Sabbatai Zevi's 
apostasy, of the mystic meaning of which he had absolutely no doubt, and they illustrate in a nutshell 
the psychology of "moderate" Sabbatianism while at the same time solving the riddle of how so many 
rabbis who were confirmed "believers" nevertheless managed to remain in their rabbinical posts. The 
redemption had truly begun, but it was a gradual process: "[It proceeds] step by step. In the end the 
Holy One, blessed be He, will raise her from the dust." This was not to say that the Shekhinah had not 
already begun to rise of her own accord, but "as long as He does not lift her up Himself it is said that 
she is still in exile." It goes without saying that those who subscribed to this view were obliged to 
keep up all the traditional practices of exilic, i.e., historic, Judaism. Even the midnight vigil for the 
Shekhinah was ultimately reintroduced. 

In a word, at the same time that it was completely transforming the historic inner world of Judaism in 
its own unique manner, "moderate" Sabbatianism continued to adhere to traditional Jewish 
observance not for the sake of mere camouflage, but as a matter of principle. The inward crisis which 
every "moderate" underwent was permitted little or no outward expression, and inasmuch as such an 
objectification of his feelings was barred by either the exigencies of the situation or the compunctions 
of his own religious consciousness, he was forced to retreat even further into himself. But although 

the new sense of inner freedom bore purely inner consequences, we can nevertheless rely on the 
judgment of those anti-Sabbatian polemicists who saw perfectly dearly that the inward devastation of 
old values was no less dangerous or far-reaching than its outward manifestation. Whoever reads such 
a volume as Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschtz The Book of the Eternal Name, a treatise on "the mystery of 
the Godhead" composed in the traditional style of talmudic dialectics, will readily see what abysses 
had opened up in the very heart of Judaism. From these were to come the deluge: pure founts of 
salvation and spiritual rebirth to the one camp, gross waters of corruption and shameless sacrilege to 
the other. 


•We have seen how the principal feature of "moderate" Sabbatian doctrine was the belief that the 
apostasy of the Messiah was sui generis. The Messiah must go his lonely way into the kingdom of 
impurity and "the other side" (sitra ahra) and dwell there in the realm of a "strange god" whom he 
would yet refuse to worship. The enormous tension between the subjective and the objective which 
had developed in the ranks of his followers had so far found a legitimate expression in this one act 
alone. Whereas Sabbatai Zevi had actually done strange and objectionable things in the name of the 
holy, the celebration of this paradox among the "believers" was restricted to the domain of faith. 
"Moderate" Sabbatianism drew a circle around the concept of "strange holiness" and forbade itself to 
enter: it was indeed the Messiah's fate to scandalize Israel by his deeds, hut it was decidedly his fate 

Once drawn, however, the line was clearly difficult to maintain. The more ardent "'believer"' found 
himself becoming increasingly restive. Was he to abandon the Messiah entirely just when the latter 
was engaged in the most bitter phase of his struggle with the power of evil? If the spark of the 
redemption had been experienced by all, why should not all do as the Redeemer? How could one 
refuse to go to his aid? And soon the cry was heard: 

Let us surrender ourselves as he did! Let us descend together to the abyss before it shuts again! Let us 
cram the maw of impurity with the power of holiness until it bursts from within. 

Feelings such as these formed the psychological background for the great nihilistic conflagration that 
was to break out in the "radical" wing of the Sabbatian movement. The fire was fed by powerful 
religious emotions, but in the crucial moment these were to join forces with passions of an entirely 
different sort, namely, with the instincts of anarchy and lawlessness that lie deeply buried in every 
human soul. Traditionally Judaism had always sought to suppress such impulses, but now that they 
were allowed to emerge in the revolutionary exhilaration brought on by the experience of redemption 
and its freedom, they burst forth more violently than ever. An aura of holiness seemed to surround 
them. They too would be granted their tikkun, if only in the '"hindparts of holiness," 

Ultimately, too, the disappointing course of external events had a telling effect. Though he possessed 
the heroic soul of the warrior Bar Kokhba, Sabbatai Zevi had not gone forth to do battle on the Day 
of the Lard. A yawning chasm had appeared between inner and outer realities, and once it was 
decided that the former was the truer of the two, it was only to be expected that the value of the latter 
would increasingly come to be rejected. It was precisely at this point that Messianism was 

transformed into nihilism. Having been denied the political and historical outlets it had originally 
anticipated, the new sense of freedom now sought to express itself in the sphere of human morality. 
The psychology of the '"radical" Sabbatians was utterly paradoxical and "Marranic," Essentially its 
guiding principle was: Whoever is as he appears to be cannot be a true '"believer."' In practice this 
meant the following: 

The "true faith" cannot be a faith which men publicly profess. On the contrary, the '"true faith'" must 
always be concealed. In fact, it is one's duty to deny it outwardly, for it is Uke a seed that has been 
planted in the bed of the soul and it cannot grow unless it is first covered over. For this reason every 
Jew is obliged to become a Marrano. 

Again: a "true act" cannot be an act committed publicly, before the eyes of the world. Like the "true 
faith," the "true act" is concealed, for only through concealment can it negate the falsehood of what is 
explicit. Through a revolution of values, what was formerly sacred has become profane and what was 
formerly profane has become sacred. It is no longer enough to invent new mystical meditations 
(kavvanot) to suit the changed times. New forms of action are needed. Prior to the advent of the 
Redeemer the inward and the outward were in harmony, and this is why it was possible to effect great 
tikkunim by means of outwardly performing the commandments. Now that the Redeemer has arrived, 
however, the two spheres are in opposition: the inward commandment, which alone can effect a 
tikkun, has become synonymous with the outward transgression. Bittulah shel torah zehu kiyyumah: 
the violation of the Torah is now its true fulfillment. 

More than anything else, it was this insistence of the "radicals" on the potential holiness of sin~a 
belief which they attempted to justify by citing ant of context the talmudic dictum (Nazir 23b) "A 
transgression committed for its own sake is greater than a commandment not committed for its own 
sake" -which alienated and offended the average Jew and caused even the "believers" themselves to 
undergo the severest of conflicts. 

In the history of religion, whenever we come across the doctrine of the holiness of sin it is always in 
conjunction with one or another spiritualistic sect. The type of the pneumatic which I have previously 
discussed, is particularly susceptible to such a teaching and it is hardly necessary to point out the 
connections that exist between the theories of nihilism and those of the more extravagant forms of 
spiritualism. To the pneumatic, the spiritual universe which he inhabits is of an entirely different 
order from the world of ordinary flesh and blood, whose opinion of the new laws he has chosen to 
Uve by is therefore irrelevant; insofar as he is above sin (an idea, common to many sectarian groups, 
which occasionally occurs in the literature of Hasidism as well) he may do as the spirit dictates 
without needing to take into account the moral standards of the society around him. Indeed he is, if 
anything, duty-bound to violate and subvert this "ordinary" moraUty in the name of the higher 
principles that have been revealed to him. 

Although individuals with inclinations in this direction existed in Judaism also, particularly among 
the Kabbalists, up to the time of the Sabbatians their activities were confined entirely to the level of 
pure theory_ The most outstanding example of such speculative or virtual "spiritualism" to be found 
in Kabbalistic literature is the Sefer ha-Temunah ("The Book of the Image"), a mystical treatise 
written in early thirteenth-century Spain, in which it is stated that the Torah consists of a body of 
spiritual letters which, though they remain essentially unchanged, present different appearances to the 

reader in different cosmic aeons (shemitot). In effect, therefore, each aeon, or shemitah, possesses a 
Torah of its own. In the current shemitah, which is ruled by the divine quality of din, stern judgment 
or rigor, the Torah is read in terms of prohibitions and commandments and even its most mystic 
allusions must be interpreted in this light. In the coming aeon, however, which will be that of 
rahamim, divine mercy, the Torah will be read differently, so that in all probability "what is 
prohibited now will be permitted then." Everything depends on the particular aeon and the divine 
quality (or attribute) presiding over it. Sensing the dangers inherent in such a doctrine, certain 
Kabbalists, such as Moses Cordovero, attempted to dismiss it as entirely unworthy of consideration. 
But it was precisely those works that propounded it, such as the Sefer ha-Temunah and the Sefer ha- 
Kanah, which influenced the Sabbatians tremendously. 

To the theory of the cosmic aeons the Sabbatians assimilated a second, originally unrelated concept. 
The Zohar itself does not recognize Of, more exactly, does not utilize the idea of the shemitot at all (a 
fact that was instrumental in making it suspect in the eyes of later Kabbalists), but in two later 
additions to the Zoharic corpus, the Tikkunei ha-Zohar and the Ra'ya Mehemna, a great deal is said 
on the subject of four emanated worlds, the World of atzilut or "Emanation," the World of beriah or 
"Creation," the World of yetzirah or "Formation," and the World of asiyah or "Making," which 
together comprise the different levels of spiritual reality. In connection with these we also 
occasionally hear of a "Torah of atzilut" and a "Torah of beriah," the meanings of which are not 
entirely clear. By the time of the Kabbalists of the School of Safed, however, we find these latter 
terms employed in a definite sense to indicate that there are two aspects of the one essential Torah, i. 
e., the Torah as it is understood in the supernal World of atzilut and the Torah as it is understood in 
the lower World of beriah. What the Sabbatians now did was to seize this idea and expound it in the 
light of the theory of cosmic aeons. The Torah of beriah they argued, borrowing a metaphor from the 
Zohar (I, 23), is the Torah of the unredeemed world of exile, whose purpose it was to serve as a 
garment for the Shekhinah in her exile, so that whoever observed its commandments and prohibitions 
was like one who helped clothe the Shekhinah in her state of distress. The Torah of atzilut, on the 
other hand, is the "true" Torah which, like "the mystery of the Godhead" it makes manifest, has been 
in a state of concealment for the entire period of the exile. Now that the redemption has commenced 
it is about to be revealed, and although in essence it is identical with the Torah of beriah, its way of 
being read will be different, thus, all the commandments and prohibitions of the Torah of beriah will 
now be reinterpreted by the light of the World of atzilut, in which (to take but one example), as is 
stated in several Kabbalistic sources, there is no such thing as forbidden sexual practices. It was in 
this manner that assertions made in a completely different spirit and in terms of a wholly different 
understanding of the concepts "World of atzilut" and "Torah of atzilut" were pressed into service by 
the "radical" Sabbatians as slogans for their new morality." 

The concept of the two Torahs was an extremely important one for Sabbatian nihilism, not least 
because it corresponded so perfectly to the "Marranic" mentality. In accordance with its purely 
mystical nature the Torah of atzilut was to be observed strictly in secret; the Torah of beriah, on the 
other hand, was to be actively and deliberately violated. As to how this was to be done, however, the 
"radicals" could not agree and differing schools of thought evolved among them. It is important to 
keep in mind that we are dealing here with an eruption of the most diverse sorts of emotion. The 
Gordian knot binding the soul of the exilic Jew had been cut and a vertigo that ultimately was to be 
his undoing seized the newly liberated individual: genuine desires for a reconsecration of life mingled 
indiscriminately with all kinds of destructive and libidinal forces tossed up from the depths by an 

irrepressible ground swell that undulated wildly between the earthly and the divine. 

The psychological factors at work were particularly various in regard to the doctrine of the holiness 
of sin, which though restricted at first by some of the "believers" to the performance of certain 
specified acts alone, tended by virtue of its own inner logic to embrace more and more of the Mosaic 
Law, especially the biblical prohibitions. Among the leaders of the Donmeh the antinomian blessing 
composed by Sabbatai Zevi, "Blessed art Thou O Lord our God, King of the universe, who permittest 
the forbidden [mattir isurim]," ** became a byword. { ** A pun on the blessing in the morning 
prayer, "Blessed art Thou O Lord our God, King of the universe, who freest those who are in 
bondage [matter asurim]." [Translator's note.} In fact, two somewhat contradictory rationalizations of 
antinomian behavior existed side by side. On the one hand there were those who said: in the world of 
redemption there can be no such thing as sin, therefore all is holy and everything is permitted. To this 
it was retorted: not at all!' what is needed rather is to totally deny the beriah, "Creation" (a word that 
had by now come to denote every aspect of the old life and its institutions), to trample its values 
underfoot, for only by casting off the last vestiges of these can we truly become free. To state the 
matter in Kabbalistic terms, the one side proposed to withhold the sparks of holiness from the kelipot 
until they perished from lack of nourishment, whereas the other insisted that the kelipot be positively 
filled with holiness until they disintegrated from the pressure. But in either case, and despite the 
many psychological nuances which entered into the "transgression committed for its own sake" and 
the sacred sin, all the "radicals" were united in their belief in the sanctifying power of sin itself "that 
dwelleth with them in the midst of their unc leannesses," as they were fond of interpreting the phrase 
in Leviticus 16:16. 

It would be pointless to deny that the sexual element in this outburst was very strong: a primitive 
abandon such as the Jewish people would scarcely have thought itself capable of after so many 
centuries of discipline in the Law joined hands with perversely pathological drives to seek a common 
ideological rehabilitation. In the light of what happened there is little to wonder at when we read in 
the texts of rabbinical excommunications dating from the eighteenth century that the children of the 
"believers" were to be automatically considered bastards, just as it is perfectly understandable that 
these children and grandchildren themselves should have done everything in their power to obscure 
the history of their descent. One may readily grant, of course, as Zalman Rubashov justly observes in 
his study of the Frankists, that "every sectarian movement is suspected by the church against which it 
rebels of the most infamous misconduct and immorality," a conclusion which has led to the 
hypothesis that such accusations invariably tell us more about the depraved fantasies of the accusers 
than they do about the actual behavior of the accused. 

It is Rubashov's opinion, indeed, that although the conduct of the Frankists was "in itself adequate 
cause for indignation and amazement," there is also "every reason to assume that as a matter of 
course it was greatly exaggerated-" As valid as the general rule may be, however, the plain facts of 
the matter are that in the case of the "radical" Sabbatians there was hardly any need for exaggeration. 
As Nahum Sokolow has pointed out in a note to Kraushar's history of Frankism," no matter how 
thoroughly fantastic and partisan the allegations of the anti-Sabbatians may seem to us, we have not 
the slightest justification for doubting their accuracy, inasmuch as in every case we can rely for 
evidence on the "confessions" of the "believers" themselves, as well as on a number of their apologias 
which have come down to us in both theoretical and homiletical form. 

All this has recently been confirmed by an unexpected discovery. For many years well into the 

present age, in fact the Sabbatians in Salonika, the Donmeh, regularly held a celebration on the 
twenty-second day of the Hebrew month of Adar known as "the Festival of the Lamb," the exact 
nature of which was kept a carefully guarded secret until some of the younger members of the sect 
were finally prevailed upon to reveal it to outsiders. According to their account the festival included 
an orgiastic rite called "the extinguishing of the lights." From what we know of this rite it probably 
came to Salonika from Izmir, for both its name and its contents were evidently borrowed from the 
pagan cult of "the Great Mother" which flourished in antiquity and continued to be practiced after its 
general demise by a small sect of "Light Extinguishers" in Asia Minor under the cover of Islam. 
There can be no question that the Donmeh took over this ancient bacchanalia based on immemorial 
myths and adapted it to conform to their mystical belief in the sacramental value of exchanging 
wives," a custom that was undoubtedly observed by other "radicals." in the movement as well. 

The history of Sabbatian nihilism as a mass movement rather than as the concern of a few isolated 
Jewish scholars who "donned the fez" like Sabbatai Zevi, began in 1683, when several hundred 
Jewish families in Salonika converted to Islam "so as to conquer the kelipah from within." From this 
point on organized Sabbatian nihilism appeared in four main forms: 

1. That of the "believers" who chose "voluntary Marranism" in the form of Islam. The research that 
has been done on the subject of the Donmeh, particularly the studies of Abraham Danon and 
Solomon Rosanes, definitely establishes that the sect was purely Jewish in its internal character, not, 
of course, in the accepted rabbinical sense, but rather in the sense of a mystical heresy. The apostasy 
of the Donmeh aroused violent opposition among the "moderates," for reasons which I have already 
made clear. 

2. That of the "believers" who remained traditional Jews in outward life while inwardly adhering to 
the "Torah of atzilut" Several groups of such individuals existed in the Balkans and Palestine 
(beginning with the arrival there of Hayyim Malakh), and afterwards, in the eighteenth century, in 
Northern and Eastern Europe, where they were concentrated particularly in Podolia and in such 
nearby towns as Buczacz, Busk, Gliniany, Horodenka, Zhlkiew, Zloczow, Tysmenieca, Nadworna, 
Podhaice, Rohatyn and Satanow, but also in other countries, especially Rumania, Hungary, and 

3. That of the Frankists who "Marranized themselves" by converting to Catholicism. 

4. That of the Frankists in Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, and Rumania, who chose to remain Jewish. 

Despite the differences between these groups, all of them were part of a single larger entity. 
Inasmuch as it was believed by all the "radicals' that externals were no indication of true faith, 
apostasy was not a factor to come between them. A Jew in the ghetto of Prague, for example, who 
went on publicly observing the commandments of the "Torah of beriah" while at the same time 
violating them in private, knew perfectly well that the "believer" in Warsaw or Offenbach who had 
recently been baptized "for mystical reasons" was still his brother, just as fifty years earlier 
Sabbatians in Northern Europe had continued to remain in close touch with the Donmeh in Salonika 
even after their conversion to Islam. Essentially, the "radicals" all inhabited the same intellectual 
world, their attitudes toward the Torah, the Messiah, and "the mystery of the Godhead" were 
identical, for all that they assumed new and unusual forms among the Frankists. 


•The systematic violation of tlie Torah of beriah was considered by the "radical" Sabbatians to be the 
principal attestation of the new epoch ushered in by Sabbatai Zevi. But exactly how was one to 
distinguish between what belonged to the lower World of beriah and its Torah, and what belonged to 
the higher World of atzilut and its Torah? Here opinion was divided. Baruchya Russo, better known 
as Berahya or Berochia, the leader of the radical wing of the Donmeh in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, preached to his followers that even the thirty-six transgressions deemed worthy 
by the Torah of the ultimate punishment of karet, i.e., being "cut off" from Israel and from God (a 
category that included all the forbidden sexual practices), were aspects of the Torah of beriah only." 
By the same token it was decreed permissible to eat of the sinew of the thigh- vein, for with the 
advent of the Messiah "Jacob's thigh has been restored." -i~i- 

[++The prohibition against eating the sinew of the thigh-vein is to be found in Genesis 32, which tells 
of Jacob's wrestling with the angel: "Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh- 
vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob's 
thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh- vein" (32:33). [Tf . Note]] 

In the opinion of some, who based their argument on a passage from the Zohar, refraining from the 
sinew of the thigh-vein and fasting on Tish'ah be-Av were mutually connected observances: "As long 
as it is forbidden to eat on Tish'ah be-Av it is forbidden to eat the sinew of the thigh-vein, and when it 
is permitted to eat on Tish'ah be-Av it is permitted to eat the sinew of the thigh-vein:' Others went 
still further: "It is widely known that belonging to these sects are those who believe that [with the 
advent of the Messiah} the Torah has been nullified [betelah] and that in the future it will be [read} 
without [reference to } the commandments, for they say that the violation of the Torah has become its 
fulfillment, which they illustrate by the example of a grain of wheat that rots in the earth." In other 
words, just as a grain of wheat must rot in the earth before it can sprout, so the deeds or the 
"believers" must be truly "rotten" before they can germinate the redemption. This metaphor, which 
appears to have been extremely popular, conveys the whole of sectarian Sabbatian psychology in a 
nutshell: in the period of transition, while the redemption is still in a state of concealment, the Torah 
in its explicit form must be denied, for only thus can it too become "concealed" and ultimately 

There were, however, even more extreme cases than these. Jacob Emden relates how he was told by a 
rabbinical associate of great learning, the Rabbi of the Amsterdam Ashkenazim, that when he was in 
Zhlkiew he became involved with one of these heretics, a man named Fishl Zloczow, who was 
expertly versed in the entire Talmud, which he knew practically by heart, for he was in the habit of 
shutting himself up in his room in order to pore over it, never ceasing from his studies (for he was a 
wealthy man) nor engaging in idle conversation. He would linger over his prayers twice as long as 
the Hasidim of olden times and was considered by all to be a most pious and ascetic individual. Once 
he came to him [i.e., to Emden's informant] in order to confess his sins and revealed that he belonged 
to the sect of Sabbatai Zevi, that he had eaten leavened bread on the Passover, and so forth, carrying 
on contritely all the while as though he had truly repented of his deeds. Soon afterwards, however, he 
was caught in the act of committing grave transgressions of the Law and was excommunicated by the 
rabbis of Lithuania and Volhynia. When asked why he had not continued his hidden sins in private 
instead of [committing acts that led to his exposal] in public he replied that on the contrary, the more 

shame he was forced to suffer for his faith, the better it was. 

•Here we are confronted with the type of the "behever" in its most paradoxical form, and, 
significantly, the individual in question was no ordinary Jew, but was rather conceded to be an 
excellent rabbinic scholar by an eminent authority who was in a position to know. One could hardly 
wish for a more perfect example of the nihilistic rejection of the Torah of beriah, which in this case 
was studied for the sale purpose that it might be better violated in spirit! The Jewish world was 
indeed showing signs of inner decay if types such as these were able to make themselves so easily at 
home in its midst. And yet underneath all these vagaries there was obviously a deep-seated desire for 
something positive which for lack of suitable conditions under which to function had come to nought. 

Illustrative parables and homilies were also brought to bear on the doctrine of the sacred sin itself, 
and the reader cannot fail to notice that they are more than just paradoxical and highly offensive 
sayings. They breathe an entirely new spirit. "The patriarchs came into the world to restore [le- 
takken] the senses and this they did to four of them. Then came Sabbatai Zevi and restored the fifth, 
the sense of touch, which according to Aristotle and Maimonides is a source of shame to us, but 
which now has been raised by him to a place of honor and glory." As late as the beginning of the 
nineteenth century we find a fervent "believer" in Prague commenting in connection with the verse in 
Psalms 68, "Thou hast ascended on high. Thou hast led captivity captive," that the captive in question 
is the spiritual Torah of atzilut, which is called a "prisoner" because it was captured by Moses and 
forced to dwell in the prison cell of the material Torah of beriah: 

•Such is the case with the inner Torah, for the outer is in opposition to the inner. . . and must be 
annihilated before the inner can be freed. And just as a woman from Ishmael [i.e., from a Moslem 
country] feels as though she has been freed from her confinement when she comes to Edam [i.e., a 
Christian country] ... so continuing [to live] in Israel under the Torah of beriah is called captivity, nor 
can she be given in marriage under the Torah of beriah but only in Edam, whereas in Israel one must 
remain a virgin-and [he who is able to, let him] understand. 

•The cryptic Frankist allusions at the end of this passage to Christianity and to "remaining a virgin" 
are rather obscure, but it is evident from the whole how strongly the rejection of the lower, or 
material, Torah of beriah continued to be upheld by Sabbatian Jews right down to the movement's last 
years. Elsewhere the author of the above," a thoughtful and deeply religious individual, explains that 
the commonly expressed belief that "no mischief can befall the righteous man [Provo 12:21] nor can 
he be a cause of sin" must be understood in the light of the Torah of atzilut to mean that no matter 
how sinful the acts of the righteous may appear to others they are in fact always fully justified in 
themselves. He then adduces a number of astute mystical reasons for the necessity of certain 
transgressions, such as eating on the fast days, which he defends by arguing that fasting is a kind of 
spiritual "bribe" given to the kelipot and as such is not in keeping with the pure spiritual nature of the 
Torah of atzilut. 

As to the ultimate step of apostasy, the arguments presented by the "radicals" in its behalf closely 
resemble those brought forward by the "moderates" to vindicate the apostasy of Sabbatai Zevi 
himself. We happen to have in our possession an illuminating document bearing on the disputes that 
arose over this question among the "believers" in the form of a homily by the well-known Sabbatian 
Nehemiah Hayan on the verse (Deut. 29:17), "Lest there be among you man, or woman, or family, or 
tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the Lord our God, to go serve the gods of those nations; 

lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood."" The paradoxical solution 
arrived at by Hayon toward the close of his long discourse, which I quote here in abbreviated form, is 
an invaluable reflection of the perplexity and deep inner conflict experienced by those Sabbatians 
who were unable to choose between the "radical" and "moderate" positions: 

•It is supposed among those versed .in esoteric lore that the redemption can be brought about in either 
one of two ways: either Israel will have the power to withdraw all the sparks of holiness from (the 
realm of] the kelipah so that the kelipah will wither into nothing or else the kelipah will become so 
filled with holiness that because of this repletion it must be spewn forth .... And this [fact), that the 
coming of the redemption can be prompted in one of two ways, was what the rabbis of blessed 
memory had in mind when they said that the Son of David would come either in a generation that 
was entirely guiltless (meaning when Israel by virtue of its good deeds had withdrawn all the sparks 
of holiness from the kelipah), or else: in a generation that was entirely guilty (meaning when the 
kelipah had become so filled with holiness that it split its maw and perished) .... And it is in 
consequence of this thesis that many, though their intentions are good, have mistakenly said, "Let us 
go worship other gods that we may fill the kelipah to bursting that it die:' ... Nay, do not reason with 
yourself."Since it is impossible for all to become guiltless so as to withdraw the holiness from the 
kelipah, it is better that I become a sinner and so hasten the doom of the kelipah in that way that it 
might die and salvation might come;" but rather "Wait for the Lord and keep His way" [Ps. 37:34]: it 
is better that you endure the length of the exile and look to salvation than that you sin by worshipping 
other gods in order to bring on the redemption. This brings us to the meaning of the verse, "Lest there 
be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood [29:17], and it come to pass when he heareth 
the words of this curse [etc.; 29:18]. In other words, when he hears the words of the curse that is 
threatened ... he turns away his heart from God and blesses himself in his heart [29:18], saying: 
"What Moses has written is true" ... but [he thinks that] if he does not turn away his heart from God 
and if his intentions are good, that is, if he means to quench the kelipah by giving it holiness to drink, 
then certainly no evil will befall him, but on the contrary, God will turn the curse iota a blessing. And 
this is the meaning of the words '.'and he blesses himself in his heart," for he says to himself, "I -am 
sure that no harm will befall me ... because I did not turn my heart [from God} ... and because my 
intentions are good ... [namely} to water the kelipah, the thirsty one, with the holiness that I extend to 
her that she may partake of it and die. It is of such a one that Moses said, "The Lord will not be 
willing to pardon him" [29:19]. ... Even though his intentions were good and he only desired to 
hasten the redemption, he cannot be forgiven.... Nor does (the principle of] "A transgression 
committed for its own sake" [is greater than a commandment not committed for its own sake] apply 
here, since there [in its original context] it refers to an ordinary sin, as in the case of Jael [in killing 
Sisera.; Judg. 4}, whereas here, where it is a question of worshiping other gods, the Lord will not be 
willing to pardon him.... They [who act on this mistaken assumption] are powerless to destroy the 
kelipah; on the contrary, he [who attempts to fill the kelipah with holiness] will remain stuck in its 
midst, and this is why it is said that the Lord will not be willing to pardon him.... There is also 
another possible explanation [of the verse}, namely, that when Moses said that the Lord would not be 
willing to pardon him he was not pronouncing a curse ... but was thinking the following: since he [the 
deliberate sinner} believes in his heart that God will not account his actions as sins, but will rather 
reward them ... it is inconceivable that he should ever repent for he does not believe he has done 
wrong ... How then can the Holy One, blessed be He, forgive him? On the contrary, each time [he 
sins} he only angers Him the more... by thinking that he has done good instead of evil ... and by 
saying that the greater a sinner he is the more he hastens the coming of the redemption. Such a one 

undoubtedly incurs the full power of the curse, since he deliberately violates all its injunctions ... 
"And the Lord shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel" [29:20]. .. But perhaps one 
can interpret the meaning of the text as follows: since such a person intends his deeds to redound to 
the benefit of all Israel ... if after sinning and passing through the kelipah he reconsiders and repents 
completely, he undoubtedly succeeds in raising up many sparks from the kelipah, just as in the case 
of the human body when one is administered an emetic he does not simply vomit up the drug itself, 
but rather haying opened his mouth proceeds to spew forth both the drug and everything that was 
near it. And so it is with the kelipah: sometimes it gains power over man whose soul is great and does 
him harm, but as soon as he repents he spews forth all that was within him. And this is what Solomon 
meant when he said (Ecel. 8:9] there is a time when one man rules another to do him harm.39 [But 
since] There is a time [for such things } and miracles do not happen every hour, therefore Moses 
warns that one should not place himself in this peril ... "And the Lord shall separate him unto evil"; in 
other words, if he [the deliberate sinner] has been a cause of evil he is singled out [for judgment] 
from the tribes of Israel, for [it is a halakhic principle that] one cannot commit a transgression for 
another by proxy even if one has been authorized to do so, much less if one has not been, so that 
having gone [and committed evil} of his own accord, there is no doubt that the evil which results 
[from his actions} will not be imputed to Israel as a whole- But if he does good-that is, if he repents 
wholeheartedly and raises up sparks from Israel by virtue of his repentance-then all the tribes of 
Israel have a part in this good; it is only in the evil that they do not have a part. 

Likely as not, this entire passage has an autobiographical basis. In any event, it is clear that the 
attitude of its author toward the "voluntary Marranos" whose conversion he decries yet understands 
so well is far from being hostile or vindictive. 

One of the strongest factors in the development of a nihilistic mentality among the "radicals" was 
their desire to negate an objective historical order in which the exile continued in full force and the 
beginnings of the redemption went unnoticed by all but the "believers" themselves. Understandably, 
during the period now in question this antipathy toward outward reality remained confined to the area 
of religion alone, the world of ghetto Jewry still being sufficiently stable to preclude its active 
politicalization. Prior to the French Revolution, indeed, there was no connection between the ideas or 
Sabbatianism and the growing undercurrent of discontent with the ancien rgime in Europe. It was 
only when changing times had widened the "believers'" horizons and revealed to them the existence 
of more tangible ways affecting the course of history than the violation of the Torah of beriah that 
they too began to dream of revolutionizing the structure of society itself. In a sense this was to mean 
the restoration to Jewish Messianism of its traditional political content, which, as I have shown, the 
Sabbatian movement transformed beyond recognition. As long as external conditions were not 
conducive to this, even the "radicals" remained politically unaware, nor were they able to conceive of 
any other method of revitalizing Jewish life than the subversion of its most sacred values; but it is not 
surprising that once the opportune moment arose the essentially this worldly emphasis of Jewish 
Messianism which Sabbatianism had striven to suppress should have come to be stressed again. I 
shall have more to say on this important subject; first, however, I would like to comment on a related 
matter, one which will serve as yet another example of the uniquely paradoxical dialectic of 
Sabbatian thought: its attitude toward Palestine. 

Immediately after the collapse of the initial Messianic expectations aroused by Sabbatai Zevi, 
scattered groups of Sabbatians began to express their opposition to the idea of emigration to the Holy 
Land. As has now been established, Nathan of Gaza himself was of the opinion that "for the time 

being it is best not to go to the Land of Israel." But this point of view did not go unchallenged. A 
number of "believers," especially after 1700, attempted to demonstrate by mystical reasons that in the 
light of Sabbatian doctrine emigration was indeed desirable after all. Individuals from both the circle 
of Abraham Rovigo and the whole band of "Hasidim" centered around Rabbi Judah Hasid actually 
settled in Palestine as a result of specifically Sabbatian aspirations. One belief that was current at the 
time was that on the occasion of Sabbatai Zevi's second advent, which would take place forty years 
after his "concealment," a true mystical knowledge of his nature would be revealed to those of his 
followers, and only to those, who were living in the Holy Land. Sabbatian nihilists like Hayyim 
Malakh, who were contemporaries of such groups, also were in favor of going to the Land of Israel, 
from which they too undoubtedly expected special revelations to come; in addition, they may have 
felt that there was an advantage to violating the Torah of beriah on the most consecrated ground of 
all, on the analogy of "conquering the queen in her own home." As late as the middle of the 
eighteenth century Sabbatian nihilists in Podolia still had contacts and acquaintances in Palestine, 
while a number of the emissaries sent by the Palestinian Jewish community to raise funds in the 
Diaspora were Sabbatian scholars who acted on the side both as secret propagators of the faith and as 
contacts between "believers" in different localities. Many of these, such as the author of The Book of 
the Adornment of Days, a beautiful and detailed description (in Hebrew) of the life of a Kabbalist 
devotee all through the year, were undoubtedly "moderates," but regarding many others we will 
probably never know exactly where they stood. Toward the middle of the eighteenth century, 
however, a reaction took place, so that we find a distinct anti-Palestinian bias setting in throughout 
the movement. Whether or not the anti-Palestinian sermon cited by Jacob Emden in his Edut ben- 
Ya'akov ( 44b) is really the handiwork of Jonathan Eibeschtz is uncertain, but in any case there 
can be no question of its being a total fabrication, inasmuch as similar ideas to those expressed in it 
can be found in other Sabbatian documents which Emden could not possibly have seen.4' Among the 
Frankists an astonishing and clear-cut ideology of Jewish territorialism (as distinct from Palestine 
centered tendencies) developed at about this time, apparently as a result of Frank's own personal 
ambitions. In a word, on the very eve of its absorption of new political ideas Sabbatian nihilism 
completely reversed its previously positive evaluation of the role of the Land of Israel, so that when 
shortly afterward it began to speak the language of a revived political Messianism and to prophesy 
the rebirth of the Jewish nation as one outcome of an impending world revolution, there was no 
longer any real interest on its part in the idea of the land of Israel as a national center. As stated by the 
Frankist writer in Prague whom we have already had occasion to quote, Israel's exile is not a 
consequence of its sins at all, but is rather part of a plan designed to bring about the destruction of the 
kelipot all over the world, so that "even if several thousands or tens-of-thousands or Jews are enabled 
to return to the Land of Israel, nothing has been completed." According to the same author this new 
doctrine of the exile is "a secret mystical principle which was hidden from all the sages until it was 
[recently] revealed in Poland." And thus we see how in the final stages of Sabbatianism the intrinsic 
nature of the exile came to be reconsidered in an entirely new light. 

The figure of Sabbatai Zevi himself was also recast by the passage of time, becoming entirely 
mythical: gradually the element of historical truth was diminished until nothing was left but a 
legendary hero who had inaugurated a new epoch of world history. Even in Sabbatai Zevi's lifetime 
one of his first disciples, Abraham Yakhini, could write of him (in his book Vavei ha-Amudim) "Just 
as one of the seventy faces of the Torah is concerned entirely with the resurrection of the dead, as is 
to be seen in [the commentaries of] the Zohar on several chapters [of the Pentateuch], [the allusions 
to the resurrection in] the other chapters being inaccessible to us because of the limitations of our 

intellects, so one of the seventy faces of the Torah is concerned entirely with the Messiah, our lord 
and master, may his majesty increase, and shortly, when he reveals himself to us [completely], we 
shall be privileged to understand the entire Torah in this way." it is little wonder that the concrete 
historical figure of Sabbatai Zevi came to be transformed by his followers in much the same manner 
as Jesus' was by his, if not more so, since his conversion into a mythological figure was even more 
complete. Like the early Christians, in fact, the "radicals" eventually came to believe that the Messiah 
had not been a mere superior human being, but an incarnation of God Himself in human form. This 
new interpretation of "the mystery of the Godhead" was accepted by all the "radical" groups down to 
the last of the Frankists and was considered by them to be the most profound mystic truth in their 
entire body of doctrine. Whence it came cannot yet be determined: perhaps from the collective 
memory of thousands of Marranos, perhaps from Christian books or anti-Christian polemics, or 
perhaps from the "believers' " own inner conflict, the paradoxical cause of which an apostate Messiah- 
may have led them to adopt the same paradoxical solution that a like contradiction-a crucified 
Messiah produced in yet another group of Jews caught in the toils of religious turmoil. And perhaps, 
too, all of these factors combined to work together. 

The doctrine of an incarnate God, which immediately became a bone of contention between the 
"radicals" and the "moderates" in the Sabbatian camp, was limited at first to the figure of Sabbatai 
Zevi himself. According to one view I when the redemption began, "the Holy One, blessed be He, 
removed Himself upward and Sabbatai Zevi ascended to be God in His place." Since in the Sabbatian 
faith "the Holy One, blessed be He" was synonymous, as we have seen, with "the God of Israel," this 
meant that Sabbatai Zevi had now assumed the latter's title and become "the Holy King." Before 
long, however, the "believers" in Salonika replaced this teaching with another: "the Holy King" had 
Himself been incarnated in the person of the Messiah in order to restore the world and nullify the 
Torah of beriah. It was in this form that the doctrine was accepted by the Sabbatian nihilists in 
Podolia. A prayer of theirs that has come into our possession reads, "May it be Thy will that we 
prosper in Thy Torah and cling to Thy commandments, and mayst Thou purify my thoughts to 
worship Thee in truth . . . and may all our deeds in the Torah of atzilut [meaning: transgressions!] be 
only for the sake of Thy great name, O Senor Santo," that we may recognize Thy greatness, for Thou 
art the true God and King of the universe, our living Messiah who wast in this earthly world and didst 
nulUfy the Torah of beriah and didst reascend to Thy place to conduct all the worlds." 

But this doctrine of a single .incarnation did not long remain unaltered in turn. Apparently among the 
Sephardic converts to Islam the belief developed that the leaders of the "believers" in every age were 
reincarnations of Sabbatai Zevi. Whether this actually meant that these leaders-particularly Baruchya, 
who was one of the foremost promulgators of the new belief were thought to be, or considered 
themselves, divine incarnations no less than the Messiah himself is not entirely clear, but there are 
good reasons for believing that the gospel preached by Jacob Frank at the beginning of his career was 
nothing but this Sephardic teaching with a number of modifications to suit his own personality, and 
Frank himself, though he never said so in so many words, was correctly understood by his disciples 
to imply that he personally was the living God once again incarnated on earth. Not without a certain 
"consistency" the Frankists held that each of the three hypostases of the Godhead had its individual 
incarnation in a separate Messiah: Sabbatai Zevi, whom Frank was in the habit of referring to simply 
as "The First One," had been the embodiment of "the Ancient Holy One," Frank himself was the 
personification of "the Holy King," and the third hypostasis, the Shekhinah, variously known in the 
writings of the Kabbalah as "the Kingdom" (malkhut), "the Lady" (matronita), "the Maiden" and "the 

Doe," was to appear in the form of a woman. It is hard not to associate this last novelty-a female 
Messiah, referred to by Frank as "the Virgin," who was yet to be revealed and whose task it would be 
to complete the work of the redemption with the influence of certain mystical Christian sects 
prevalent at about this time in Eastern Europe that believed in a triad of saviors corresponding to the 
threefold nature of God and in a feminine incarnation of the Sophia, the Divine Wisdom Of Holy 
Spirit. With one of these groups, in fact, the "Philipovicites" in Rumania and the Ukraine, the 
Frankists were in such close contact that one of its former leaders publicly defended them before the 
Catholic authorities of Poland. 

Interpreted in this manner the redemption was a process filled with incarnations of the divinity. Even 
the "radicals" in Prague who clung to their Jewish identity and strove to defend their beliefs by means 
of Jewish concepts and sources were won over to this view, and although their hostility to 
Christianity as an institution knew no bounds, references to "the mystery of the incarnation" can be 
found throughout their literature. The anti-Sabbatian polemicists who accused the "believers" of 
corporealizing the idea of God were perfectly right in their assertions, but this fact, which seemed to 
them a damning admission of weakness, was in reality their opponents' greatest source of pride I 
"Because the Godhead has a body the sting of death is gone," wrote one "believer." On the surface it 
would seem that the exaggerated spirituality of the World of atzilut and the yearning to see God in 
the flesh that was evidenced by the doctrine of a Messianic incarnation were two mutually opposed 
tendencies, and yet, after all that has been said here, it should not be difficult to see that underlying 
both was the struggle of a new sensibility toward life to express itself by means of a religious 
vocabulary inherited from the old. In such cases the paradox is always the only solution. 

In summary, the five distinguishing beliefs of "radical" Sabbatianism are: 

1. The belief in the necessary apostasy of the Messiah and in the sacramental nature of the descent 
into the realm of the kelipot. 

2. The belief that the "believer" must not appear to be as he really is. 

3. The belief that the Torah of atzilut must be observed through the violation of the Torah of beriah. 

4. The belief that the First Cause and the God of Israel are not the same, the former being the God of 
rational philosophy, the latter the God of religion. 

5. The belief in three hypostases of the Godhead, all of which have been or will be incarnated in 
human form. 

These theses amply demonstrate, in my opinion, that in the onward course of the Sabbatian 
movement the world of traditional Judaism was shattered beyond repair. In the minds of those who 
took part in this revolutionary destruction of old values a special susceptibility to new ideas 
inevitably came to exist. Well might the "believers" have asked how long their newly released 
energies and emotions were to go on being aimlessly squandered. Were their lives required to be 
dominated by paradoxes forever? 

But just as the character of the Sabbatian movement was dictated by the circumstances of the 
movement's birth, so, in turn, it was to dictate the circumstances of the movement's disintegration and 
death. For as the "believers" had meant to fire the sparks of holiness with the kelipot, so they were to 

wander in the blackest side," ttie dark side of life, so they were to dance in the devil's own arms. And 
last and most ironically of all: as they had hastened to come to the aid of the Redeemer-"to do as he 
did for strange are his deeds, to worship as he worships for his worship is alien" (Isa. 28:21 )~so they 
were to be induced in the end to play into the hands of a man like Jacob Frank. 


•Jacob Frank (1726-91) will always be remembered as one of the most frightening phenomena in the 
whole of Jewish history: a religious leader who, whether for purely self-interested motives or 
otherwise, was in all his actions a truly corrupt and degenerate individual. Indeed, it might be 
plausibly argued that in order to completely exhaust its seemingly endless potential for the 
contradictory and the unexpected the Sabbatian movement was in need of just such a strongman, a 
man who could snuff out its last inner lights and pervert whatever will to truth and goodness was still 
to be found in the maze-like ruins of the "believers" souls. Even if one is willing to concede that the 
doctrine of the sacred sin, the mitzvah ha-ba' ah ba-averah, was not lacking in certain insights, there 
can be no question but that these were thoroughly debased upon coming in contact with the person of 
Frank. But just as the "believers" had deliberately chosen to follow that dangerous path along which 
nothing is impossible, so it was perhaps precisely this that attracted them to Frank, for here was a 
man who was not afraid to push on to the very end, to take the final step into the abyss, to drain the 
cup of desolation and destruction to the lees until the last bit of holiness had been made into a 
mockery. His admirers, who themselves fell far short of him in respect of this ability, were won over 
by his intrepidness, which neither the fear of God nor the terrors of the bottomless pit were able to 
daunt, and saw in him the type of the true saint, a new Sabbatai Zevi and an incarnate God. 

If the full truth be told, however, even after one has taken into account Frank's unscrupulous 
opportunism, his calculated deceits, and his personal ambitions, none of which really concerns us 
here, he remains a figure of tremendous if satanic power. True, neither the promises and pledges with 
which he allured his disciples, nor his visionary schemes for the future that was to follow the general 
cataclysm of the times seem particularly impressive today, although of his territorialist program it 
may at least be said that besides revealing his own lust for power it expressed in a bizarre yet 
unmistakable manner the desire of his followers for a reconstruction of Jewish national and even 
economic existence; and yet for all the negativism of his teachings, they nonetheless contained a 
genuine creed of life. 

Frank was a nihilist and his nihilism possessed a rare authenticity. Certainly, its primitive ferocity is 
frightening to behold. Certainly too, Frank himself was not only an unlettered man, but boasted 
continually of his own lack of culture. But in spite of all this, and here is the significant point, we are 
confronted in his person with the extraordinary spectacle of a powerful and tyrannical soul living in 
the middle of the eighteenth century and yet immersed entirely in a mythological world of its own 
making. Out of the ideas of Sabbatianism, a movement in which he was apparently raised and 
educated, Frank was able to weave a complete myth of religious nihilism. This, surely, is worthy of 

Frank was not an original speculative thinker, but he did have a decided talent for the pithy, the 
strikingly illustrative, and the concretely symbolic expression. Despite their nihilistic content his 
sayings in The Sayings of the Lord (Slowa Panskie) are not very different in form from those of 
many famous Hasidic Zaddikim, and for all his despotic nature he possessed a hidden poetic impulse 

which appears all the more surprising in the light of his customary savagery. Even Kraushar, who like 
his predecessors, was intent on emphasizing everything that seemed incoherent or grotesque in 
Frank's recorded sayings, was forced to admit that on occasion they show vigor and imagination. For 
my own part, I fail to see how any sensitive individual who reads the many excerpts published by 
Kraushar from The Sayings of the Lord with a degree of understanding-something which it is far 
from impossible to do~can contemplate them without emotion. But how many have even troubled to 
make the effort? 

Frank was particularly gifted at the creation of new images and symbols, and in spite of its popular 
coloration his language is full of mystical overtones. Of the terminology of the Kabbalah he rarely 
made use, at times even criticizing the Sabbatian sectarians in Podolia for their continuing absorption 
in Kabbalistic ideas which he called "madness." Anyone familiar with "radical" Sabbatian thought, 
however, can readily detect its continued presence beneath the new verbal facade. Thus, in place of 
the familiar Sabbatian "three knots of the faith" we now have "the Good God," "the Big Brother who 
stands before the Lord," and "the Virgin," terms which are highly suggestive for all their earthy 
quality. The kelipah, the Torahs of beriah and atzilut, the sparks of holiness, indeed all the conceptual 
usages that are basic to Sabbatian theological discourse, have disappeared entirely, to be replaced by 
a completely exoteric vocabulary. Even the figure of Sabbatai Zevi has greatly declined in 
importance. The world of Sabbatianism itself, on the other hand, remains intact, or rather, has 
reached that ultimate stage of its development where it verges on self-annihilation. 

In the following pages I will attempt to present an overall view of Frank's rehgious teachings, to the 
extent, that is, that they can be fully reconstructed from his many sayings, and in a form that they 
apparently did not completely attain until after his conversion to CathoHcism. Although they will 
occasionally seem to contradict one another, they are for the most part mutually consistent. The 
somberness of their world or, more accurately, world ruin, did not in fact encourage a great deal of 
variety, although this did not prevent the "believers," including even the traditionahsts among them in 
Prague, from finding a dark fascination in its tidings, which Frank himself brutally summed up in a 
single brusk remark: "It is one thing to worship God and quite another to follow the path that I have 

According to Frank, the "cosmos" (tevel), or "earthly world" (tevel ha- gashmi) as it was called by the 
sectarians in Salonika, is not the creation of the Good or Living God, for if it were it would be eternal 
and man would be immortal, whereas as we see from the presence of death in the world this is not at 
all the case" To be sure, there are "worlds" which belong to "the Good God" too, but these are hidden 
from all but the "behevers." In them are divine powers, one of whom is "the King of Kings," who is 
also known as "the Big Brother" and "He who stands before the Lord." The evil power that created 
the cosmos and introduced death into the world, on the other hand, is connected with the feminine, 
and is most probably composed of three "gods" or "Rulers of the World," one of whom is the Angel 
of Death. In any case, it is these "Rulers," all of whom have been incarnated on earth in human form, 
who block the path leading to "the Good God," who is unknown to men, for mystic knowledge of 
Him has as yet been revealed to no one, nor has the holy soul (nishmata) that emanates from Him 
been in any creature, not even in Sabbatai Zevi.58In the current aeon there are three "Rulers of the 
World": "Life," "Wealth," and "Death," the last of which must be replaced by "Wisdom" a task, 
however, that is not easily accompHshed, for although "Wisdom" is in some mysterious manner 
connected to "the Good God," the latter is still not able to reveal Himself to mankind, "for the world 
is in the thrall of laws that are no good." 

Hence, it is necessary to cast off the domination of these laws, which are laws of death and harmful to 
mankind. To bring this about, the Good God has sent messengers such as the patriarchs "who dug 
wells," Moses, Jesus, and others, into the world. Moses pointed out the true way, but it was found to 
be too difficult, whereupon he resorted to "another religion" and presented men with "the Law of 
Moses)" whose commandments are injurious and useless. "The Law of the Lord." on the other hand- 
the spiritual Torah of the Sabbatians-"is perfect" (Ps. 19:8), only no man has yet been able to attain 
it'2 Finally, the Good God sent Sabbatai Zevi into the world, but he too was powerless to achieve 
anything," because he was unable to find the true way" "But my desire is to lead you towards Life." 
Nevertheless, the way to Life is not easy, for it is the way of nihilism and it means to free oneself of 
all laws, conventions, and religions, to adopt every conceivable attitude and to reject it, and to follow 
one's leader step for step into the abyss'6 Baptism is a necessity, as Frank said prior to his conversion, 
"because Christianity has paved the way for us." Thirty years afterwards this same "Christian" 
observed: "This much I tell you: Christ, as you know, said that he had come to redeem the world from 
the hands of the devil, but I have come to redeem it from all the laws and customs that have ever 
existed. It is my task to annihilate all this so that the Good God can reveal Himself." 

The annihilation of every religion and positive system of belief— this was the "true way" the 
"believers" were expected to follow. Concerning the redemptive powers of havoc and destruction 
Frank's imagination knew no limits. "Wherever Adam trod a city was built, but wherever I set foot all 
will be destroyed, for I came into this world only to destroy and to annihilate. But what I build, will 
last forever." Mankind is engaged in a war without quarter with the "no good" laws that are in 
power- "and I say to you, all who would be warriors must be without religion, which means that they 
must reach freedom under their own power and seize hold of the Tree of Life." . No region of the 
human soul can remain untouched by this struggle. In order to ascend one must first descend. "No 
man can climb a mountain until he has first descended to its foot. Therefore we must descend and be 
cast down to the bottom rung, for only then can we climb to the infinite. This is the mystic principle 
of Jacob's Ladder, which I have seen and which is shaped like a V." Again, "I did not come into this 
world to lift you up but rather to cast you down to the bottom of the abyss. Further than this it is 
impossible to descend, nor can one ascend again by virtue of one's own strength, for only the Lord 
can raise one up from the depths by the power of His hand." The descent into the abyss requires not 
only the rejection of all religions and conventions, but also the commission of "strange acts," and this 
in turn demands the voluntary abasement of one's own sense of self, so that libertinism and the 
achievement of that state of utter shamelessness which leads to a tikkun of the soul are one and the 
same thing. 

"We are all now under the obligation to enter the abyss" in which all laws and religions are 
annihilated." But the way is perilous, for there are powers and "gods" —these being none other than 
the three "Rulers of the World"— that do not let one pass. It is necessary to elude them and continue 
onward, and this none of the ancients were able to do, neither Solomon nor Jesus, nor even Sabbatai 
Zevi. To accomplish this, that is, to overcome the opposing powers, which are the gods of other 
religions, it is imperative that one be "perfectly silent," even deceitful. This is the mystic principle of 
"the burden of silence" (masa' dumah; Isa. 21:11), i.e., of maintaining the great reserve that is 
becoming to the "believer" (a new version of the original Sabbatian injunction against appearing as 
one really is!). Indeed, this is the principle of the "true way" itself: 

"Just as a man who wishes to conquer a fortress does not do it by means of making a speech, but 

must go there himself with all his forces, so we too must go our way in silence." "It is better to see 
than to speak, for the heart must not reveal what it knows to the mouth," "Here there is no need for 
scholars because here belongs the burden of silence." "When I was baptized in Lvov I said to you: so 
far, so good! But from here on: a burden of silence! Muzzle your mouths!" "Our forefathers were 
always talking, only what good did it do them and what did they accomplish? But we are under the 
burden of silence: here we must be quiet and bear what is needful, and that is why it is a burden." 
"When a man goes from one place to another he should hold his tongue. It is the same as with a man 
drawing a bow: the longer he can hold his breath, the further the arrow will fly. And so here too: the 
longer one holds his breath and keeps silent, the further the arrow will fly." 

From the abyss, if only the "burden of silence" is borne, "holy knowledge" will emerge. The task, 
then, is "to acquire knowledge," "and the passageway to knowledge is to combine with the nations" 
but not, of course, to intermingle with them. He who reaches the destination will lead a life of 
anarchic liberty as a free man. "The place that we are going to tolerates no laws, for all that comes 
from the side of Death, whereas we are bound for Life." The name of this place is "Edom" or "Esau," 
and the way to it, which must be followed by the light of "knowledge" (gnosis) and under the "burden 
of silence" through the depths of the abyss, is called "the way to Esau:' This was the road taken by 
Jacob the patriarch, "the first Jacob," all of whose deeds prefigured those of "the last Jacob"-Jacob 
Frank."Esau" too was foreshadowed by the Esau of the Bible, though only in a veiled way: "Esau the 
son of Jacob was but the curtain that hangs before the entrance to the king's inner chambers." Herein 
lies the mystical principle of the wells dug by the patriarchs, as well as the mystic content of the story 
(Gen. 29) of how Jacob came to a well that had already been dug, rolled the stone from its mouth, and 
encountered Rachel and her father Laban. Another who found the passage to "Esau" was the sorcerer 
Balaam." "Esau" belongs to the realm of the Good God where the power of death is made nought, 
and it is also the dwelling place of "the Virgin," she who is called Rachel in the biblical stories about 
Jacob and is elsewhere known as "the beautiful maiden who has no eyes." She it is who is the real 
Messiah (who cannot, contrary to traditional opinion, be a man) and to her "all the king's weapons are 
surrendered," for she is also the much sought-after "Divine Wisdom" or Sophia who is destined to 
take "Death's" place as one of the three "Rulers of the World." For the present, however, she is 
hidden in a castle and kept from the sight of all living creatures; all the "strange acts," in comparison 
with which the "strange fire" offered before the Lord by Aaron's two sons (Lev. 10) was but a trifle, 
are committed for the sale purpose of reaching her. Again, she is the "holy serpent" who guard the 
garden, and he who asked what the serpent was doing in Paradise was simply betraying his 
ignorance. As of yet, the place of "Esau," the home of "the Virgin" and or true salvation, has not been 
attained by anyone, but its hidden light will first be revealed to the "believers," who will have the 
distinction of being its soldiers and fighting on its behalf. 

These are some of the main features of Frank's teaching. It is a veritable myth of religious nihilism, 
the work of a man who did not live at all in the world of rational argument and discussion, but 
inhabited a realm entirely made up of mythological entities. Indeed, to anyone familiar with the 
history of religion it might seem far more likely that he was dealing here with an antinomian myth 
from the second century composed by such nihilistic Gnostics as Carpocrates and his followers than 
that all this was actually taught and believed by Polish Jews living on the eve of the French 
Revolution, among whom neither the "master" nor his "disciples" had the sHghtest inkling that they 
were engaged in resuscitating an ancient tradition! Not only the general train of thought, but even 
some of the symbols and terms are the same! And yet, none of this seems as surprising as it may 

appear to be at first glance when we reflect that no less than the Frankists, the Gnostics of antiquity 
developed their thought within a biblical framework, for all that they completely inverted the biblical 
values. They too believed that Esau and Balaam were worshipers of "the Good God." they too 
converted the serpent in the Garden of Eden into a symbol of gnosis, salvation, and the true "Divine 
Wisdom" that guided men to freedom from the evil rule of the Demiurge by teaching them to disobey 
his laws and institutions, and they too held that the Law of the good and "alien" God, which enjoined 
the commission of "strange acts," was directly opposed to the Law of Moses, which was largely the 
promulgation of the irascible Creator. 

Frank's ultimate vision of the future was based upon the still unrevealed laws of the Torah of atzilut 
which he promised his disciples would take effect once they had "come to Esau," that is, when the 
passage through the "abyss" with its unmitigated destruction and negation was finally accomplished. 
In seeking to elucidate this gospel of libertinism I can do no better than to quote a passage from the 
excellent book on Gnosticism by the philosopher Hans Jonas in which he discusses the development 
of a libertinist ethic among the nihilistically minded pneumatics of the second century: 

The spiritualist morality of these pneumatics possessed a revolutionary character that did not stop 
short of actively implementing its beliefs. In this doctrine of immoralism we are confronted both with 
a total and overt rejection of all traditional norms of behavior, and with an exaggerated feeling of 
freedom that regards the license to do as it pleases as a proof of its own authenticity and as, a favor 
bestowed upon it from above .... The entire doctrine rests on the concept of an "extra spirit" as a 
privilege conferred upon a new type of human being who from here on is no longer to be subject to 
the standards and obligations that have hitherto always been the rule. Unlike the ordinary, purely 
"psychic" individual, the pneumatic is a free man, free from the demands of the Law and, inasmuch 
as it implies a positive realization of this freedom, his uninhibited behavior is far from being a purely 
negative reaction. Such moral nihilism fully reveals the crisis of a world in transition: by arbitrarily 
asserting its own complete freedom and pluming itself on its abandonment to the sacredness of sin, 
the self seeks to fill the vacuum created by the "interregnum" between two different and opposing 
periods of law. Especially characteristic of this over-all mood of anarchy are its hostility towards all 
established conventions, its need to define itself in terms that are clearly exclusive of the great 
majority of the human race, and its desire to flout the authority of the "divine" powers, that is, of the 
World-rulers who are the custodians of the old standards of morality. Over and above the rejection of 
the past for its own sake, therefore, we are faced here with an additional motive, namely, the desire to 
heap insult on its guardians and to revolt openly against them. Here we have revolution without the 
slightest speculative dissemblance and this is why the gospel of libertinism stands at the center of the 
gnostic revolution in rehgious thought. No doubt, too, there was in addition to all this an element of 
pure "daredeviltry" which the Gnostic could proudly point to as an indication of his reliance on his 
own "spiritual" nature. Indeed, in all periods of revolution human beings have been fond of the 
intoxicating power of big words. 

All of this is fully applicable to both "radical" Sabbatianism in general and to the Frankist movement 
in particular; the mentality that Jonas describes could not possibly, indeed, assume a more radical 
form than Frank's nihilistic myth. It goes without saying, of course, that in a given age myth and 
reality do not always coincide, and in the case of the Frankists the former was undoubtedly the 
extremer of the two, even if Frank himself was not far from living up to it in actual practice, as 
emerged from the manuscript of The Chronicles of the Life of the Lord which one of the Frankist 
families permitted Kraushar to use and which afterwards vanished. But in any event the significant 

point is tlie fact tliat tlie myth should have been born at all and that a considerable number of ghetto 
Jews should have come to regard it as a way to "political and spiritual liberation," to quote the words 
used by the educated Frankist Gabriel Porges in Prague to describe the movement's aims to his son 
after Frank himself was no longer alive. Clearly, for the Jew who saw in Frankism the solution to his 
personal problems and queries, the world of Judaism had been utterly dashed to pieces, although he 
himself may not have traveled the "true way" at all, may even, in fad, have continued to remain 
outwardly the most orthodox of observers. 


•We will apparently never know with any certainty why most of the Sabbatians in Podolia followed 
Frank's lead and became Catholics while their counterparts in Western Europe, who for the most part 
also regarded Frank as their spiritual leader, chose to remain Jews. Our knowledge in this area, which 
is of such crucial importance to an understanding of Jewish history in the countries in question, is 
practically nil and we must content ourselves with mere speculation. Possibly the decisive factor was 
the differing social structures of the two groups. The majority of the Sabbatians in Podolia were 
members of the lower class and few (which is not to say none at all) of those who converted were 
educated individuals. The Sabbatians in Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, on the other 
hand, were largely from a more wealthy background and many of them were men of considerable 
rabbinical learning. As is frequently the case with religious sects, Sabbatianism was transmitted by 
entire families and not just by isolated individuals. Even today records exist to prove that a number of 
families, some of them quite prominent, which were known for their Sabbatian allegiances about 
1740, were still clinging to "the holy faith" over sixty years later! For such groups traditional Judaism 
had become a permanent outer cloak for their true beliefs, although there were undoubtedly different 
viewpoints among them as to the exact nature of the relationship. Not all were followers of Frank, 
albeit the Frankists in Prague were spiritually the strongest among them and were extremely active in 
disseminating their views. Most probably those Sabbatians who had once been disciples of Rabbi 
Jonathan Eibeschtz were also to be found in this category. In any case, the fact remains that among 
these groups the number of conversions was very small. Many of their adherents may have desired to 
reach "the holy gnosis of Edom," but few were willing to pass through the gates of Christianity in 
order to do so. 

On the whole, however, in the years following Frank's death the various Sabbatian groups still in 
existence continued to develop along more or less parallel lines. Four principal documents bearing on 
this final phase of Sabbatianism have come down to us: The Book of the Prophecy of Isaiah written 
by an apostate "believer" in Offenbach; a long sermon on the alenu prayer published by Wessely 
from a lengthy Frankist manuscript; several Frankist epistles as presented in substance by Peter Beer; 
and a commentary on the book En Ya' akov that came into the possession of Dr. H. Brody, when he 
was Chief Rabbi of Prague. All of these sources share the same world, differing only in that the first 
speaks in praise of baptism and heaps "prophetic" imprecations on the Jewish people, its rabbis and 
officials, whereas the others, written by Jews, preserve silence on these topics. Also found in the 
volume containing the commentary on the En Ya' akov was a Frankist commentary on the hallel 
prayer, the joyous faith and emotion of which are genuinely moving. The man who wrote these few 
pages was a pure and immaculate spirit and his jubilant profession of "the redemption and 
deliverance of his soul" is obviously deeply felt. Like most of the Sabbatians in the West, he may 
never have met Frank face to face, but on the other hand, the author of The Prophecy of Isaiah, who 

did, also believed him to be the incarnation of the Living God, "the true Jacob who never dies," and 
clung to this feeling of salvation throughout his life. 

In all of these documents the Frankist myth has lost much of its radical wildness. Most of its 
component parts are still recognizable in the form of "profound mysteries" that are to be revealed 
only to the prudent, but these too have undergone considerable modification. In many places, for 
instance, Frank's insistence that the "believers" were literally to become soldiers is so completely 
allegorized that it loses both its logic and its paradoxicality. The most striking change, however, is 
that while the doctrine of "strange acts" remains, and continues to be associated with the appearance 
of "the Virgin" or "the Lady," there is no longer the slightest reference to any ethic of libertinism. 
Here radicalism has retraced its steps and returned from the moral sphere to the historical. Even if we 
suppose that the authors of these documents were careful not to reveal themselves entirely in their 
writings—an assumption that many of their cryptic allusions would indeed seem to bear out-it is 
nonetheless apparent that libertine behavior is no longer considered by them to be a binding religious 
obligation. Instead there is an increased effort to understand the "strange acts" of the religious heroes 
of the past, particularly of the characters in the Bible, a book which the "believers" no less than the 
orthodox regarded as the ultimate authority; here too, however, the emphasis falls on vindicating such 
cases in theory rather than on imitating them in practice. In Offenbach, it is true, certain scandalous 
acts continued to be performed on no less than the Day of Atonement itself, but this had degenerated 
into a mere semblance, whereas "in good faith" among themselves the "believers" were no longer in 
the habit of carrying on such practices. As for the mystic principle of the "conjugation" of masculine 
and feminine elements in the divine worlds that had played so large a role in the unorthodox 
Kabbalistic theories of the nihilists and the "radicals," this too, to judge by the sources in our 
possession, was now "toned down." All in all, while the idea of violating the Torah of beriah 
remained a cardinal principle of "the holy faith," its application was transferred to other areas, 
particularly to dreams of a general revolution that would sweep away the past in a single stroke so 
that the world might be rebuilt. 

Toward the end of Frank's Ufe the hopes he had entertained of abolishing all laws and conventions 
took on a very real historical significance. As a result of the French Revolution the Sabbatian and 
Frankist subversion of the old morality and religion was suddenly placed in a new and relevant 
context, and perhaps not only in the abstract, for we know that Frank's nephews, whether as 
"believers" or out of some other motive, were active in high revolutionary circles in Paris and 
Strasbourg. Seemingly, the Revolution had come to corroborate the fact that the nihilist outlook had 
been correct all along: now the pillars of the world were indeed being shaken, and all the old ways 
seemed about to be overturned. For the "believers" all this had a double significance. On the one 
hand, with the characteristic self-centeredness of a spiritualist sect, they saw in it a sign of special 
divine intervention in their favor, since in the general upheaval the inner renewal and their 
clandestine activities based on it would be more likely to go unnoticed. This opinion was expressed 
by Frank himself and was commonly repeated by his followers in Prague. At the same time that the 
Revolution served as a screen for the world of inwardness, however, it was also recognized as having 
a practical value in itself, namely, the undermining of all spiritual and secular authorities, the power 
of the priesthood most of all. The "believers" in the ghettos of Austria, whose admiration for certain 
doctrines of the Christian Church (such as Incarnation) went hand in hand with a deep hatred of its 
priests and institutions, were particularly alive to this last possibility. Here the fashionable anti- 
clericalism of the times found a ready reception. In great and enthusiastic detail the Frankist author of 

The Prophecy of Isaiah describes the coming apocalypse which is destined to take place solely that 
the Jewish people might be reborn, repudiate its rabbis and other false leaders, and embrace the faith 
of "the true Jacob" as befits "the People of the God of Jacob." To the commentator on the ballet 
prayer writing in Prague, the verse in Psalms 118, "The right hand of the Lord is exalted," meant that 
"if the right hand of the Lord begins to emerge, the deceitful left hand of Esau and his priests and the 
deceitful sword will retire", an allusion, of course, to the combined rule of the secular and 
ecclesiastical powers. Throughout this literature apocalyptic ideas mingle freely with the political 
theories of the Revolution, which were also intended, after all, to lead to a "political and spiritual 
liberation," to cite that illuminating and undeservedly neglected phrase with which the Frankists in 
Prague, as we have seen, defined the aims of their movement. 

All this culminated in the remarkable case of "the Red Epistle," of 1799, a circular letter written in 
red ink and addressed by the Frankists in Offenbach, the last Mecca of the sect, to a large number of 
Jewish congregations, exhorting them to embrace "the holy religion of Edom." The theoretical part of 
this document—approximately the last third of it—is highly interesting. Here, in a single page, the 
epistlers summarize their beliefs without a single overt reference to Christianity, the word "Edom," as 
we have seen, possessing a more specialized meaning in their vocabulary. Besides bearing all the 
markings of the Frankist myth, the epistle contains the familiar ingredients of the Sabbatian homily as 
well, particularly in its audacious exegeses of biblical stories, Midrashim and Aggadot, passages from 
the Zohar, and Kabbalistic texts. In sum, an entire mystical theory of revolution. The passage that I 
am going to quote exemplifies perfectly the thinking, style, and cryptic manner of expression of this 
type of Frankist literature: 

•Know that "it is time for the Lord to work, [for] they have made void Thy law" [Ps. 1 19:226] and in 
this connection the rabbis of blessed memory have said [Sanhedrin 97a] [that the Messiah will not 
come] "until the kingdom is entirely given over to heresy," [this being the mystical meaning of the 
words in Leviticus 13:13] "it is all turned white and then he is clean," and as is explained in the book 
Zror ha-Mor his servants are clean too. For the time has come that Jacob [was referring to when he] 
promised "I will come unto my Lord unto Seir" [Gen. 33 :14], for we know that until now he has not 
yet gone thither; and he [who will fulfill the verse} is our Holy Lord Jacob, "the most perfect of 
all" [Zohar, II, 23a] and the most excellent of the patriarchs, for he grasps both sides [Zohar, I, 147a], 
binding one extreme to the other until the last extreme of all. But although last, he who will rise upon 
earth and say, "Arise O Virgin of Israel," is not least [i.e., he is more important and favored than the 
first Jacob]. Nay, he is certainly not dead, and it is he who leads us on the true way in the holy 
religion of Edom, so that whoever is of the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob must follow in their 
path, for they have shown the way that their sons are to take at the End of Days, Abraham by 
descending to Egypt [Gen. 12], Isaac [by journeying] to Abimelech [Gen. 26), and Jacob, the most 
excellent of the patriarchs, by leaving Beersheba and going to Haran [Gen. 28) [that is], by leaving 
the faith [of his fathers] and the Land of Israel for another realm of impurity, as is explained in the 
Zohar; for the Zohar explains that the redemption must be sought in the most evil place of all. Then 
he came to the mouth of the well [Gen. 29J and found Rachel and rolled the stone from the month of 
the well and came to Laban and worked for him [in the realm of evil) and brought out his own 
portion. And afterwards he went to Esau [Gen. 32J. but he was still not done [with his task], for 
although he rolled the stone [from the well] they rolled it back again [Gen. 29:3], and therefore he 
could not go to Seir [the place where there are no laws] and all this was but to prepare the way for the 
last Jacob [Frank], the most perfect of all, at the End of Days. For as the Zohar explains the first 

Jacob is perfect, but the last Jacob is perfect in everything, and he will complete [Jacob's mission in 
everything. And it is said [in allusion to this] in the Zohar: "Until a man comes in the form of Adam 
and a woman in the form of Eve and they circumvent him [i.e., the serpent] and outwit him," and so 
forth. Therefore, we must follow in his path, for "the ways of the Lord are right, and the just do walk 
in them" [Hos. 14:10), and though there is a burden of silence [about this] and the heart must not 
reveal [what it knows] to the mouth, it is nonetheless written [Isa. 42:16), "And I will bring the blind 
by a way that they know not, in paths that they know not I will lead them, I will make darkness light 
before them and rugged places plain." And here it was that Jacob "honored his Master," and so forth 
[namely, by standing in the realm of evil) and look in the Zohar [I, 161b, where these words are to be 
found]. And herein will be [found the mystical meaning of the verses) "Lord, when Thou didst go 
forth out of Seir, When Thou didst march out of the field of Edom" [Judg. 5:14] and "Who is this that 
Cometh from Edom?" [Isa. 63:1], for as is [stated] in the Tanna debe Eliyahu, there will come a day 
when the angels will seek the Lord and the sea will say "He is not in me" and the abyss will say "He 
is not in me." Where then will they find him? In Edom, for it is said, "Who is this that cometh from 
Edom?" And they who follow him into this holy religion and ding to the House of Jacob [Frank} and 
take shelter in its shadow~for it is said [Lam. 4:20). "Under his shadow we shall live among the 
nations" and [Mic. 4:2] "Come ye and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord and the House of the 
God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths" —to them it will be 
granted to cling to the Lord, for they [the ways of the Lord] are a way of life to those who find them. 
And it is written [Deut. 4:29], "From thence ye will seek the Lord thy God and thou shalt find him." 
Why does the text emphasize "from thence"? Because light will be made known from darkness 
[Zohar, III, 47b], as it is written [Mic. 7:8}, "Though I sit in darkness, the Lord is a light unto me." 

The government officials who intercepted copies of this epistle rightly suspected its authors of being 
hidden revolutionaries, but for the wrong reason: The many obscure references to an individual called 
"Jacob" led them to surmise that they were in reality dealing with-the Jacobins, who in this manner 
were sup' posed to spread their radical propaganda among the Jews of the ghetto. An investigation 
was ordered on the spot. The authorities who conducted it in Frankfurt and Offenbach, however, did 
not delve beneath the surface of the affair and were quickly satisfied that it involved nothing more 
than an intrigue to swindle and extort money from ignorant Jews. In our own day, a historian who has 
published their official report, rather naively concludes by remarking, "and so the ridiculous theories 
of a Frankist plot which had proved so alarming to these imperial bureaucrats were at last laid to 
rest," thereby failing to realize himself that on a deeper level the authorities' suspicions were fully if 
unwittingly justified! Had they bothered to read and understand not just the debtors' notes of Frank's 
children in Offenbach which were in the possession of the town's bankers and moneylenders, but also 
The Prophecy of Isaiah that had been composed within the four walls of the "court" itself, they would 
have been amazed to discover how ardently these Frankist "Jacobins', yearned for the overthrow of 
the existing regime. 

The hopes and beUefs of these last Sabbatians caused them to be particularly susceptible to the 
"millennial" winds of the times. Even while still "believers" -in fact, precisely because they were 
"believers "--they bad been drawing closer to the spirit of the Haskalah all along, so that when the 
flame of their faith finally flickered out they soon reappeared as leaders of Reform Judaism, secular 
intellectuals, or simply complete and indifferent skeptics. We have already noted how deeply rooted 
the Sabbatian apathy toward orthodox observance and Jewish tradition in general was. Even the 
"moderates" tended to believe that the commandments were for the most part meant to be observed 

Duly in the Land of Israel and that "in the exile there is no punishment [for not observing them], even 
though there is still as always a reward [if they are kept]" a doctrine that was ultimately to have a 
catastrophic effect on all traditional ties and to help prepare the way for the philosophy or 
assimilation. A man such as Jonas Wehle, for example, the spiritual leader and educator of the 
Sabbatians in Prague after 1790, was equally appreciative of both Moses Mendelssohn and Sabbatai 
Zevi, and the fragments of his writings that have survived amply bear out the assertion of one of his 
opponents that "he took the teachings of the philosopher Kant and dressed them up in the costume of 
the Zohar and the Lurianic Kabbalah." It is evident from the commentary on the En Ya'akov and 
from the letters that were in Peter Beer's possession that men like Wehle intended to use the Haskalah 
for their own Sabbatian ends, but in the meanwhile the Haskalah went its way and proceeded to make 
use of them. 

Indeed, even for those "believers"' who remained faithful to their own religious world and did not 
share the enthusiasm of the Prague Frankists for the school of Mendelssohn," the way to the Haskalah 
was easily traveled. It was surely no accident that a city like Prossnitz, which served as a center for 
the Haskalah in Moravia upon the movement' s spread there one generation earUer, was also a bastion 
of Sabbatianism in that country. The leaders of the "School of Mendelssohn," who were neither 
Sabbatians themselves, of course, nor under the influence of mysticism at all, to say nothing of 
mystical heresy, found ready recruits for their cause in Sabbatian circles, where the world of rabbinic 
Judaism had already been completely destroyed from within, quite independently of the efforts of 
secularist criticism. Those who had survived the ruin were now open to any alternative or wind of 
change; and so, their "mad visions" behind them, they turned their energies and hidden desires for a 
more positive life to assimilation and the Haskalah, two forces that accomplished without paradoxes, 
indeed without religion at all, what they, the members of "the accursed sect," had earnestly striven for 
in a stormy contention with truth, carried on in the half-light of a faith pregnant with paradoxes. 

The Trouble With Judaism 

Israel Shamir's 

Warning To Jews 

By Henry Makow, PhD 

Israel Shamir's new essay collection, "Pardes," contains a prescient and shocking 
warning to Jews and to humanity as a whole: 

Judaism wants to make the Jewish people the intermediary between God and man 
replacing Christ, says Shamir, an Israeli Jew who converted to Christianity. 

Essentially, he says "the Jews" want to be God. 

Jewish Messianism (the building of a humanist "earthly paradise" according to 
Jewish specifications) replaces spiritual salvation. 

The Jewish Holocaust replaces Christ's Passion. That's why in the media it takes 
precedent over the other 60 million people who died in World War Two. 

"It is possible there are no (or almost no) Jews 
who fully understand what the Jews want." 
Shamir writes. 

"The term The Jews, ' [refers to] individual 
Jews in the same way that the Catholic Church 
is related to an individual Catholic, or a beehive 
to a bee. There is no subjective personal guilt 
associated with individual Jews, unless their 
specific actions or inaction are criminal or 
sinful per se. Thus, this discourse should help 
an individual to decide whether he wants to be 
a Jew, or not, in the same way one may choose 
whether one wants to be a communist or a 
Quaker, for it is my deep conviction that to be 
or not to be a Jew is an act of free will." (7) 

In the Jewish globalist paradigm, "Israel wants to unite the world under her spiritual 
guidance; the Temple of God. to be located in Jerusalem, the centre of this 
Jewish-ordered universe and all nations will bring their tribute to it. The Nations 
will worship God by serving Yisrael..." (72) 

Shamir says the deification of the Jewish people requires that people have no other 
God but material gain and sensual pleasure. 

"In the Jewish reading, the exclusive sacrality [sacredness] of Jerusalem and of 
Israel calls for the de-sacralization of the nations and the rest of the world. There 
will be no churches nor mosques, no Christian nor Muslim priests. The world will 
become a profane desert populated by profaned beasts, the nations, and their 
shepherds, the Jews." (73) 

"It begins with small things: removal of [Christian] religious signs from schools and 
public places. But our souls interpret this surrender of spirit as the proof of Jewish 
victory... (7 8) 

"The Jewish universe is being built brick by brick and one of its signs is the 
lowering of the educational and spiritual life of Gentiles.... American films degrade 
their viewers... (80) 

"For total victory of the Jewish spirit will be reached only when a debilitated 
illiterate goy will thankfully lick a Jewish hand and bless him for his guidance. "(81) 

Shamir notes that the US "which is as Jewish as Italy was Cathohc" has banned 
mention of Allah and the Koran in the schools of occupied Iraq. (58) 

Shamir was bom in Russia and was a successful author and translator before 
immigrating to Israel in 1969. He became a foreign correspondent and covered the 
Vietnam War. He served as an Israeli paratrooper in the 1973 war and is an 
outspoken opponent of the occupation. He believes Israel and Palestine should 
become one democratic country and Israelis should assimilate with their Palestinian 

Shamir compares ordinary Jews with foot soldiers who do not know the generals' 
grand plan. The generals are organized Jewry, in its many forms. In another essay, 
"Zeno's Arrow," he says "the belligerent party is probably the Jewish polity, world 
Jewry, the carrier of the spirit of Judaic supremacy, despite their plurality of 
opinions." (173) 


Israel Shamir is an eloquent writer with a breadth of experience and vision. He has 
crystallized the "Jewish problem" and put his finger on the cause of anti Semitism, i. 
e. the notion of a Chosen People charged with building a materialist " Utopia," 
ultimately at the expense of all other nations, races and religions. 

He recognizes that this elitist philosophy is suited to any neo feudal hierarchy but he 
fails to identify the real "generals." 

His aversion to the idea of an Illuminati conspiracy prevents him from recognizing 
that the "Jewish polity" is itself a pawn in a larger game. Jewish or Israeli power 
derives from that of the London-based central bankers and their Rockefeller-CFR- 
CIA US subsidiary. Jewish "humanism" is a Trojan horse for the construction of 

"Zionism is but an incident of a far reaching plan," Louis Marshall, an American 
Zionist leader and counsel for bankers Kuhn Loeb wrote in 1917. "It is merely a 
convenient peg on which to hang a powerful weapon." 

The Jewish messianic spirit is "a powerful weapon" in the establishment the New 
World Order, a totalitarian world government run in the interest of what the 
"Protocols of Zion" call "an aristocracy of the rich." 

"On the ruins of natural and hereditary aristocracy we buih an aristocracy of our 
own on a plutocratic basis. We established this new aristocracy on wealth, of which 
we had control and on science promoted by [our] scholars." (1-18) 

Notice, the emphasis is on wealth not race or religion. "The Protocols of Zion" is 
Illuminati not Jewish. I have suggested elsewhere that the mainspring of the New 
World Order is the desire of central bankers to translate their control of credit into 
world institutions of political, social and spiritual control. http://www.savethemales. 

The enslavement of humanity requires the destruction of all "collective forces 
except our own," nation, race, religion and family. Neo-liberalism achieves these 
goals under banners such as the marketplace, feminism, tolerance, diversity and 

Although most central bankers are racially Jewish, they belong to a Luciferian sect 
known as Sabbatean Frankists that actually hates the Jewish people and plots their 
ultimate destruction. Svali, a former Illuminati trainer said, "I have always wondered 
why some of the highest ranking financial families in the group (baron Rothschild of 
France is one of the 13 European lords, or "kings" that run the group in Europe, and 
sits on the World Council) are Jewish, yet the group espouses hatred of their own 

The Sabbateans are behind Zionism, Communism (and possibly Nazism) and are 
responsible for war and for the Jewish holocaust. They remove the Ten 
Commandments as well as references to Christ from public places. They make the 
Jewish people their instruments and eventually their scapegoats. 

Take Eugene Meyer for example. He was Chairman of the Federal Reserve and 
President of the World Bank. His family owns The Washington Post Company. He 
was born Jewish but he married a German Lutheran and raised his children as 

The Sabbateans are part of the Illuminati, the top rung of Freemasonry devoted to 
enthroning Lucifer as God. Most of its members are not Jewish. Take George W. 
Bush and the other members of the Illuminati "Skull and Bones" for example. 

Luciferianism suits elitists because it denies the existence of a natural design and 
absolute standards of justice, truth and morality. Instead it preaches atheism and 
decadence under the disguise of personal freedom. 

Essentially it is a case of who will people obey and serve: God or Lucifer? If they 
believe in God, then they follow a healthy spiritual and moral design. If they believe 
in Lucifer, they are God and they can do whatever they wish. "Do what thou wilt," is 
their motto. Governed by self-interest, they are easy to control. 

As Masonic revolutionary Guiseppe Mazzini said, "we corrupt in order to rule." 
Ultimately, the Luciferian plan is to enslave the masses. 


In 1871, Albert Pike, (not a Jew) the Grand Commander of Freemasonry foretold 
"three world wars" designed to bring about lUuminati hegemony. The third war will 
be between political Zionism and the forces of Islam and result in the destruction of 

Can anyone deny that the stage is being set for such a conflagration, with Iran and 
China opposed to the US and Israel? 

Judaism as well as Christianity and Islam, and many nations, have been subverted 
by the lUuminati. Our idealism has been tricked and misdirected. Humanity is the 
victim of an occult conspiracy of monstrous proportions. 

Shamir's warning to Jews applies to all nations. Are we Luciferians? Are we pawns 
sacrificed in a game designed to enshrine Lucifer as ruler of the world? 

It's time we stopped listening to the generals and started obeying our conscience. It's 
time we started being men. I conclude with Israel Shamir's prophetic words: 

" The New World Order is, in religious terms the beginning of the Kingdom of the 
Antichrist, based on the removal of all spiritual elements from our life. In practical 
terms, it is an ambitious attempt at the total enslavement of Man." (118) 

A PDF Version of the Pardes essay is online, 
Iivres2/P ardesEng.pdf 

Henry Makow Ph.D. is the inventor of the boardgame Scruples and the author of "A 
Long Way to go for a Date." His articles exposing fe-manism and the New World 
Order can be found at his web site He welcome your 

comments, some of which may be posted on his site using first names only, 
hmakow @ 


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Obscure Polish Book Sheds Light On Elusive 
Rothschild Financial Link to The Militant 

Messiah, Jacob Frank 

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Mayer Amschel Rothschild 

Jacob Frank 

Rabbi Antelman writes: 

"In the wake of lUuministic German-Jewish freemasonry Lodges, we find that the Rothschilds 
very adroitly steered their way into a position of control over these lodges in much the same 
manner as Friedrich, the Duke of Brunswick, member of the Illuminati was one of the main 
sponsors of the Vienna Asiatic Brethren Lodge until his death in 1792. 

The Rothschilds utilized the services of Sigmund Geisenheimer, their head clerk, who in turn 
was aided by Itzig of Berhn, the Illuminati of the Toleranz Lodge and the Parisian Grand 
Orient Lodge. Geisenheimer was a member of the Mayence Masonic Illuminati Lodge, and was 
the founder of the Frankfurt Judenloge; for which attempt he was excommunicated by the 
Chief Rabbi of Frankfurt, Tzvi Hirsch Horowitz. At a later date the Rothschilds joined the 
Lodge. Solomon Mayer (or Meir) Rothschild (1774-1855) was a member for a short while 
before moving to Vienna. 

While the Frankists estabUshed themselves in 1786 in the Frankfurt suburb of Offenbach and 
were patronized by unidentified philanthropists of the Frankfurt community, the author is at a 
loss to find any documents relating the Rothschilds with the Frankists." 

- To Eliminate The Opiate Volume I By Rabbi Marvin S. Antelman (p. 126) 

Such a document does exist however! 

Jacob Frank and the Polish Frankist Followers by Alexander Kraushar. Translated from the 
Polish and Reprinted as Jacob Frank: The End To The Sabbataian Heresyip. 369 and note): 

"...The inhabitants of Offenbach did have a grateful memory of the beneficent efforts of 
[Jacob] Frank's relatives on their fate. After the moral credit, there was also a monetary one, 
because this relatively insignificant family encouraged gossip about their connections with 
powerful European courts, which so enhanced their position that the best banking houses in 
Frankfurt hurried to voice their readiness to serve them. Even the Frankfurt Rothschilds must 
be included in the Hst of beUevers, as Mr. Schenk-Rinck records in the second part of his 
treatise D/e Polen in Offenbach.{5) 

5) A. G. Schenk-Rinck writes (I: 24), "Zu dieser Zeit war es, dass auch das hiesige, nun auf der 
hchsten Stufe stehende Haus Geldgeschafte contrahirte." The author supplements the 
circumstance, II: 9, with a defense of Rothschild in that only trust in the Frank family's 
relationships with foreign courts could persuade them to extend considerable credit to Frank's 
family: "Es unterliegt wohl keinem Zweifel, dass der greise Grossvater und der Vater des 
weltbekannten Hauses v. R. sich nie und nimmer herbeigelassen htte mit den Geschwistern 
von Frank lange nach dem Tode des alten Herrn in geschftlichen Verkehr zu treten, um mit 
ihren schon damals reichen Mitteln eine Existenz zu fristen, die dem rechtglabigen Juden ein 
Grael sein musste." At this juncture, it should be made clear that the purpose of both of Mr. 
Rinck's brochures is to defend the memory of the author's father from accusations of gullibility 
that led him to be fooled by the Franks, and exposed him to a loss of 30,000 guldens. Johann 
Karl Schenk lent Frank's children 15,502 and 10,554 additional guldens. The promisory notes 
he held, had the signatures of Eva Frank and Roch Frank. On others, there were signatures of 
Johann Matuszewski and Johann Marcin Janski. The promissory notes are in the possession of 
Mr. Schenk's grandson. Judicial (Councillor Karl Murhardt, to this very day [c.l895] in 
Frankfurt-on-Main. That the House of Rothschild, known for its perspicacity, should be taken 
in, is proof that such guUibiUty was the pattern at the time. In response to the claim that the 
Rothschilds, as Jews, could not have provided their services to renegade Jews, Dr. Stein 
provides a witty remark in his ber die Frankistensekte, "Ein guter Frankfurter sollte doch 
wissen, dass der Weg von der Synagogue zur Brse ein ziemlich entfernter sei. . . "— 


Was the 17th Century Jewish Messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi, really an 

impostor as history would have us believe? He i/i^as acknowledged 

and proclaimed to be the Messiah by Nathan of Gaza,the only 

authentic, recognized Jewish prophet in the past 2500 years. He 
was accepted as the Messiah by the vast majority of World Jewry, 

that is, until he consented to convert to Islam when threatened 

with death by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Shabbatai Tzvi 
understood the conversion to be a sign from G-d that he needed to 

take his mission underground. In a letter to his brother he wrote, 

"G-d has made me a Turk." 

Do people have the power to reject a messiah? 

Did Shabtai Tzvi's "conversion" to Islam render him a messianic 
impostor or were those that rejected Shabbetai Tzvi rendered 

infidels wWh their rejection? 

Did Shabbetai Tzvi have offspring? Yes. Where are they now? 

Where is this Messianic Dynasty? Have they vanished into 

obscurity? History leaves us no clues. Or does it? Perhaps 

Shabbatai did succeed in his messianic takeover of the planet. 

Perhaps his offspring did manage to fulfill the mission of their 

prophet-proclaimed Messiah father? I suggest that the family 

Rothschild are direct descendents of the messiah, Shabbatai Tzvi. 

Shabbatai Tzvi said that he would rebuild Israel. The Rothschilds 

did. He said that he would re-unite the lost tribes that had been 

spread out throughout the world. Has this been accomplished 

through the United Nations? Is the UN a project of hidden 

Rothschild influence designed to bring world peace? A Rothshild- 

Shabbatai Tzvi connection would also explain the Rothschilds' 

relationship to the mystical Jacob Frank, a co-creator of the 

llluminati, who claimed to be the reincarnation of Shabbetai Tzvi. It 

would also explain the Rothschilds strange obsession with their 
bloodline and their custom of intermarrying amongst themselves. 

Was this practice determined to keep the royal messianic blood 
from assimilation? A Rothschildian/Messianic relationship would 

also explain their lavish and opulent lifestyle. Why shouldn't the 
direct descendants of the messiah live within the finest palaces on 


It should therefore come as no surprise that there is a strong 
family resemblance between Shabbatai Tzvi and the Family 


Scroll down 

Shabbetai Tzvi (1626-1676) Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812) 

The Five Rothschild Brothers: Amschel (1773-1855),Salomon (1774-1855),Nathan (1777-1836),Carl 
(1788-1855) & James (1792-1868) 

'■CCI'-'ChNj l a r 

Edmund de Rothschild (1845-1934) 

Guy de Rothschild (b.l909) 

Victor Rothschild (1910-1990) 

Baroness Betty de Rothschild (1805-1886) 

Anthony Rothschild (1810-1876) 




Edouard de Rothschild (1868-1949) 

Lionel Rothschild (1808-1879) 

Edouard de Rothschild (b.l957) 

Sir Evelyn de Rothschild (b.l931) 

Leopold Rothschild (1845-1917) 

Nathaniel "Natty" Rothschild (1840-1915) 

Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836) 

Nathaniel Rothschild (1812-1870) 


Sabbatai Tsvi: The Mystical Messiah 



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Statement acknowledging the kingship of Sabbatai Tzvi, written and signed by the members of the yeshivah Yeshu'oth Meshiho in 
Amsterdam, dated September 26-28, 1666. The Hebrew text was published in the Hebrew edition of the book Sabbatai Sevi, The 
Mystical Messiah, By Gershom Scholem, 11, 448-449. Archives of the Portuguese Community in Amsterdam, Library Etz Chayyim. 
Photo, Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, Amsterdam. 

Shabbetai Tzvi's birthchart 

The 288 Sparks, The Purpose of Religion & the 


By Cliff Shack 

The rectification of the 288 sparks. This is the purpose of Judaism. The purpose of Judaism's 
613 commandments. If you don't understand the concept of the "288 sparks" and the 
"breaking of the vessels" then you don't understand Judaism. To understand Judaism, truly, 
you must understand the deep stuff. There are no two ways about it. People study the Kabbalah 
in hopes of understanding the deep stuff. 

To make a long story short. After the 288 fallen "sparks" are rectified or "elevated", according 
to Jewish tradition, the Messiah will come. 

The question arises. Have the 288 sparks been rectified? Has the messiah come? 

In the 16th century the great kabbaUst, the Arizal, Isaac Luria, claimed that the rectification of 
the sparks was so near completion that he was almost ready to pronounce himself the messiah. 
The messiah is so close that he is just "polishing his buttons". This phrase has comforted Jews 
for hundreds of years up until today. 

How long does it take to poUsh buttons? I suggest that the buttons have already been poUshed. 
The 288 sparks have also been rectified to the level of "Divine" satisfaction. This means that of 
the fifty or so people who have claimed to have been the messiah over the past two thousand 
years, at least one of those people was. Perhaps more than one.* 

It stands to reason that the commandments over time were indeed effective. It would be more 
difficult to beUeve that miUions of Torah-observant Jews over thousands of years could not 
rectify the 288 sparks. If that is the case then the effectiveness of the mitzvahs themselves 
should be called into question. It is the ineffectiveness of the Jewish people that is given as the 
cause of the problem of elevating the sparks. 

But perhaps, as was mentioned before there really is no problem. Indeed the sparks had been 
satisfactorily elevated. 

There is a Catch-22 here. In order for the Jewish people to raise the 288 sparks as they had 
fallen across time... they needed to endure as a people to pursue the sparks. This very 
endurance, this status-quo would be threatened once the sparks had been elevated and the time 
would come for a complete change in Ufestyle that would happen with the rectification. It is 
only natural for the Jews to shoot the messenger who would come to announce that their 
services would be no longer needed. 

This is why every "messiah" would be repudiated and/or killed. 

KiUing or rejecting the messenger, however, would not eUminate the fact that the rectification 
of the 288 sparks had indeed occurred. (If it did.) 

The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, is thought by some to have been the 
messiah. Although he was a great man I cannot agree. The Rebbe was naive when it came to 
understanding just who was really behind major world events during his Ufetime. He beUeved 
that The events of the Gulf War, the release of Jews from the Soviet Union, and the fall of 
Communism were miracles belonging to the time of redemption. These events were not 
miraculous but calculated by the administrators of the Global EUte. An EUte with roots and 
affiliations dating back to previous messiahs Shabbatai Tzvi and Jacob Frank. The Rebbe often 
handed out dollar bills that were to be given to charity. Those very dollars were also the 
product of an agency rooted in affiUation to the rejected messiahs Tzvi and Frank. 

Have the High Priests of the Temple of Jerusalem been replaced by bankers of haute finance? 
Has the Torah of the world of B'riah been replaced by the Torah of the world of Atzilut? 

The High Priest of Ancient Israel would only enter the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur. It is 
known that Guy de Rothschild, of the Illuminated Masonic banking family, officially began 
working for his family's bank on Yom Kippur. This was not coincidental. 

The High Priest of Ancient Israel wore a head band of pure gold. The vessels of the temple were 
made of gold. The walls of the Tabernacle were veneered with gold. The price of gold today is 
set at a Rothschild bank. This too is no mere coincidence. 

The windows of the Temple in Jerusalem were fashioned in such a way that they fanned out 
from narrow to wide indicating that a Ught was radiating, emanating to the world- illuminating 
the world with a special supernal light. The power of Sabbatian/Frankist-IUuminati-based high 
finance out of The City appears to have replaced that illumination. 

* [According to Jewish tradition it is said... "And a redeemer shall come to Zion and to those in 
Jacob who repent of transgression, says the Lord.(Isaiah 59:20-2iy\]No where is it said that 
only one person can be the messiah. According to Jewish tradition there is a person of 
messianic quaUties in every generation. His revelation is dependent on the merits of each 
generation. According to Frankists there are 18 messiahs. Some have recorded fifty. As I see it 
the world can use as many messiahs as are wiUing to undergo the abuse that awaits them. 


In 1666, Jewish Messianic contender, Shabbatai Tzvi,was imprisoned by 
the Turkish sultan and given a choice. Convert to Islam or die. After three 
days, Shabbetai Tzvi decided to convert to Islam. After his apostasy, most 
of his supporters labeled him an imposter and rejected him. His 
conversion, however, had a positive impact on many Jews around the 
world who went into hiding after the Spanish expulsion of 1492. Marranos, 
Conversos, Crypto-Jews, et. al., maintained their devotion to Shabbetai 
Tzvi. Tzvi's decision to convert actually strengthened their allegiance to 
him. Together with the remnant of Tzvi's Jewish adherents, these 
messianic followers would form an underground network and secretly 
continue to advance Shabbatai Tzvi's mission. Through infiltration, 
stealth and cunning this invisible network has come to rule us all. Forty- 
one years after Shabbatai Tzvi's death, in 1717, they would infiltrate 
Masonry guilds in England and establish Freemasonry . Based upon the 
Noachide laws of the Talmud, Freemasonry allowed the Sabbatean 
sympathizers to live an elite yet mystical and meaningful life working 
towards the establishment of a one-world government based upon the 
Universal Yahwehism preached by Shabbetai Tzvi and his followers 
particularly Jacob Frank. Frank would have a great impact on the inner 
core of Freemasonry formed in 1776, known as the llluminati. 

Freemasonry would become the hidden force behind events like the 
French and American revolutions, the creations of the U.N. & Israel, both 
World Wars (including the Holocaust!), and the assassinations of the 
Kennedy brothers who, together with their father,tried to thwart the efforts 
of the network on American soil. 

Sabbatean/Frankists, also referred to as the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye 
(look on the back of your one dollar bill to begin to understand their 
influence in YOUR life), are political and religious chameleons. They are 
everywhere. Everywhere where there is power.They are the good guys 
AND the bad guys. 

The World War Two era is a prime example. The following leaders were 
members of the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye (Sabbatean/Frankists): 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

Winston Churchill 

Josef Stalin 

Adolph Hitler 

Eugenio Pacelli (Pope Pius XII) 

Fransisco Franco 

Benito Mussilini 


Mao Tse-Tung 

Not mentioned are the untold scores of bankers, lawyers and politicians 
behind these men dictating their every move. Conspiracy? Oh yes. 
Conspiracy. One which will go on for the next thousand years. It's 
unstoppable. At best you can understand what is going on. If you ever 
want a reminder, just pull out a dollar bill. 

Shabbetai Tzvi 

Mayer Amschel Rothschild 


Jacob Frank 

'When war erupts in the world, you will know and understand why I came 

to this world." 

-Saying from the Book of the Words of tfie Lord Jacob Frank, The Militant 



Tidbit taken from Barry Chamish's website: 

* Here is some Kerry data sent to me: 

By the way, it is a little odd, don't you think that Kerry's great grandfather was 
Jacob Frankel born a few years after Jacob Frank died not too many miles away. And that Jacob 
Frank received the patronage of Maria Theresa, as has John Kerry received the patronage of Maria 
Teresa Thierstein Simdes-Ferreira Heinz Kerry. Writeups about Kerry said he was in bad financial 
straits before he married "Teresa". Maybe he is a re-incarnated Jacob Frank - or at least, carries the 
Frank DNA. (I know - Frank was actually Frankovich, but.... ) 

'^'just SO you all know, Barry Chamish's new book: 

is soon to be released. . . Keep an eye out for it. 

The page you tried to access does not exist on tliis server. Tliis page may not 
exist due to tine following reasons: 

1 . You are the owner of this web site and you have not uploaded (or 

incorrectly uploaded) your web site. For information on uploading your web 
site using FTP client software or web design software, click here for FTP 
Upload Information . 

2. The URL that you have entered in your browser is incorrect. Please re- 
enter the URL and try again. 

3. The Linl< that you elicited on incorrectly points to this page. Please 
contact the owner of this web site to inform them of this situation. 



ISRAEL Volume 1 (1974) 





For there shall be no hereafter for evil, illumination of the wicked shall be extinguished. 

For Illumination is a commandment, and law is light. (Proverbs 6:23) 

Having considered fleetingly the origins of the lUuminati in our discussions of the Reform 
movement and the Bund Der Gerechten, we shall now discuss in greater detail the organization 
and operations of the lUuminati which preceded by about two generations the period just 


While perhaps logically one would wish to present history as a chronology, the author feels that 
the reader could better appreciate the inauspicious beginnings of the Illuminati having come 
upon the scene of 19th century poUtical and reUgious turmoil with which he could more closely 
relate to present day experience. 

It is known that poUtical scientists are divided as to the Illuminati and its relationship with the 
Communist Party. There is no argument about the relationship between the Illuminati and the 
Jacobins who executed the terror during the French Revolution. There is also no argument 
among prominent Judaica scholars as to the continuum that existed between Jewish-born 
heretics who were followers of the false Messiah Shabbetai Tzvi (1626-1676) through his 
successors. The radical practitioners of the Sabbatian cult called the Frankists, (named after 
their founder, Jacob Frank (1726-1791), the Jacobins and the Reform movement. The 
Illuminati paralleled the Frankists in both time and geography, the seat of both movements 
being in Germany, the Illuminati in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and the Frankists in Offenbach after 
1786. We shall demonstrate that from the Jewish perspective there is a relationship between the 
Illuminati and the Communists. 

The connection between Frankists and Jacobins, and Frankists and the Reform movement has 
been brought to Ught by one of the greatest Uving authorities on the mystical KabbaUstic 
Uterature, Professor Gershom G. Scholem of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. We 
furthermore have the testimony of John Robison in his Proofs of a Conspiracy, pubUshed in 
1798, which details the development of the Illuminati and its rise to power, their connection 
with the Jacobins, and with the terror which took place during the French Revolution.' The 
famous Count Mirabeau of French Revolution fame was, according to Robison, a member of 
the Illuminati. In addition to Robison's work, there also exist the writings of Abbe Augustin 
Barruel, who wrote Memoirs illustrating the History of Jacobinism in 1799. 

Robison traces the Illuminati to an aberration in Freemasonry started by Adam Weishaupt and 
assisted by Baron Adolf Franz Friedrich Knigge (17521796). Knigge is mentioned constantly 
throughout Robison's book. At the end of the first chapter of 

Robison's Conspiracy book entitled Schisms In Free Masonry, he says Baron Knigge and other 
cosmopolitical brethren formed a scheme for uniting radical Masonic lodges in Germany, 
Knigge was dissatisfied with all the degrees in Freemasonry, and he wanted to carry things a 
step further. 

In Chapter ii, Robison presents a Ust of lodges of the Illuminati existing primarily in Germany, 
with a few in England, Scotland, Poland, Switzerland, France and Italy, as well as America, He 
also gives names of members. Some of the more important Illuminati mentioned by Robison 
were given code names. These code names were based for the most part on classical Greek and 
Roman personaUties who were known for their ruthlessness and cynicism. In Table I is found 
an alphabetical Usting of the most prominent Illuminati, taken from Robison, with their 
respective occupation or rank indicated. 

Weishaupt had the code name of Spartacus; Knigge, Philo; Count Mirabeau, Cornelius Scipio; 
Nicholai, Lucian. Lucian was the great scoffer of reUgion. Particularistic tasks involving the 
undermining of reUgion were given to Nicholai. The radicaUsm of the lUuminati was manifested 
in pubhc and in private. Their goal was to aboHsh Christianity and overturn all civil 

In 1783 four professors of Marianen Academy were summoned before a court of inquiry and 
questioned on their allegiance to the Order of the Illuminati. During these inquiries it was 
brought out that the Order abjured Christianity and refused admission into its higher degrees 
to all who adhered to CathoUcism's three confessions. According to Robison, 

"Sensual pleasures were restored to the rank they held in the Epicurean philosophy. Self- 
murder was justified on Stoical principles. In the Lodges death was declared an eternal sleep; 
patriotism and loyalty were called narrow-minded prejudices, and incompatible with universal 
benevolence; continual declamations were made on Hberty and equahty as the unalienable 
rights of man. The baneful influence of accumulated property was declared an insurmountable 
obstacle to the happiness of any nation whose chief laws were framed for its protection and 

All this is quite again in keeping with Weishaupt' s own code name Spartacus, the man who 
headed the insurrection of slaves and kept Rome in terror and uproar for three years. 

Following this expose of the Order, it was discovered that Weishaupt was its head. He was 
deprived of his professor's chair and banished from Bavaria. He went to Regensburg where he 
continued his activities. Along with him two Italians, the Marquis Constanza and the Marquis 
Savioli, were also banished, together with a lawyer named Zwack, while some other members 
were imprisoned. 

Robison further exposes letters of secret correspondence between members of the Illuminati in 
which he reveals how debased some of them were. For example, in a memo from Spartacus to 
Cato, which was from Weishaupt to lawyer Zwack, dated March 17, 1778, Weishaupt sets 
down a blueprint for engaging in espionage. In the writings of Zwack were the plans for a 
Women's Liberation movement. Zwack states 

"it should consist of two classes, the virtuous and the freer-hearted (i.e., those who fly out of the 
common tract of prudish manners)... Proper books must be put into their hands and such as 
are flattering to their passions." 

Found with Zwack's writings after his death are descriptions of a strong box which, if forced 
open, would blow up and destroy its contents; recipes for securing an abortion; a chemical 
composition which bUnds or kills when spurted in the face; a recipe for invisible ink; a formula 
for making a tea which induces abortion; a method for fiUing a bedroom with poisonous gas; 
methods for forging seals of state, including a collection of several hundred such impressions, 
with a Hst of their owners, including princes, nobles, clergymen and prominent merchants: a 
copy of a manuscript entitled Better Than Horus, which was printed and distributed at a 

Leipzig fair, containing an attack and a bitter satire on all religion. 

After this was exposed, the lUuminati said that all of the dreadful medical apparatus properly 
belonged in the hands of Zwack because, after all, he was a judge of the criminal court and it 
was his duty to know such things. The same excuse was also offered for his collection of seals 
but, of course, the damning question was, "Why were these things found among the papers of 
the lUuminati?" When Weishaupt was confronted with this, his reaction was "These things 
were not carried into effect, only spoken of, and were justifiable when taken in proper 

In another memo from Spartacus to Cato, Weishaupt is rather verbose about his anti-religious 
philosophy. He felt that Freemasonry is concealed Christianity and that "Christ" should be 
substituted with the word "reason." He then calls for a new rehgion and a new state 
government which explains Masonic symbols and combines them in one degree. He also makes 
reference that there is now in the Order a famous Protestant theologian who feels that the 
Order of the lUuminati is the true sense of Christianity and takes great pride that he is now the 
founder of a new rehgion. 

In another piece of correspondence from Philo (Knigge) to Cato (Zwack), Knigge refers to 
reUgious authorities as cheats who bow to superstition and fanaticism. He advocates a slow 
overthrow of rehgion so that the fanatics will not be alarmed and will not be aware of what is 
going on. Of Jewish mysticism he declares: "The Jewish Theosophy was a mystery; Uke the 
Eleusinian, or the Pythagorean, unfit for the vulgar." 

In September 1783, Weishaupt wrote to code name Marius (Canon Hertel) that he is "in 
danger of losing my honor and my reputation, by which I have long had such influence. What 
think you -- my sister-in-law is with child." He goes on further to say "We have tried every 
method in our power to destroy the child." He then begs Marius to try to get a doctor to kill his 
sister-in-law. He claims that she is in her fourth month. Then he blames the priests because 
they consider abortion to be criminal. Robison points out that when this happened, Zwack' s 
sister is recorded as having committed suicide. Robison speculates that she is perhaps the 
person Weishaupt was speaking about. 

Robison offers an interesting insight into why the lUuminati were interested in setting up 
Sisterhoods and promoting Women's Liberation. Citing some of the lUuminati philosophers, he 
feels that the female mind is well adapted to cultivation by means of religion and that feminine 
softness and kindness of heart and the virtues of motherhood would always tend to push men 
into more noble pursuits and towards rehgion. The new Order, by changing the women, could 
hopefully force the sentiments of men to change, and they would not be so "fooUsh as to keep in 
force laws which cramp their strongest desires. Then will the rich have their harems and the 
poor their drudges." 

As the lUuminati spread over Germany, in addition to using the Freemasons and attempting to 
subvert legitimate Freemasonic Lodges into their Order, they also set up Reading Societies. On 
their book list were such works as Basedow's Practical Knowledge, Eberhard'sA/7o/ogj /or 

Socrates, Meiner's Ancient Mysteries, Bahrdt's Letters on the Bible, and Completion of the Plan 
and Aim of Jesus Christ. These books were all anti-religious in character and tended to 
influence men into shaking off any moral obhgations. They also encouraged people to behave in 
a Machiavellian manner in their civil conduct. 

The Illuminati also encouraged their members through machinations and intrigues to obtain 
positions or places of trust and influence. Robison mentions that when the publication of a Ust 
of members came out in Germany, persons were astonished to find themselves in every quarter 
"in the midst of villains that were plotting against the peace and happiness of the country and 
destroying every sentiment of religion, moraUty and loyalty." 

Robison traces Illuminati activities through the German Union and in his final fourth chapter 
he discusses their role in the French Revolution. He notes that during the Revolution, cosmo- 
poUtical and skeptical opinions and sentiments were able to find full expression in the poHtical 
occurrences in France. He delves into the intrigues of the famous Count Honore Gabriel 
Riqueti Mirabeau (1749-1791), not to be confused with his father Victor (1715-1789), 

Robison then tells us that Mirabeau pubUshed an essay on a fictitious group, the "Illuminated", 
in BerUn. In the essay Mirabeau calls the "Illuminated" "absurd and gross fanatics, waging 
war with every appearance of reason and maintaining the most ridiculous superstitions." He 
also describes in the essay rituals and ceremonies of his own invention. Robison claims that 
Mirabeau wrote this essay as a master stroke of poUtical intrigue to conceal from the world his 
rumored association with the Illuminati. 

Shortly thereafter Nicholai utiUzed Mirabeau's essay and gave the name "Obscuranten" to the 
society which Mirabeau ridiculed. Then the Illuminati utilized this mystical "Obscuranten" 
society as a weapon to destroy their poUtical enemies so that they immediately labeled several 
persons to be members of the Obscuranten, securing their own advantage." 

The history books tell much about Mirabeau. Being in the pubhc eye, he was known as the 
founder of the Jacobins and as a sexually depraved individual. He Uterally sold his mother 
"down the river" for money after being Uberated from prison for a misdemeanor and needing 
money, he helped his father secure a separation from his mother for 100 guineas. Then he went 
to his mother and got money from her to go against his father. 

In 1786 Mirabeau in conjunction with the Duke de Lauzon and the Abbe Perigord, formed a 
radical lodge in Paris which met in the Jacobin college hence the name "Jacobins." The lodge 
was in constant contact with Germany. So important did the German Illuminati regard the 
Jacobin lodge that they sent an entire delegation of German Illuminati to foment the French 
Revolution. Of the Jacobin goals in Paris, Robison tells us "They meant to abolish the laws 
which protected property accumulated by long, continued and successful industry and to 
prevent for the future any such accumulation .... "And, as necessary preparations for all this, 
they intended to root out all religion and ordinary moraUty and even to break the bonds of 
domestic Ufe by destroying the veneration for reUgious vows and by taking the education of the 
children out of the hands of the parents. This was all that the Illuminati could touch and this 

was precisely what France has done." 

Robison goes on to explain how the Duke of Orleans was seduced by Mirabeau into becoming a 
degenerate. Robison describes how the Duke of Orleans obtained, at Mirabeau's instigation, 
300 prostitutes which were sent "to illuminate" two battaUons who were coming to Versailles 
for the protection of the royal family." 

Robison further declares that the Duke of Orleans, before his death, acknowledged that vast 
sums were used to bribe mobs such as these which came from Paris to Versailles on the 5th of 
October, 1789, They had their pockets stuffed with crown pieces suppHed by Orleans who had 
been seen circulating with others with a tremendous bag of money." 

Robison continues to describe how after the Revolution, the Jacobins through the lUuminati 
continued their depraved influence on Ufe in France. For example, he describes a man named 
Zimmerman as one of the great of the lUuminati in France. Zimmerman would get up on the 
pulpit with a saber in his hand and cry out, "Behold, Frenchmen, this is your God. This alone 
can save you." Robison also accuses the lUuminati of attempting to pass a law in France that 
would estabUsh Atheism." 

During the French Revolution the strength of the lUuminati had been concentrated in 
Regensburg as a result of Weishaupt's forced exile. Quoting from another author, Hoffman, a 
second plan was now being put into effect for a revolution in Germany, Hoffman states. 

"All of us jointly swore opposition to the lUuminati, and my friends considered me as a proper 
instrument for this proposal. To whet my zeal, they put papers into my hands which made me 
shudder .... The intelligent saw in the open system of the Jacobins the complete hidden system of 
the lUuminati. We knew that this system considered the whole world in its aims and France was 
only the place of its first explosion. " 

In a postscript to his book , Robison writes that he has seen Abbe Barruel's book on the history 
of Jacobinism which has confirmed everything that he has said concerning the "Enlighteners". 
He shows unquestionably 

"that a formal and systematic conspiracy against rehgion was formed and zealously prosecuted 
by Voltaire, d'Alembert and Diderot, assisted by Frederick II, King of Prussia: and I see that 
their principles and their manner of procedure have been the same with those of the German 
atheists and anarchists. Like them, they hired an army of writers; they industriously pushed 
their writings into every house and every cottage. Those writings were equally calculated for 
inflaming the sensual appetites of men and for perverting their judgments. They endeavored to 
get the command of the schools, particularly those for the lower classes; and they erected and 
managed a prodigious number of Ubraries and Reading Societies." 

Robison' s remarks sound almost identical with those accusations against Marxist-Leninist 
activities that have emanated in recent years from the hallowed halls of the Congress of the 
United States. 

Of course, the Jews also had their "enhghteners," who appeared on the horizon at that time, 
and their movement is referred to as the "Haskala." While we have shown the connection 
between some of the members of the Haskala in Russia in conjunction with the attempted 
overthrow of Judaism, and the Bund der Gerechten, the question is "Were their predecessors 
Jacobins, or were they Unked in any way with members of the lUuminati?" The answer is a 
definitive "Yes," for when Count Mirabeau came to Paris to form the Jacobins in 1786, that 
was the year of Moses Mendelssohn's death, and not only that, but Count Mirabeau attended 
his funeral and even wrote an essay about the man.. Who was this man Moses Mendelssohn? 
And what was his influence on the Haskala? 

Moses Mendelssohn was born on Sept. 6, 1729, in Dessau, Germany. When Mirabeau attended 
his funeral, it was after January 4, 1786, the day of his death." The title of Mirabeau's essay 
was Sur Moses Mendelssohn sur la Reforme Politique des Juifs, which means Concerning Moses 
Mendelssohn on Political Reform of The Jews, which appeared in London in 1787. In his essay 
Mirabeau argues that the faults of the Jews were those of their circumstances and that the Jews 
could be made useful citizens if they could get rid of the "dark phantoms of the Talmudists." 
Mirabeau was very much akin to the personality of an Antiochus who would accept a Jew as 
long as he was a Hellenist, in contradistinction to a Haman who wanted Jews dead. Mirabeau 
wanted the Jew to disappear by assimilation. 

Moses Mendelssohn is regarded by many as the father of the Haskala movement. Indeed he was 
a role model for German Jewry for assimilation. For example, in Maurice Schwartz's Yiddish 
theatrical presentation of ''The Family Karnovsky,'' in 1948; Karnovsky, a German Jew, 
returns from World War I, marries a Gentile and justifies it because of Moses Mendelssohn. 
Many writers, even in discussing other subjects, will usually mention in passing Moses 
Mendelssohn's influence on the Haskala. For example, Rufus Learsi, in writing on The History 
of the Jews in America, states: 

"But the traditional or rehgious way of Hfe which the bulk of the immigrants from Eastern 
Europe carried with them to America was no longer unchallenged, even in their homelands. 
Intellectual and social movements were already afoot in all of them whose basic character was 
secular. The first and the oldest was Haskalah, which traced its origin back to Moses 
Mendelssohn, the frail and gentle sage of BerUn, who died three years before the outbreak of 
the French Revolution." 

Dr. Simon Noveck, editor of Great Jewish Personalities in Modern Times, says of the Haskala 
that it was among the Jews of BerUn 

"that secular interests made their greatest progress. Here existed the largest Jewish 
community in Germany, totaUng around 4,000 Jewish immigrants, even before Mendelssohn's 
death. It was in BerUn that the organized Haskalah movement representing the first systematic 
attempt of Jews to meet the challenges of the modern world grew up. The leader of the 
movement around whom the enhghtened gathered and to whom all looked for inspiration was 
Moses Mendelssohn." 

The historian Max Dimont tells us something else about his opinions of Mendelssohn which 
beUes not only Mendelssohn's true position with respect to authentic Judaism, but Dimont' s 
attitude towards religious Jews. Dimont's view, in his Jews, God and History, is that religious 
Jews are Uke refuse. Says Dimont, 

"Mendelssohn clearly saw the dilemma of and the danger to the Jews. If they remained in the 
ghetto, they would stagnate into a meaningless existence. If on the other hand they were 
catapulted out of the ghetto by the new social forces shattering feudaUsm without being 
prepared for the EnUghtenment they would be swallowed up by the dominant Christian 
majority. Mendelssohn saw his task as two-fold: first, to give the Jews a tool for their own 
emancipation; second, to prepare a new basis for the Judaic values once the old reUgious norms 
were rejected. The way Hercules diverted the flow of the two rivers into the Augean stables to 
clean out decades of accumulated refuse, so Mendelssohn channeled the currents of the 
"Aufklarung" into the ghetto to sweep out centuries of accumulated orthodoxy." 

All these citations are just exemplary of the popularly held view that Mendelssohn is the 
original "Maskil" (EnUghtener) of the Haskala. What, however, were the sahent messages and 
goals that Mendelssohn wanted to get across to his generation of Jews? They may be 
summarized as follows: 

1. Aid the Jews in moving out of the ghetto by teUing them that they must acquire the culture of 
their country in order to do this and, through this, begin a process of assimilation. 

2. Sell the viewpoint that the Jewish rehgion has no dogmas or articles of faith. Its spirit is 
"Freedom in doctrine and conformity in action." 

3. Popularize the concept that the doctrines and ethical teachings of Judaism are those of 
reason, and hence universal. 

4. EstabUsh Judaism as only a "religion" and that loyalty to it is compatible with a national 

There is no doubt that the stature of Mendelssohn as a role model of an intellectual Jew helped 
better the civil rights of Jews in Germany and throughout Europe. However, when one studies 
the philosophy of Mendelssohn and compares his theology with that of either of his great 
contemporary co-reUgionists such as Immanuel Kant or the great Talmudic scholar. Rabbi 
Ezekiel Landau of Prague (1713-1793), one is rather appalled how such a second-rate 
philosopher and theologian gets star biUing in the history books and seems to have found such 
tremendous and instantaneous recognition in the Germany of his day. 

While it is true that Mendelssohn had made a name for himself before the founding of the 
Illuminati in 1776, it is rather startUng that the works for which he is best known in the Jewish 
community, a philosophical treatise entitled Jerusalem and his Biur which was a translation of 
the Bible into German, were neither written nor pubUshed until after the Illuminati had gotten 
off the ground in Germany. Jerusalem appeared in 1783, and the first volume of his Blur came 

out in 1783. Mendelssohn was aided in putting out the Biur by a circle of fellow Enhghteners 
which included NaftaU Hertz Weisel, Aaron Friedenthal and Hertz Hamberg." 




ISRAEL Volume 1 (1974) 




As for that prophet or dream-divider, he shall be put to death, for he urged disloyalty to the 
Lord your God "to make you stray from the path that the Lord your God commanded you to 
follow, (Deuteronomy 13:6). 

Pray for the stabiUty of governments. For if it were not for the fear of governments each man 
would cannibahze his fellow man. (Mishna Avot 3:2). 

The question that should be asked is, "Was there any rational basis for the men of the 
Illuminati to behave as they did and to set into motion revolutions, upheavals and 
conspiracies?" Did they not realize that they were performing evil, and where, pray tell, did 

they receive an inspiration for carrying out their hideous tasks without faUing apart by 
confrontation with their own consciences, especially since these men as a group were 
exceptionally wealthy and of acute intellect and far above the average inteUigence of the 
common criminal. Furthermore, was there anything in their philosophy or make-up that led 
them to lead a double type of Ufe, indeed a schizophrenic existence? 

It is this writer's contention that throughout history the Communist idea has always existed. 
Indeed it even preceded Plato's RepubUc, regarded as the supreme blueprint for a Communist 
society. The question was whether with the poUtical fortunes of the hour, the opportunity would 
lend itself for kindred spirits not only to conspire towards these goals, but to effectuate their 
plan into action. Certainly this was the case when the Hellenists fought the Hasmoneans and 
were defeated by the Maccabees. But in analyzing the conflict, Judah Maccabee was not just 
fighting with his troops against a foreign government, but was fighting subversion in his own 
country initiated by the super-rich. The Tobiad family, for example, after acquiring fantastic 
fortunes, decided to turn their attention to a field in which they previously had Uttle interest, 
that of poUtics. Having done that, they were determined to bring a new order into the land of 

Again we find that Mazdak (sixth century) arose in Persia and carried out a fight to overthrow 
artisans and entrepreneurs in his day, wishing to bring a cooperative society and a new order, 
but the Persians defeated him and were incidentally led by the Jewish community "Prince" 
Mar Zutra who organized middle class and Persian society and checked Mazdak and his mobs. 

Before the advent of the lUuminati there were tremendous upheavals taking place of a political 
and reUgious nature. The Jesuits had been dethroned and were not restored to their former 
position within the church until 1814, called the Restoration. What was known as the 
suppression of the Jesuits began in 1773, which is three years before Weishaupt founded the 
Illuminati. The Jesuits were accused of building a power base for themselves within the 
Catholic Church, especially since royal confessors were usually Jesuits. The Jesuits were also 
constantly involved with in-fighting within the church, such as with the Dominican and 
Franciscan orders. The scientific community and the EnUghteners did not Uke the Jesuits and, 
furthermore, there was extreme friction developing between the Jesuits and the academic 
community, especially with the Sorbonne in Paris. 

In 1759 the order had been banished from Portugal. It was in 1769 that Clement XIV became 
Pope, and he expressed the view that "sometimes we must cut down the mast to have a ship." 
On July 21, 1773, three years before the founding of the Illuminati, he issued his "Brief of 
Suppression." Then strangely enough, he said, "For the sake of peace and because the society 
can no longer attain the aims for which it was founded and on secret grounds which we enclose 
in our heart, we suppress the said society." No one to this very day knows exactly what these 
secret grounds were, but Saint Alphonsus Ligouri declared that it was due to a "plot of 
Jansenists and infidels" or in other words, Illuminati types and mystical radicals, that had 
infiltrated and dominated the Jesuits." 

In the case of the Jewish rehgion, the community had been exposed to a very dangerous man. 

one Jacob Frank (1726-1791). Frank's story begins with Shabbetai Tzvi (1626-1676). Shabbetai 
Tzvi claimed that he was the Messiah and that he would deliver the Jews from their oppressors 
and return them to their homeland. In his day over a miUion Jews from every walk of Hfe 
proclaimed him and hailed him as their dehverer. As time went on Shabbetai became more 
mihtant in his Messianic pronouncements and, as the "Messiah," started to proclaim that 
certain aspects of Jewish law are no longer binding. He also began to speak out against the 
authority of the Talmud. As his renunciation of certain aspects of Judaism became more 
pronounced, so did he begin to lose some of his initial followers. 

Shabbetai married a prostitute named Sarah who had been an orphan of the PoUsh excesses of 
the Chmielnitsky massacres that were part of the seventeenth century Cossack rebeUion against 
the Polish middle class. This marriage was consummated to conform to a legend that the 
Messiah would marry an unchaste bride. 

Shabbetai was born in Turkey, but he moved to the Holy Land where he gained a tremendous 
following and announced that he would march against Constantinople to oppose the Sultan. 
About this time he was officially excommunicated by the rabbis of his generation. The Sultan 
did not wish to make a martyr of Shabbetai, but threw him into prison. This only strengthened 
his mo vement and hardened his followers. At this point the Sultan gave Shabbetai a choice 
between death or conversion to become a MusHm and freedom. Shabbetai chose conversion and 
freedom. Had he not, he probably would have gone down in Jewish history as a sainted martyr 
with a tremendous following. 

At the time of his conversion, thousands of his followers became disillusioned and abandoned 
the movement. However, there were still some stubborn followers who beUeved in him and, of 
course rationaUzed their following him by inventing some type of rationale. Hence the 
movement gave rise to a special Sabbatian sect in Turkey known as the Donmeh. The order 
maintained that the Messiah would have to sin before he could bring redemption, and this 
provided a rationale for beUeving in a Jewish Messiah who was of Islam. 

Many years after Shabbetai Tzvi's death, the Donmeh continued to exist and to grow. Jacob 
Frank encountered the Donmeh while he was a traveUing salesman in Turkey. He refined the 
concept of the Messiah sinning by urging members of the movement to sin, reasoning that if 
salvation could be gotten through purity, it could also be achieved through sin. Gershom 
Scholem, the great Kabbala authority, has elaborated on this theme in such writings as his 
Hebrew Mitzvah ha Ba'ah ba Averah , which was translated into an article that appeared in 
Commentary in 1971 entitled The Holiness of Sin; as well as a chapter in his Messianic Idea in 
Judaism entitled Redemption Through Sin, One of the ways that the Frankists indulged in their 
sin was to engage in sexual orgies. The Donmeh in Turkey officially converted to Islam in 1683 
and the Frankists in Europe to Catholicism in 1759. However, their conversion to these 
reUgions was for the purpose of imitating the Sabbatian role models as well as for subverting 
and destroying these faiths. 

As for the danger of the Frankist movement and its reckless revolutionary poHcies, Gershom 
Scholem gives more than ample testimony, and we shall quote hberally from his writings. He 

says of the Frankist sect: 

"Here, then we have all the prerequisites for the sectarian disposition, for the sect serves the 
Illuminati as both a rallying point for their own kind and a refuge from the incomprehension of 
the carnal and unenUghtened masses. The sectarians regard themselves as the vanguard of a 
new world ..." 

The idea was 

"that the King Messiah was to give 'a new Torah' and that the commandments of the Law 
(Mitzvot) were to be abrogated in Messianic times ... Even those visionaries who dreamt 
through the ages of a new Word of God in a redeemed world did not, in fact, particularly 
connect this idea with the activities of the Messiah himself, and it was not until it was seized 
upon by the new 'Marranic' doctrine that its latent explosive power was revealed. 

Therefore, Scholem says of Frank that "he will always be remembered as one of the most 
frightening phenomena in the whole of Jewish history: a religious leader who was a corrupt 

Scholem summarizes the five distinguishing behefs of radical Sabbatianism which are 
essentially behefs that the: 

1. Apostasy of the Messiah is a necessity. 

2. Real Torah is not the real Torah and must be violated by conforming to another superior, 
alien mystical Torah called the Torah of Atzilut (aristocracy). 

3. First Cause and the God of Israel are not the same, the former being the God of rational 
philosophers and the latter the God of reUgion. 

4. Godhead takes human form which allowed for leaders of the sect to be incarnated into that 
Godhead, from Shabbetai Tzvi through to Frank and others. 

5. "behever" must not appear to be as he really is. 

The last belief justified its followers' pursuit of the double type of life that they led. One could 
appear to be a religious Jew on the outside and in reahty be a Frankist. For though the Donmeh 
officially converted to Islam and the Frankists to Catholicism, the great majority of Frankists 
who outwardly appeared to embrace Judaism integrated themselves into the Jewish 
community. Despite the fact that they were all outwardly reUgious, they still cherished as their 
goal "the annihilation of every reUgion and positive system of behef," and they dreamed "of a 
general revolution that would sweep away the past in a single stroke so that the world might be 

Of the revolutionary philosophy of the Frankists and its mystical symbohsm, Gershom Scholem 

writes elsewhere in his Kabbalah and Its Symbolism: 

"This Life, however, is not the harmonious Ufe of all things in bond with God, a world ordered 
by divine law and submissive to His authority, but something very different, utterly free, 
fettered by no law or authority, this 'Life' never ceases to produce forms and to destroy what it 
has produced. It is the anarchic promiscuity of all Uving things. Into this bubbUng caldron, this 
continuum of destruction, the mystic plunges. To him it is the ultimate human experience. For 
Frank, anarchic destruction represented all the Luciferian radiance, all the positive tones and 
overtones, of the word 'Life.' The nihiUstic mystic descends into the abyss in which the freedom 
of living things is born: he passes through all the embodiments and forms that come his way, 
committing himself to none; and not content with rejecting and abrogating all values and laws, 
he tramples them underfoot and desecrates them, in order to attain the elixir of Life. In this 
radical interpretation of a symbol, the Ufe-giving element of mystical experience was combined 
with its potential destructiveness. It goes without saying that from the standpoint of the 
community and its institutions, such mysticism should have been regarded as demonic 
possession. And it is indicative of one of the enormous tensions that run through the history of 
Judaism that this most destructive of all visions should have been formulated in its most 
unrestrained form by one who rebelled against the Jewish law and broke away from Judaism." 

Jacob Frank preached his "ReUgious Myth of Nihihsm" in more than two thousand dogmatic 
sayings. One of the Frankist cult's pubhcations that has come into our possession is a book 
entitled Book of the Words of the Lord, which Scholem characterizes as "a mixture of primitive 
savagery and putrescent morals," The Frankists had a way of turning around old homihes and 
sayings that were common among the people, twisting them in their nihiUstic "Torah of 
Atzilut" For example, religious Jews at the beginning of the morning service start their prayers 
with a series of thirteen benedictions in which one thanks God for providing the necessities of 
Ufe, for clothing the unclothed, etc. Among these benedictions is one that praises God for 
freeing those in captivity. The Hebrew for this is matir asurim. In the Frankist cult the 
benediction was pronounced, praising God as matir isurim, which means permitting the 
prohibited. Similarly, they twisted around other sayings. They would say, "the subversion of 
the Torah can become its true fulfillment," and "great is a sin committed for its own sake." 

The Talmud states that the Messiah will come only in an age which is completely guilty or 
completely innocent (Sanhedrin 98a). From this epigram the Frankists would state, "Since we 
cannot all be saints, let us all be sinners." Scholem goes on to say that the blasphemous 
benediction "who permits the forbidden," 

"came to be considered by these radicals as the true expression of their feeUng. . . To the 
anarchic reUgious feeUng of these new Jews, all the three great institutional reUgions have no 
longer an absolute value." 

How did all these revolutionary tendencies fit in with Reform UberaUsm and Enlightenment? 
Scholem says that the Frankists and the Donmeh remained in close contact even after their 
formal apostasy. Most of the followers of Frank who remained Jewish were concentrated in 
Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary and Romania. Of them Scholem states, 

"It was the influence of these elements who had not openly cut themselves off from rabbinical 
Judaism which after the French Revolution became important in fostering the movement 
towards Reform liberaUsm and Enlightenment in many Jewish circles. Around 1850, a 
consciousness of this Unk between Sabbatianism and reform was still aUve in some quarters. In 
circles close to the moderate reform movement, a very remarkable and undoubtedly authentic 
tradition had it that Aaron Chorin, the first pioneer of reformed Jewry in Hungary, was in his 
youth a member of the Sabbatian group in Prague. Prossnitz and Hamburg, both in the 
eighteenth century centers of Sabbatian propaganda and the scene of bitter struggles between 
the orthodox and the heretics or their sympathizers, were among the chief strongholds of the 
reform movement in the beginning of the nineteenth century. The sons of those Frankists in 
Prague who in 1800 still pilgrimed to Offenbach, near Frankfort, the seat of Frank's successors, 
and who educated their children in the spirit of this mystical sect, were among the leaders, in 
1832, of the first "reform" organization in Prague. The writings of Jonas Wehle himself, the 
spiritual leader of these Prague mystics around 1800, already display an astonishing mixture of 
mysticism and rationalism. Of his extensive writings, an extremely interesting commentary to 
the Talmudic Aggadoth is extant in manuscript from which it is clear that his particular 
pantheon had room for Moses Mendelssohn and Immanuel Kant side by side with Sabbatai 
Zevi and Isaac Luria. And as late as 1864, his nephew, writing in New York, lengthily praises in 
his testament his Sabbatian and Frankist ancestors as the standard-bearers of the 'true Jewish 
faith,' i.e., of a deeper spiritual understanding of Judaism." 

How did the PoUsh rabbis attempt to eradicate the Frankists? They stated that "it was 
obhgatory for every pious Jew to search and expose them." The rabbis had watched Frank's 
sinister activities but could not muster sufficient proof to excommunicate him. In 1752 he 
married a Bulgarian Jewish woman named Channa. She was very beautiful, and he utihzed 
her, as was the custom among members of his sect, to ensnare hundreds of men who had 
Ucentious affairs with her, to build up the strength of his sect. But at one point pubhc pressure 
became so great in Turkey, that he was forced to embark for Poland in 1755. By this time 
Channa had two sons, Joseph and Jacob, and a daughter Eva. However, on the 20th day of the 
Hebrew month of Sivan in 1756, in the city of Satinow, the rabbis formally excommunicated 
Frank and ail his followers. They prohibited anyone from intermarrying with any member of 
the sect. The great rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-1776), wrote in a letter that it was prohibited for 
anyone to have mercy on them. 

The excommunication largely came about from an incident in which some illustrious rabbis 
who were not too famiUar with this sect were invited to a meeting by members of their 
congregations, and when they were invited into a larger hall in the city of Laskron to get 
recruits, the door was locked behind them and a nude woman danced in, right in front of their 
faces. The rabbis then had sufficient evidence and witnesses to the incident. At this meeting 
Frank spoke of a revolution against the government, and this led to his arrest by the police. He 
was thereafter exiled from Poland. 

Wherever the Frankists came they left desolation and despair in the Jewish communities. They 
instigated pubhc burnings of the Talmud. Thousands of books of the Talmud were burned in 
the city of Kaminetz on the last day of the Hebrew month Marach Shevan (Cheshvan) in 1757. 

A chain of Talmud burnings ensued in Lvov, Brodi and Zolkev, until the persecutor, Bishop 
Dembowski, a befriender of Frank, died suddenly on November 9, 1757. The people saw this as 
the hand of God. 

The Frankists enticed women to leave their husbands and to join their orgies. FamiUes were 
broken up in the hundreds. This is even more amazing considering the strong family Ufe that 
characterized the Jews in the small communities of Podolia, Moravia, Poland, Hungary and 
Romania at that time. They joined with Christian bigots in accusing the Jews of blood Ubels, 
claiming that the Jews murdered Christian children and used their blood for the Passover 
hoUday. For example, in the pubUc disputation with the rabbis in Lvov in 1759, they made a 
public accusation of blood Ubel. Scholem is of the opinion that they did this in a scheme to 
collaborate with bigoted CathoUc clergymen in order to wreak vengeance on their rabbinical 
persecutors. Scholem cites from the eminent historian, Meir Balaban, a conversation which 
took place in Lvov between Rabbi Chaim Rappaport and the Frankist Eliezer Jezierzany who 
said, "Chaim, we have given you blood for blood. You meant to make the shedding of our blood 
lawful, and now you have been given blood for blood!" 

In one case of blood libel, in the small shtetl of Villovich the Frankists took revenge on the local 
rabbi of the town by dressing one of their women up as the rabbi's wife. The impersonation was 
perfect. She appeared before the local priest and said that she saw the rabbi kill a Christian 
child for Passover. Because of this incident, the rabbi and all the members of his congregation 
were killed after a brief trial. The rabbi's wife and his five remaining children were tortured 
into accepting Christianity. 

In 1759 when the Frankists officially converted to CathoHcism, Frank was baptized in the 
Warsaw Cathedral with no less a personage than Emperor Augustus III as godfather. A year 
later he was accused of heresy and was thrown into the Citadel of Czenstockova and was 
released in 1773 only by the Russian conquest on the eve of the first partition of Poland. 

The reason why Frank was thrown into prison was because it was discovered that the Godhead 
of the Frankist cult was not the Trinity, but included members of the sect. 

The author has come across a very rare edition of a book entitled Jerusalem; A Treatise on 
Ecclesiastical Authority in Judaism^ by Moses Mendelssohn, pubUshed in 1838 by M. Samuels. 
On page 257 of Volume I occurs the following note, which is reproduced here in its entirety: 

"The chiefs of the sect carry about them a badge or medal, by which they make themselves 
known to one another and to the members. It is of the size of a half-crown piece, and coined like 
the Abraham coin mentioned in the Talmud. On one side it has 

zakan v'zakana b'chur v'bsula 

and on the other, the letters 

aleph, shin, yud, resh 

evidently the initials of Avrahom, Sarah, Yitzchak, Rivkah but underneath there appear again 
the letters 

aleph, Shin, Yud, Daleth 

with this difference that the Shin is a Shin, and not a Sin, and instead of the Resh there is a 
Daleth. Thus read: 

EUyahu, Shabbtai, Yonatan, Dobrushki 

the four chiefs of the sect, Elijah the Prophet, Redeemer; Sabbathai, Messiah; Jonathan 
(Eibeschutzer)--(This proves how justly he was accused of heresy)--and Dobrushki, i.e., Frank; 
which latter name he only adopted in Germany, as did his two nephews that of Frey, under 
which they resided at Paris, where they were guillotined in the days of Terror. 

We shall now explain the meaning of this fascinating footnote. 

According to legend, Abraham minted his own coins containing on one side a Hebrew 
inscription shown in the footnote, which means "an old man, an old lady, a young man and a 
virgin." On the opposite side of the coin were the letters which were Hebrew name initials for 
those whom this epigram represented. They were, reading from right to left, "Abraham, Sarah, 
Isaac and Rebecca." On the coinage of the Frankists, the lettering similarly appeared, 
excepting that the letter Shin for Sarah which in Hebrew is designated by a dot on the left for 
an "s" sound, had the dot on the right designating the "sh" sound, which stood for Shabbetai. 
The Raish which stood for Rebecca was replaced by the Hebrew letter Daled (which bears some 
graphic resemblance to Raish) which stood for Dobrushka. 

The names on the Frankist coin represented Elijah the Prophet, Shabbetai, Rabbi Jonathan 
Eibeschutz (1690-1764), and Jacob Frank in the alias of Dobrushka. The latter two names 
require some further explanation. 

Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz was a Frankist personality who led a double life. Secretly he was a 
Sabbatian, but outwardly he assumed the life of a great rabbinical scholar and decisor. It was 
the great Gaonic sage. Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-1776), who exposed Eibeschutz as a 
Sabbatian. The basis for the expose began in 1751 after Rabbi Eibeschutz had left Metz in 
France in 1750 for Altona in Germany. Emden based his charges on five amulets which had 
been issued to various individuals in the Metz community. Certified copies of the amulets were 
transmitted by scribes of the Jewish community and sealed by a royal notary. The amulets 
show that Eibeschutz invoked the power of Shabbetai Tzvi, and some bitter controversy broke 
out between Rabbi Emden and Eibeschutz, which spUt the Jewish community throughout 

The interesting thing about Samuels' note is that Eibeschutz was not just a Sabbatian, but he 
was an actual participant in the Holy Trinity, or more correctly. Quaternary of the Frankists. 

What comes out of this footnote is that Eibeschutz must have taken the Massa Duma (Isaiah 
21 :11) burden of silence which members of the innermost Frankist circles took. 

Dobrushka is the name that Frank assumed after he left prison in 1773 and resided for thirteen 
years in Brno (Bruenn), Moravia, with his relatives, Solomon and Sheindel Dobrushka. 
Solomon (1715-1774) held both the potash and the tobacco monopoUes in Moravia. Their 
children were Frank's nephews. 

The Encyclopedia Judaica states that Frank's income "was a constant source of wonder and 
speculation, and the matter was never resolved." The Encyclopedia further declares that 
during his sojourn with Dobrushka, Frank spoke a great deal about a general revolution which 
would overthrow kingdoms, and the Catholic church in particular. 

In the Frankist Quaternary we find that the Frankist name Dobrushka takes the place of the 
Virgin. How then does Frank fit in with this feminine personality? Frank accomplishes the 
female aspect by giving his wife sexually to members of the sect, and later his daughter Eva, 
who went to bed with the "greatest" of Europe, such as Joseph II, Emperor of Austria, in 1755. 
The Frankists sojourned in Austria until Frank crossed the Dneister River on December 3, 

Frank preached that the Virgin is renewed by going to Edom, which is represented by 
Christianity, so that revolution comes from Edom. He viewed the reUgions of the world as 
portals through which one passes before the Redemption. What is not too well known is that 
two years before his and other Frankists' conversion to CathoUcism in 1759, Frank converted 
to Islam. In the Frankists Godhead we can find the four personaUties represented by: 1. Atika 
Kadisha, 2. Maika Kadisha, 3. Shechina, and 4. The Great Brother. The last may account for 
the term "Big Brother." The first three designations are legitimate KabbaUstic terms for 
mystical manifestations of God's presence. 

When we examine the personalities as being exemplary of stages of the revolution, Elijah 
represents the ultimate Messiah, which is reached by starting with Judaism, represented by 
Jonathan Eibeschutz; going to Islam represented by Shabbetai Tzvi; and the last portal 
represented by Frank in Christianity. After the revolution comes Big Brother who rules the 

When Frank requested his formal conversion to Christianity, he asked that certain conditions 
be followed so as to enable his converts to appear secretly as Jews. Among the conditions for 
the conversion were that converts: 

1. Not be compelled to shave the sideburns. 

2. Be allowed to wear traditional Jewish garb. 

3. Have Jewish and Christian names. 

4. Not be forced to eat unkosher food. 

5. Rest on both Saturday and Sunday. 

Examination of the previously mentioned subversive Temple of Understanding in Washington, 
D.C., reveals a Frankist type of connotation, where there are six portals depicting Islam, 
Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism and Hinduism. 

The question may be asked as to why much of this information has escaped wider study. 
Gershom Scholem attempts to answer this question in his "Holiness of Sin," " as follows: 

"Secularist historians, on the other hand, have been at pains to de-emphasize the role of 
Sabbatianism for a different reason. Not only did most of the famiUes once associated with the 
Sabbatian movement in Western and Central Europe continue to remain afterward within the 
Jewish fold, but many of their descendents, particularly in Austria, rose to positions of 
importance during the 19th century as prominent intellectuals, great financiers, and men of 
high poUtical connections. Such persons, needless to say, could scarcely have been expected to 
approve of attempts to "expose" their "tainted" lineage, and in view of their stature in the 
Jewish community it is not surprising that their wishes should have carried weight. 
Furthermore, in an age when Jewish scholarship itself was considered to be in part an 
extension of the struggle for poUtical emancipation, the cUmate for research in so sensitive an 
area was by no means generally favorable. In consequence, those Jewish scholars who had 
access to the wealth of Sabbatian documents and eyewitness reports that were still to be found 
early in the century failed to take advantage of the opportunity, while by the time a later 
generation arrived on the scene the sources had been destroyed and were no longer available 
even to anyone who might have desired to make use of them." 

At the same time Scholem points out that rehgious Jews have been reluctant to deal with 
Sabbatianism because of the subversion of rabbis such as Eibeschutz which Scholem has 
described in great detail in his monograph Leket Margoliot. 

As for M. Samuels' remaining remarks in his footnote concerning Frank's two nephews Frey 
who resided in Paris and were guillotined in the days of the Terror, they were definitely 
Jacobins, and it is the checking of this passage with the history of the French Revolution that 
bears out the accuracy of M. Samuels' remarks. Samuels discusses in detail some of Frank's 
activities while in Offenbach where he Uved in regal style and maintained a miUtia. He died in 
Offenbach on August 10, 1791, having settled there in 1786. There he gave instructions in 
chemistry to his miUtary guard. Some of the chemical concoctions ascribed to the lUuminati in 
Zwack's collection were prepared by Frank for the lUuminati. 

The Frey brothers, referred to by Samuels, who were guillotined were actually the children of 
Solomon Dobrushka. Of twelve children fathered by Solomon, all were Frankists and eight 
openly converted to Christianity. 

Six Dobrushkas were enobled. Solomon's son, Moses Dobrushka, was an outstanding man of 

letters. He was born July 12, 1753, and officially converted to Catholicism on December 7, 1773. 
After his baptism in Prague, his name was changed to Schonfeld, the name of the enobled 
Dobrushka children. 

In 1782, Moses Dobrushka, now Schonfeld, founded a Masonic lodge called the Asiatische 
Bruder, which was one of the four Illuminati lodges in Vienna. After his uncle's death on 
August 10, 1791, he was offered the leadership of the Frankist movement, which he refused, 
because as a revolutionary Jacobin, he exercised far greater power than he could with the 
Frankists. In 1792 he and his brother Emanuel (1765-1794) changed their names to Frey. 

Stanley Loomis's book, Paris in the Terror (Avon 1964), refers to the Frey brothers, but he 
writes their name "Frei" and describes their trial as Jacobins taking place at the same time 
with the more famous Danton. Loomis mentions that the Frey brothers were guillotined 
because of their activities with the East India Corporation, which company's tea, as the reader 
may recall, was dumped at the Boston Tea party. 

The Freys' sister Leopoldine married the Jacobin Francois Chabot (1757-1794), who was a 
former Franciscan monk, noted for having voted for the death of Louis XVI. Chabot joined the 
Frey brothers at the guillotine on April 5, 1794, he being Ukewise found to be enmeshed with 
East India Company intrigues. What is perhaps more interesting is who the big financial 
interests were behind the Frey brothers. They were the Illuminati princes who had financed the 
East India Company and who had kept Frank in the luxury that he was accustomed. By 1816 
the last of the Frank children, Eva, died, being preceded by her brother Joseph in 1807, and by 
her other brother (who had changed his name upon conversion to Christianity to Rochas) in 
1813. Dimont says of Eva, 

"She preserved the dues-paying membership of Frankism by combining the scholasticism of 
the Zohar with the mysteries of her bedroom into a lucrative religion which enabled her to Uve 
in the grand style of her father. The Kabbala had not taught her how to retain her youth, 
however, and her membership dwindled as her middle-age spread increased." 

She died in debt and poverty. 

After Jacob Frank's death, a letter circulated in 1799 from Frank's headquarters in Offenbach. 
It is known as the Red Epistle of 1799 and was written in red ink. The Epistle exhorts members 
of the sect who embrace the "holy reUgion of Edom ~ Christianity. Now, Edom is associated 
with the color red, because the Hebrew word for red is adorn ^ which contains the same Hebrew 
letters but different vowels. Hence the red ink. Scholem labels the Epistle "a mystical theory of 
revolution." This author prefers to call it "The Red Kabbala," Scholem tells us that 
government officials intercepted copies of the Epistle and they suspected its authors of being 
hidden revolutionaries, but for the wrong reason. The reason was there were several references 
in the Epistle to Jacob, which led them to surmise that they were in reality dealing with the 

"An investigation was ordered on the spot. The authorities who conducted it in Frankfort and 

Offenbach, however, did not delve beneath the surface or the affair and were quickly satisfied 
that it involved nothing more than an intrigue to swindle and extort money from ignorant 
Jews ... on a deeper level the authorities' suspicions were fully if unwittingly justified. Had 
they bothered to read and understand not just the debtor's notice of Frank's children in 
Offenbach . . . but also the Prophecy of Isaiah that had been composed within the four walls of 
the 'court' itself, they would have been amazed to discover how ardently these Frankist 
'Jacobins' yearned for the overthrow of the existing regime." 

The Jacobin leaders who were active in the French Revolution were anti-reUgious, but they 
could clearly be divided into two types, both of which manifested the anti-Semitism of which we 
spoke. One wanted to see the Jews obUterated and persecuted, and the other wanted to see the 
Jew emancipated and assimilated. The Frankists and the lUuminatist Jacobins aUgned with 
Mirabeau were anti-Semites, favoring the total assimilation of the Jews. 

Of course, the Jews were a minority among the Jacobins, and to calf Jacobinism a Jewish plot 
would be just as ridiculous as caUing world Communism Jewish-dominated, although both 
groups had their prominent Jewish revolutionaries. Among those revolutionaries who sought 
the physical destruction of the Jews, one could count Voltaire, the Alsatian deputy Rewbell, one 
named LaFare, Bishop of Nancy, and the Abbe Maury. Those who wished for the emancipation 
of the Jews or their spiritual destruction were Count Mirabeau, the Abbe Gregoire, Diderot 
and Robespierre. 

Zalkind Hourwitz, Mendelssohn's Jacobin disciple, openly displayed such desires for Jews to 
assimilate that he could well be characterized as a Jewish anti-Semite, or self -hating Jew. Thus 
Hertzberg informs us that he was a bitter enemy of the Talmud and the rabbinate. He asked 
that rabbis be denied any authority to discipUne Jews via excommunication. Hertzberg goes on 
to say that 

"In his hatred of rabbis, Zalkind Hourwitz reached such fury that he even put into print 
accusations that must be called a piece of overt anti-Semitism. Commenting on the custom 
enjoined by the Talmud that Jewish dead are to be buried on the very day of death . . . Zalkind 
Hourwitz wrote that 'it is quite probable that this homicidal custom was introduced by some 
rabbi who was a poisoner, in order to hide his crime from the law'." 

In 1789 there were approximately 40,000 Jews in France, 30,000 of whom Hved in ghettos. 
During the Reign of Terror, all houses of worship were closed in accordance with Jacobin anti- 
rehgious poUcy. The churches and synagogues were reopened after Robespierre was guillotined 
on July 28, 1794, signifying the end of terror and the Jacobin power base. The Jews could now 
enjoy the full benefits of a vote taken on September 28, 1791, by the Commune before the 
National Assembly in which 53 out of 60 districts in France voted in favor of granting all Jews 
of France complete civil rights on a par with all citizens, which meant that the decision favored 
the spiritual anti-Semites, for Jews to assimilate. 

What we are confronted with here is the legitimate desire for Jews to have their legal civil 
rights being exploited by radical revolutionaries. It is then no wonder that there were such 

phenomena in France as Jewish Jacobin lodges. For example, Hertzberg cites a Jewish Jacobin 
lodge in Bayonne which he characterizes as "less anti-reUgious than the usual run of Jacobins, 
including those in control in Bayonne itself." Hertzberg gives a comprehensive presentation 
with regard to the major personaUties of the French Revolution and their attitudes towards 
Jews. Voltaire was virulently anti-Semitic. Voltaire was prone to concocting plots against Jews. 
For example, he accused a prominent wealthy Jew called Solomon Levy of spying for the 
Emperor of Austria. Voltaire stated, "A Jew belongs to no land other than the one where he 
makes money. Can he not just as easily betray the King for the Emperor, as the Emperor for 
the King?" Voltaire was prone to making disparaging remarks pertaining to Jews as being akin 
to barbarians, in addition to voicing his incisive criticism of the Bible, its Jewish background, 
and all rehgions, typical of Jacobin rhetoric. 

The Jacobins did not take any chance, though, in suppressing or censoring anti-Semitic rabble- 
rousing, for although the revolutionary left, represented primarily by the Commune of Paris, 
adopted the cause of the Jews, its leaders knew very well that this attitude was unpopular with 
the masses. Which raises the question whether the revolutionary left had significant amounts of 
Jewish money behind it to dissuade itself from giving in to the masses. 

A circular letter issued by the Jacobins after the Revolution makes mention that they were less 
concerned about the Jewish rehgious system than about what they called "their criminal 
antipathy to all citizens who do not belong to their ridiculous cult." 

Another Jacobin outburst declared that Jews should give up "their swindles and extortions ... 
and work with their hands in the workshops and fields." Hertzberg classifies this rhetoric as 
that of some of the extreme Jacobins of Eastern France. 

Many scholars have noted that Karl Marx's anti-Semitic outlook bore a relationship to 
Voltaire's works. This point is made, for example, in a book entitled Anti-Semites in Modern 

An historian named Silberner has taken up the question of the anti-Semitic attitudes of the 
European left in the 19th century in a work entitled Western Socialism and the Jewish Question. 
However, he does fail to link the Socialist outlook with Voltaire. Hertzberg, noting this, 
maintains that the subject needs further study. 

Whether the Frankists became Jacobins, Reform or Conservative movement leaders, or 
otherwise, one thing came down from generation to generation in their circles, and that was 
their profound hatred for Torah true Judaism, the Talmud and the rabbis, which, 
unfortunately, manifests itself to this very day among large segments of the leadership of the 
Conservative and Reform movements throughout the Diaspora. These successors of the 
Frankists and the Haskala were in no small way influenced by Frank's disciples to whom we 
will now turn our attention. 




ISRAEL Volume 1 (1974) 





If your brother, your own mother's son, or your son or daughter, or the wife of your bosom, or 
your closest friend entices you in secret, saying, "Come, let us worship other gods" ... do not 

assent or give heed to him Thine eyes shall have no pity on him, or compassion. Do not 

conceal him, but thou shalt surely take his Ufe. (Deuteronomy 13:7-10). 

Thy destroyers . . . shall go forth from thee. (Isaiah 49-17). 

The Frankist elite consisted of a circle of very gifted intellectuals, theologians and men of 
letters, as well as a group of men of great financial means who were for the most part great 
merchant bankers and exerted tremendous influence in their day in the highest financial circles 
of Europe. The most logical place to discover these people and their machinations would be to 
investigate Frank's own family and whom they married, bearing in mind, as we have noted 
before, that the Frankists only married among themselves. 

As the circle of this eUte widens, we find that they were in intimate contact with others whom 
we cannot document as being Frankists but whose actions indeed at least conform to the 
Frankist pattern of behavior. One such individual belonging to this latter category is Israel 
Jacobson (1768-1828). As we examine the Dobrushka family, we find that they intermarried 
with other people of great financial means, and that there was evidence of Frankism in those 
famiUes as well as mass conversion to Christianity. For example, Moses Dobrushka himself 
married the niece of Joachim Popper (1720-1795) who was a merchant banker. Francesca 
Dobrushka, his sister, married into the Hoenig family, later ennobled as the von Hoenigsbergs. 

The Hoenigsberg family acquired most of its wealth as descendants of Loebel Hoenig who 
during the Austrian secessions of 1740-1748 and the Seven-Year War of 1756-1763 
accumulated a fantastic fortune as a suppUer of the Austrian army. 

Loebel's eldest son, Israel Hoenig (1724-1808), achieved control of the Austrian tobacco 
monopoly. Joseph II, Emperor of Austria, incorporated the monopoly in 1784 as a government 
corporation, and retained Israel as a director, thus making Israel Hoenig the first Jew to 
become an Austrian official. 

Israel's partner in the tobacco business was his brother Aaron Moses (1730-1787). Aaron Moses 
had ten children, all of whom were baptized in 1796. Israel had six sons and one daughter. One 
of his sons, Leopold (1744-1815), married the daughter of Jonas Wehle, the Frankist leader of 
Prague, prominent in the Reform movement. Leopold was an active Frankist and complained 
to the Prague poHce, accusing the rabbis of reUgious coercion and requesting protection. He 
sought constantly to undermine, by deception, rabbinical authority, and authored a thirty-two- 
page protest in Prague which was similar in its anti-Semitic character to the aforementioned 
writings of Zalkind Hourwitz. 

Leopold Hoenigsberg' s brother-in-law was Rabbi Wolf Eibeschutz, the son of Rabbi Jonathan 
Eibeschutz, who married another daughter of Jonas Wehle. Jonas Wehle (1752-1823) in 
addition to being pivotal in his influence, was an outstanding aristocrat in Prague. He had a 
nephew named Gottlieb Wehle, who was also a very prominent Sabbatian. Gottlieb Wehle 
came to the United States with a large constituency of Frankists from Bohemia and Moravia 
after the Revolution of 1848. A will which he left in 1881 was the subject of a chapter in 
Gershom Scholem's book The Messianic Idea in Judaism. We learn from Scholem that this 
GottUeb Wehle was "the great-uncle of the late Justice Louis Dembitz Brandeis and a first 
cousin of Zacharias Frankel." We met Zacharias (or Zecharia) Frankel in Part I as the founder 
of the Conservative movement in Germany. Zacharias Frankel was born in Prague on July 7, 
1802, and Gottlieb Wehle twenty days later on July 27. 

Louis Dembitz Brandeis' grandfather, named Dembitz, was a student of medicine when he 
became active with the Frankists. Dembitz's son was Louis NaftaU Dembitz (1833-1907) who 
was an ardent aboUtionist and was one of the nominators of Lincoln at the RepubUcan 
Convention in 1860. Dembitz is described as an observant and reUgious Jew, which is 
completely out of character with the behavior of the Frankist '48-ers who arrived in the United 

Louis Brandeis himself appeared to be at odds with the interests of the international bankers of 
his day. For example, he was an ardent Zionist, and Jacob Schiff in 1907 declared that one 
could not "at the same time be a true American and an honest adherent of the Zionist 
movement," while Brandeis held that "to be good Americans, we must be better Jews, and to be 
better Jews, we must become Zionists." 

While it is difficult to show any connection on the part of Justice Brandeis with the Frankists, it 
is no mere accident that Brandeis University was the headquarters of all SDS chapters 
throughout the United States, from which their most radical upheavals and riots were master- 
minded. The founders of Brandeis University and some of its top administrators have been 
violently anti-reUgious and have left wing associations. We shall deal with this group in a future 
chapter, but suffice it to say that the Louis Dembitz Brandeis name placed him in a position 
similar to the fictitious Rosemary of "Rosemary's Baby", and while he never had anything to 
do with Frankism, radical revolutionaries have utiUzed his name as a rallying point because of 
its radical Frankist connections. 

Jonah Wehle's brother Aaron Beer Wehle (1750-1825) was Gottheb Wehle's father and was 
also a prominent Frankist. Aaron's sister Rosel Eiger (died 1831) was a prophetess in the 
movement. Eva Frank in 1816, shortly before her death, presented a picture of herself in 
miniature to Aaron, which is presently a part of the Schwadron Collection of portraits and 
autographs in the Hebrew University Library. 

Aaron Wehle married Esther (1772-1838), who was his second wife and who bore him Gottlieb 
in 1802. She was the daughter of Bermann Simon Frankel Spiro, grandfather of Zacharias 
Frankel. Rabbi Jacob Emden accused Esther's mother of Sabbatian leanings. Esther married 
Aaron Wehle in 1791. 

It is interesting to note that Justice Brandeis' wife was also of Frankist ancestry (a fact which 
appears to have escaped Gershom Scholem), and this double Frankist association may well 
have helped him rise in America's social spheres to the Supreme Court. Brandeis married one 
of Gottheb Wehle's granddaughters and her sister married FeUx Adler, the Geiger Seminary 
graduate whom we discussed in Part I and who founded Ethical Culture. 

The Asiatic Brethren, Illuminati lodge to which we have previously referred, founded by Moses 
(ahas Dobrushka) Schonfeld in 1782, was a meeting ground for many Frankists in Vienna. The 
goings-on of this lodge were documented in a chapter entitled The Order of the Asiatic Brethren 
which comprises a comprehensive book Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1723-1939 by Jacob 

It should be pointed out that when attempts were made by the Illuminati, Jacobins and 
Frankists to infiltrate the Masons that their infiltration did not mean that they harbored any 
particular love for Freemasonry. On the contrary, they hated it with a passion and only wished 
to utilize the cover of Freemasonry as a means of spreading their revolutionary doctrines and to 
provide a place where they could covertly meet without arousing suspicion. The Order of 
Asiatic Brethren's full name was Die Bruder St. Johannes des Evangelisten aus Asien. From 
Katz we learn that this order was the earUest attempt to found a Masonic order with the 
avowed purpose of accepting both Jews and Christians in its ranks. As usual, the 
revolutionaries had a legitimate issue to exploit which they could pervert to their own ends. The 
legitimate issue was civil rights for Jews and the exclusion of Jews from Masonic orders. This 
parallels Jacobin attempts at the time of the French Revolution to begin pioneering work with 
blacks who were disenfranchised as slaves or second class citizens in European lands and to 
exploit them for their own ends, such as the Jacobin-sponsored Societe des Amis des Noirs, the 
Society of the Friends of the Blacks. The Illuminati lodges estabUshed themselves a reputation 
for being tolerant and not bigoted; and hence filled themselves up with Jews, but Jews were not 
allowed into the Illuminati inner sanctum until the 19th century. 

Katz names many members of the Viennese Asiatic Brethren. He mentions that one of the 
Hoenigs belonged, and one named Nathan Adam Arnstein (1748-1838). Arnstein was a brother- 
in-law of Isaac Daniel Itzig of Berhn who was the brother-in-law of David Friedlander of Moses 
Mendelssohn's circle. Itzig was co-founder with Friedlander of the Jewish Free School in 
Berhn. Interestingly enough, this school had its own printing press known as the Press of the 
Jewish Free School which in 1796 changed its name to the Oriental Printing Office and was 
considered to be a powerful instrument of cultural reform. Itzig was financial advisor to King 
Frederick WiUiam II of Prussia who, when he was Crown Prince, was a member of the Berhn 
Illuminati. Born in 1744, he became King in 1786. 

The Asiatic Brethren, Illuminati aberration, had lodges in Prague, Innsbruck, Berhn, 
Frankfurt and Hamburg. Itzig was a member of the Berhn Asiatic Brethren. 

Arnstein' s brother-in-law was also a member of the Vienna lodge. His name was Bernhard von 
Eskeles (1753-1839). Eskeles married Itzig's sister Cecelia. Arnstein's wife was known as the 
Baroness Fanny. His daughter Charlotte became the wife of Metternich's chief banker, Leopold 
Edler von Hertz (1767-1828), her cousin (son of Solomon and Maria-Anna, nee Arnstein) 
Leopold and five of his children embraced Christianity in 1819. 

While Frederick William II wished it to be forgotten after assuming the throne that he was an 
Illuminatus, it was pubhc knowledge that he was given to Rosicrucian mysticism. In 1790 the 
Toleranze Lodge was founded in Berhn by prominent German Jewish financiers. They 
approached the Grand Lodge of Germany to grant them an approved constitution, but their 
request was refused. The banker Itzig was able to procure a letter of approval from King 
Frederick WiUiam and the King consented "to tolerate the lodge in question and to protect it as 
long as it harbored no tendencies towards illuminatismus and toward enhghtenment." 

Katz informs us that illuminatismus means "an order which had gained notoriety for social and 

political extremism." So we see that the King of Prussia, Frederick William II, also tried to lead 
a double Ufe, outwardly a man of conservative views, but inwardly a radical. We can also learn 
from these royal pronouncements that EnUghtenment and lUuminatism were held to be 

At this point we may well ask ourselves what Frederick WiUiam had to gain from this type of 
activity in terms of his own self interest which would be the throne of Prussia. Aside from any 
ego satisfaction which he may have harbored as a Prince or Magus King of an enUghtened 
organization or behef in the immortaUty of his soul (as preached by Plato in his Phaedon) so 
that he would reign two centuries later over the new Platonic repubhc; there is another 
consideration which we may derive from another monarchial predecessor to Frederick 

This monarch was none other than Kavadh I (449-531), ruler of Persia. Kavadh was in constant 
conflict with his nobility. They were seeking ways to depose him when Kavadh engineered a 
poUtical solution to his crisis. He thus sought out the Communist teacher Mazdak and 
clandestinely supported him. Mazdak engaged in guerilla warfare against the nobiUty and 
embroiled the Persian empire in class warfare. Kavadh just sat back and watched as the hordes 
of Mazdak overan some of Persia's major economic centers kiUing out the nobiUty's poUce and 
armies. In the process Mazdak managed to confiscate nobiUty monies and some of their wives 
which he distributed among his followers according to the tenets of his Communist teachings of 
community property. 

During the Mazdak uprisings the Jews as entrepreneurs suffered terribly losing their hard 
earned fortunes, businesses, Hves and the chastity of their wives and daughters. While all hope 
seemed to be lost. Mar Zutra II, who was Exilarch (Chief of the Jewish Community) succeeded 
in organizing the Jewish Community under arms. Mar Zutra's army began to turn the tide and 
reigned victorious. Mar Zutra was enabled by popular acclaim because of his victories. The 
successes of Mar Zutra drove the Mazdakites to desperation. They attempted to assassinate 
him in his castle on one occasion. Finally in the year 520 they succeeded in inflicting heavy 
casualties on Mar Zutra's army which now comprised non-Jews as well and during one fierce 
battle captured him and crucified him to death. On the day of his death Mar Zutra's wife gave 
birth to Mar Zutra III and left immediately after his birth for Jerusalem. Mar Zutra III left his 
impact on Jewish history as Editor of the Jerusalem Talmud. We thus have the ironic 
precedent of a great Talmudic authority Mar Zutra II, Exilarch and father of a Talmudic 
Editor, fighting Communism in the diaspora, risking his life and finally being tortured to death 
by crucifixion nearly 1500 years before John Birch the missionary was tortured by Communist 
Chinese after whom the Birch society got its name. 

Nine years after the death of Mar Zutra II, Kavadh with the aid of his favorite son Chosroes, 
implemented an edict of extermination against the Mazdakites. Mazdak himself was hanged, 
bringing to an end the Communist reign of terror. Kavadh's kingdom was now united and 
intact without threats from aspiring noblemen. Communism had served Kavadh well. 

While Frederick William did not rule an aspiring nobiUty, he was surrounded with 

independent neighboring German states which at various times since their inception had grown 
at the expense of their neighbors or had diminished to their neighbors' advantage. If Prussia 
could succeed in carving out a unified German republic by stepping in as a conqueror of her 
neighboring states to quell their internal strifes, it would be worth the risk. 

In any event, both Prussia under Frederick WiUiam, and Austria under Joseph II, played this 
poUtical game and were the principal stage upon which the Frankist elite practiced their 
machinations prior to the French Revolution, and it was in BerUn's Asiatic Brethren that the 
Itzig family reigned supreme. By just following the Itzig family alone one can trace through 
their marriages and social circles most of the lUuminati-Frankist poUtical intrigues of the late 
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 

Isaac Daniel Itzig (1750-1806) was the son of Daniel Jaffe (1723-1799). In addition to being 
distinguished bankers, the Itzigs were purveyors of silver to the Royal Prussian mint. Daniel, 
together with banker-merchant H. Ephraim (1703-1753), during the Seven Years' War, issued 
debased coinage which not only contributed to inflation but helped the Prussian government 
fight the war. Ephraim never Uved to see his grandson David (1762-1834) who further 
cemented the Ephraim-Itzig consortium by marrying one of Daniel's twelve children. 

Daniel's daughter Leah married B. SeUgman (1771-1815), progenitor of Joseph SeUgman of 
Our Crowd who was president of FeUx Adler's leftist Ethical Culture Society and considered 
himself a free-thinker, but in reaUty was an atheist. 

FeUx Adler's wife, as we mentioned before, was the sister-in-law of Louis D. Brandeis and the 
daughter of Joseph Goldmark (1819-1881), who was born in Warsaw. A radical Communist in 
the Austrian revolution of 1848, he was president of the Student Union and conspired to 
murder the Austrian Minister of War Latour. He escaped to America and was sentenced to 
death in absentia for his part in Latour's death. By 1868 Marxist radicals had so gotten in 
control of Austria that when Joseph returned to Austria, he was acquitted of his role in the 
Latour murder. 

Joseph married the daughter of Frankist GottUeb Wehle. His son Henry (1857-1941) designed 
the locks of the Panama Canal and his daughter PauHne (18741962) was a prominent social 
worker and secretary of the National Consumer Leagues. 

It was Daniel Itzig's daughter Blumchen (17521814) who married David Friedlander of the 
Mendelssohn circle and who participated in the heretical Biur^ the German translation of the 
Torah. However, Friedlander's avocations were not lightly regarded by the Itzig clan. NaftaU 
Herz Weisel (Wessely in some texts (1725-1805) contributed the Leviticus Commentary to the 
Biur. He was an alumnus of one of Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz's seminaries, which as early as 
1726 had been placed under a rabbinical ban for their Sabbatian teachings. Eibeschutz had 
estabUshed such seminaries in cities where he sojourned such as Prague and Altona. 

The Gaon Rabbi Moses Chagiz (Hagiz in some texts (1672-1751) had for example in a letter 
dated 19 Tishrei (October 15), 1726, proclaimed: 

"They shall proclaim a strict ban that would prohibit any student from Poland to study under 
Rabbi Jonathan from Prague." 

Rabbi Jacob Joshua Falk (1680-1756), author of the Monumental Pnei Yehoshua, Talmudic 
commentary, excommunicated Eibeschutz in 1752. 

When he conspired to introduce a radical compulsory secular education for Jewish children 
under Joseph II, Weisel pubhshed a book in 1782 entitled Divrei Sholom V'Emet (Words of 
Peace and Truth) to support this position. Rabbi H. Lewin, Chief Rabbi of Berhn, proceeded to 
place a ban on the book but had pressure put on him by the Itzigs who thwarted it. 

The Arnsteins introduced Weisel to the Trieste community and financially aided Mendelssohn's 
Biur project. 

Nathan Adam Arnstein (1748-1838) had three brothers: Joseph Michael (1778-1783), Mayer 
and David Isaac. Joseph became a CathoUc in 1778 and was disowned by the father, Adam 
Isaac (1721-1785), but was ennobled in 1783. His brother Mayer married Theresa Wertheimer, 
granddaughter of banker- Chief Rabbi Samson Wertheimer of Austria. Adam's grandfather, 
Aaron (1682-1744) was employed by Rabbi Wertheimer. 

Rabbi Wertheimer (1658-1724) was considered to be the wealthiest Jew in Europe from 1694- 
1704. He was Financial Administrator of Emperors Leopold I, Joseph I and Charles VI and 
supervised their diplomatic missions. This earned him the nickname Judenkaiser, Jewish 

In addition to the family ties of Arnstein and Eskeles via marriage in the Itzig family, the two 
famiUes were connected by marriage through the Wertheimers, for Bernhard Gabriele Eskeles 
(1692-1753) married Wertheimer's daughter who gave birth after his death to their son 
Bernhard (1753-1839) who married Ceceha Itzig. 

The Arnsteins and Eskeles were involved in clandestine poUtical intrigues aimed at poUtical 
revolution and were active lUuminati. Their main base of operation was the Asiatic Brethren 
lodge in Vienna. From there they executed what is described as the worst piece of legislation 
leading to Jewish assimilation, namely the Toleranz- Patent (Edict of Tolerance) of Joseph II. 

The Toleranz-Patent intrigue was kicked off by the appearance of an anonymous expose 
illustrating the alleged backwardness of Austrian Jewry. The anonymous authorship has been 
ascribed by historians to Bernhard Eskeles. This led to Joseph II's Patent of Tolerance on 
January 2, 1782. In 1788 Joseph ordered the Jews to divest themselves of laws and customs that 
ran counter to his "enUghtened" imperial legislation. 

Bernhard's sister Lea meanwhile was engaged in high espionage and was involved in a Prussian 
spy scandal. She married Valentin Guenther of the court of Joseph II. Bernhard's wife Ceceha 
and her sister, the Baroness Fanny von Arnstein (1757-1818), opened salons and ballrooms that 

were the rage of Vienna. The two sisters tried to outdo each other in extravagant parties and 
Ubertine escapades. Fanny bankrolled Mozart and introduced to Vienna the first Christmas 
tree. CeceUa flirted with the Illuminatus humanist Goethe. Her sister-in-law, Lea Guenther, 
corresponded with Goethe regularly. 

Not to be outdone by CeceUa, Fanny enticed the Count of Lichtenstein to duel for her honor. He 
was killed. During the Congress of Vienna, Metternich, Hardenberg and Talleyrand danced in 
her ballrooms which "became a center of poUtical intrigue." Her daughter, Henrietta, married 
banker Heinrich Pererra (1774-1835) whose family converted to Christianity. Arnstein and 
Eskeles both financed the Tyrolese peasant revolt against France and Bavaria. 

Fanny's nephew, Benedict David Arnstein (17651841), son of David Isaac, entered the banking 
business and was held in high esteem in Viennese society as a writer-dramatist. His first 
publication, an Illuminatus propaganda piece, describes the joy felt by Jewish famiUes of 
Austria at the issue of the Tolerance edict. 

The banking houses of Arnstein and Eskeles both eventually ended in financial ruin in the early- 
nineteenth century as their wealth passed on to the increasing competition of the Rothschild 
dynasty, and their reUgion which they had long ago renounced in practice and beUef, officially 
changed to Christianity, such as in the case of CeceUa Eskeles, whose entire family was baptized 
in 1824. When Fanny Arnstein died, she endowed the Home of the Aged for CathoUc priests of 
Vienna and was eulogized by none other than N. H. Homberg (1749-1841) whom we met as co- 
conspirator with LilUenthal and Geiger in Part I. Homberg was a collaborator with 
Mendelssohn's Biur, on the Deuteronomy translation. Mendelssohn considered Homberg 
competent enough to tutor his son Joseph. 

There is no doubt about the Frankist rites of the Asiatic Brethren lodge and their esteem of the 
All-seeing Eye. 

The Asiatic Brethren adopted Christian symbols and were required to eat pork and milk. 
Professor Scholem has proven that the Brethren were dominated by Sabbatian conceptions. 

While Dobrushka, founder of the Viennese Asiatic Lodge, went to an early death, Ephraim 
Joseph Hirschfield (1755-1820), a Frankist and activist in Mendelssohn's circle was active with 
the Vienna Lodge and was a missionary for the Asiatic Brethren. He was described as its 
"central spiritual pillar." 

Hirschfield preached that he who occupied himself with Kabbala could pass beyond the 
confines of the CathoUc, Muslim or Jewish reUgions and reach "the one and only true, pure and 
overall religion." From 1792 until his death in 1820 Hirschfield settled in Offenbach, seat of the 
Frankists, where he devoted much time to their activities. 

A close acquaintance of Hirschfield was Franz Joseph MoUtor who was historian for the 
Vienna Lodge. In 1812 MoUtor (1779-1860) who was a Christian with Frankist leanings, 
became head of the Jewish Freemasonry lodge In Frankfurt which had lUuminastic tendencies. 

He invited Hirschfield to introduce Asiatic rites but this was rejected by the lodge, especially 
since that lodge had been chartered prior to Napoleon's defeat by the lUuminati's Grand Orient 
Lodge of Paris and made it suspect. 

Molitor revered Frankist Jonathan Eibeschutz and stated that Moses Schonfeld was 
Eibeschutz's grandson. We know that this is not true, taking family pedigree at face value, 
although the possibility of his being the illegitimate grandson is within reason when it is known 
that Wolf Eibeschutz visited the Dobrushka homestead in Brno and that adultery was 
frequently practiced by them and even "respectable" rabbis who were Crypto-Sabbatians. 
What comes through, discounting this possibility, is Eibeschutz's influence in this circle that 
caused the Lodge to feel proudly associated with him, especially Eibeschutz's nihiUstic 
antinomian work V'Avo Hayom El Ha'ayin (I Shall Approach the Eye Today) which in its title 
alludes to the "eye" of Illumination. Eibeschutz's sinister allusions in this book found 
representation in Weishaupt's lUuminati, not only in the All-Seeing Eye, but in other 
symboUsms such as the point in a circle, denoting the fecundity principle and sexual anarchy, 
which is still in use by today's continuation of the Frankists, the Platonic-Communist Cult of 
the All-Seeing Eye. 

In the wake of lUuministic German-Jewish freemasonry Lodges, we find that the Rothschilds 
very adroitly steered their way into a position of control over these lodges in much the same 
manner as Friedrich, the Duke of Brunswick, member of the lUuminati , was one of the main 
sponsors of the Vienna Asiatic Brethren Lodge until his death in 1792. 

The Rothschilds utilized the services of Sigmund Geisenheimer, their head clerk, who in turn 
was aided by Itzig of BerUn, the lUuminati of the Toleranz Lodge and the Parisian Grand 
Orient Lodge. Geisenheimer was a member of the Mayence Masonic lUuminati Lodge, and was 
the founder of the Frankfurt Judenloge; for which attempt he was excommunicated by the 
Chief Rabbi of Frankfurt, Tzvi Hirsch Horowitz. At a later date the Rothschilds joined the 
Lodge. Solomon Mayer (or Meir) Rothschild (1774-1855) was a member for a short while 
before moving to Vienna. 

While the Frankists estabUshed themselves in 1786 in the Frankfurt suburb of Offenbach and 
were patronized by unidentified philanthropists of the Frankfurt community, the author is at a 
loss to find any documents relating the Rothschilds with the Frankists. At the time of Jacob 
Frank's death in 1791, Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the oldest of the five Rothschild children, 
was eighteen and James, the youngest, had not as yet been born. 

During the Frankfurt Lodge's formative years, the three most active members of the Frankfurt 
Judenloge, were Geisenheimer, Michael Hess (1782-1860) and Justus Hiller. 

Michael Hess was hired by Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812) as a tutor for his children. 
Hess also tried to close a Jewish reUgious school in 1816. 

Sigmund Geisenheimer "distinguished" himself as a founder of Philanthropin, the first school 
of Reform Judaism. The Frankfurt Judenloge was the headquarters of leaders of the early 

Reform movement, including Michael Hess himself, Michael Creizenbach, the historian Marcus 
Jost, and Jacob Auerbach who aided LiUienthal in his aborted campaign against Russian 

At the time of the 1848 revolution, we find that Berthold Auerbach, Abraham Geiger's 
revolutionary friend, belonged, so did the Reform phony rabbi G. Salomon of the Hamburg 
Temple, as well as Jacob Dernburg the jurist, a close friend of Abraham Geiger. 

Justus Hiller was appointed orator of the Lodge. At its founding, his antinomian leanings were 
evident in his address where he alluded to Frankist teachings. He was a delegate to the French 
Sanhedrin, along with a Westphalian banker, Israel Jacobson (1768-1828), whom Abraham 
Geiger mentioned when he eulogized James Rothschild on November 29, 1868, as follows: 

A short time ago we marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of Israel Jacobson. His 
abundant wealth would not have given permanence to his name. He is remembered because he 
was a shield and protector of his brethren .... Lavish in charity, he founded a school in which 
the new educational requirements of our time were Unked with our traditional heritage for the 
education of the rising generation. He built houses of worship in which the faith of Israel was to 
shine forth in purified form and to be preached in messages of inspiration. Therefore his name 
will live forever. 

Geiger concluded his eulogy of James by urging the Rothschilds and the other super-rich to 
emulate Jacobson; if they did, he concluded: 

"This will be a new radiance to illumine the bright escutcheon of that house and to give an 
everlasting memorial to its name." 

In other words, Geiger was teUing these people that by emulating Israel Jacobson, they would 
be good Illuminati. Indeed, Jacobson had been referred to as "Jacobin, son of Israel," and 
Jacobson had served the Illuminatus Duke of Brunswick, sponsor of the Frankist Asiatic 
Brethren as his financial agent as well as Napoleon (as his WestphaUan banker). Actually, 
Jacobson may be regarded as the first self made phony rabbi of the Reform movement. He 
opened a "unique" house of "Jewish?" worship in Kassel in 1807 called the Consistor 
Altschule. On July 17, 1810, Jacobson introduced Christian practices into a Jewish service. He 
tolled a bell, had an organ playing and delivered a sermon clothed in the robes of a Protestant 
minister. All the Christian practices he attributed to the influence upon himself of 
Mendelssohn. Jacobson's two heretical practices, the playing of an organ as part of the services 
and donning ceremonial robes of a Christian minister are today indulged in by nearly all 
Reform and most Conservative Temples. 

A few years later Jacobson moved to Berhn where he opened for the Shavuot hoUday of 1815, 
Berhn's first Reform synagogue. 

The Reform clergyman PhiUpson claims Jacobson as the founder of Reform , and extoUs him 
but somewhere along the line, PhiUpson, encyclopediasts and other heralds of enUghtenment 

have conveniently forgotten an interesting fact about Jacobson, and that is that the first Reform 
service in Berlin was conducted in honor of Jacobson's son's Bar-Mitzva and this son thereafter 
studied for and entered the CathoUc priesthood. 

These facts should again serve to emphasize the persistent nihiUstic and secular-poUtical 
character of the Conservative and Reform movements among Jews. 

Since Jacobson's day, Httle has changed. Antimomian so-called "Judaisms" continue to serve as 
assimilating factors and a destructive force against the intact survival of the Jewish rehgion. 
These same groups continue to Christianize Judaism and to Judaize Christianity with the 
ultimate aim of destroying these rehgious systems. 

As recently as March 25, 1973, a rally was attended by thousands of Jews in New York in front 
of the National Council of Young Israel on 3 West 16th St. Entitled An Invitation to Indignation, 
it was presided over by prestigious rabbis representing rehgious American Jews. They 
expressed their 

"Indignation over the grave spiritual injury inflicted by Conservative and Reform Jewish 
clergy's teachings and practices, leading to intermarriage and assimilation." 

Unfortunately, the media never carried the story, because it is controlled today, as it was after 
the lUuminati came to power, by interests that are dedicated to the destruction of authentic 
rehgious values and that would never allow a news story to appear that would challenge the 
alleged authenticity of secular-poHtical quasi-rehgious nihihstic sects. Little has changed since 

No sooner had Israel Jacobson initiated these "reforms" when Aaron Chorin (1766-1844) came 
out in complete support of them and attempted their initiation. Charin was a known Sabbatian 
and did most of his dirty work in Hungary, opening Reform temples. He aboHshed the Kol 
Nidre service on Yom Kippur, agitated for the desecration of the Sabbath day and actively 
promoted intermarriage and assimilation. So infamous did he become that people said of him 
that God created Satan in the image of Aaron Chorin. It was no wonder then that in addition to 
his being excommunicated, he was once nearly stoned to death by a mob of pious Jews. 

The Hst of the Frankist ehte is long, and if one spent the time to study just the few famihes 
mentioned here, in depth; the information would fill several volumes. However, the same 
pattern continuously emerges. BriUiant, wealthy people addicted to power, anxious to 
assimilate (if they were born Jewish), to destroy religions, to indulge in radicalism, to live 
cryptic two-faced Hves sometimes posing as rehgious Jews, CathoHcs, or Protestants but 
indulging their revolutionary radicahsm in secret. 

Scholem informs us that the Frankists went underground around 1820, as their emissaries went 
from town to town and from family to family to collect their secret writings. In 1845, Woltgang 
Wessely pubhshed Letters of a Sabbatian, detaihng Frankist activity in Prague. As the years 
passed, the economic and intellectual position of the Frankists strengthened. They built 

factories and became active in Masonic organizations. They were known to have secret 
gatherings on the Ninth of Av which they celebrated as a hoHday, which is the Jewish fast day 
commemorating the destruction of both Temples. The center of Frankist activity changed from 
Frankfurt-Offenbach to Prague and then to Warsaw. The Frankists in Warsaw who were now 
concentrated among seemingly CathoHc families maintained contact prior to World War II 
with the Turkish Donmeh Sabbatians, who were centered in Turkey and in Salonika, Greece. 
The Donmeh was active in the Committee for the Progress and Unity of the Young Turk 
Movement. David Bey of the Donmeh was an important minister in the first Young Turk 

The PoUsh poet Adam Mickiewicz (1795-1855) was from a Frankist family, was a political 
radical and was imprisoned by the Russian government for some time. He associated with 
Goethe. Mickiewicz' s poetry reflected paganism and mystical reUgious philosophy. 

From 1832 on Mickiewicz came to Paris, where he held some prestigious academic positions. 
However, his lectures deteriorated to radical political polemics, causing him to be censured by 
the French government. While the Frankists appear to have dominated Eastern European 
radical circles, they also found their way to other parts of Europe and to America. 

In the latter part of the 18th century Samuel H. Falk (1710-1782) a Sabbatian and Frankist, 
came to London and estabUshed a laboratory devoted to alchemy and Kabbala in London 
Bridge. His previous radical activity in Germany had caused him to be banished from Cologne 
by the city's Archbishop. 

Falk's mystical activities were involved with the use of secret formulas for the name of God, 
which earned him the title of Baal Shem (Master of the Name) of London. The Frankists 
indulged in this name because their arch enemies were the Chasidic Jews, whose spiritual 
founder. Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov (1700-1760), earned his title by acclamation because of 
the good deeds he had done and his mastery of the KabbaUstic Holy names of God, the Shemot 
Hakedoshim. It therefore is no wonder that when the American artist, John Copley painted 
Falk's portrait that Frankists made dupUcates of it and disseminated it all over Europe, from 
which they derived a sadistic pleasure at having substituted one of their ilk for the Baal Shem 

There are still many people today who erroneously believe Falk's portrait to be that of the Baal 
Shem Tov. Copley's painting can be found reproduced in the Encyclopedia Judaica. 

While Gershom Scholem seems to have lost the Frankists somewhere in Warsaw in the 1920's 
and the Donmeh in Salonika during World War II with the extermination of the Jews there; I 
have found their descendants in the United States to be very active in Marxist-Leninist and 
Third World activities. They have attempted to convert the Civil Rights movement into a Black 
revolution, and are attempting to further polarize this country by promoting women's 
liberation. Their children who are prominent in the SDS organize and recruit for the El Fatah, 
and have succeeded in destroying synagogues and Jewish institutions by instigating Black 
radicals mostly concentrated in nine urban centers in the US. 

The Frankists today no longer call themselves by that name. The Organization has grown into 
an international group labeled by outsiders as the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye. The Frankists 
today no longer incorporate the portals of three rehgions through which they must pass to 
bring about the millenium. They have expanded from Judaism, Islam and Christianity to six 
rehgions adding on Buddhism, Confucianism and Hinduism as well. 

In the United States they are most active in Boston, New York, Washington and San Francisco. 
Their ranks and sponsors include some very famous people, numbering diplomats, senators, 
governors and clergymen in their ranks. These people and their activities will be discussed at 
length in following chapters. 

In Jewish circles they dominate the Reform movement at many levels and the Conservative 
movement at the highest level. The late Reform clergyman, Maurice Eisendrath and the 
Conservative cleric Abraham Joshua Heschel, belonged to them. Eisendrath was always 
involved in Communist causes and tried to sabotage the Zionist movement. Heschel was the 
hero of the New Left's Ramparts Magazine and contributed articles to it. Heschel's book. The 
Prophets is two-faced and crypto-Sabbatian and is used by this eUte as a text because of its 
references to neo-Platonism, Kings and Priests, Greek and Babylonian cults. 

The other Jewish circles that they dominate are the Anti-Defamation League, the American 

Jewish Congress and Federations of Jewish Charities in many American cities. One of their 
cUques of so-called Jewish lawyers are active in the subversively oriented National Lawyers 

Their major projects currently include attempts by the American Jewish Congress to destroy 
the network of Jewish ReUgious Day Schools in the U.S. and a newly formed women's activist 
group, the National Council of Jewish Women, which is agitating for Women's rights and is 
attempting to use Women's Liberation to destroy the role of women in Judaism and the 
character and sanctity of Jewish reUgious services, such as attempting to have women counted 
in prayer quorums. Jewish law does not require just ten men for the quorum but specifies 10 
circumcised males. How they overcome the circumcision requirement is beyond 
comprehension. They also agitate for abortion on demand, which according to Judaism, is 
murder; as well as for affirmative action hiring of special minorities. 

Lest any of the information developed here serve as an outlet for some form of overt, vicarious 
or subtle anti-Semitism or lest someone entertain such thoughts as "see what these Jews did" it 
should be pointed out that: 

1) It was the desire of the Jews to overthrow the yoke of bitter Christian anti-Semitic 
persecution that led them to initially embrace Sabbatianism from which Frankism evolved. 

2) Once anyone embraced these ideologies, he ceased to be a Jew, being a Jew only by birth or 
becoming a Jew in name only (JINO). 

3) The SociaUsts and Communists in Germany utiUzed the Frankist ehte for their own ends and 
when they served the cause proceeded to exclude them from the millenium by expounding an 
anti-Semitic doctrine which declared all Jews as belonging to the Jewish race. Baptisms, formal 
conversion ceremonies or other means of escaping one's Jewish birth could never remove in the 
minds of these anti-Semites the taint of what they termed to be Jewish racial contamination. 

We have outUned relationships between Frankists and the lUuminati and the relation of these 
groups with Mendelssohn's circle which began the Haskala movement. We have shown how the 
Frankists embraced Mendelssohn's teachings and how his own inner circle that worked on the 
Biur were involved with the Frankists and how his own disciples were involved with the 
Jacobins and how the Jacobins who were derived from the lUuminati were connected with the 
Frankists. We have traced the lUuminastic Frankist families who have formed the beginnings 
of the Reform and Conservative movements and the major ehte famiUes that were connected 
with them who together formed the inner circles of the Bund Der Gerechten (which changed its 
name to the International Communist Party in 1848), and were active in the Communist 
Revolution of 1848. 

Before taking leave of the Frankist ehte we should point out that David Friedlander (1750- 
1834) of Moses Mendelssohn's circle was also prominent in the Reform movement and, 
interestingly enough, in 1799, prior to the movement's creation he wrote an anonymous letter to 
a Pastor Teller on behalf of several heads of Jewish famiUes asking to be received into the fold 

of the Protestant Church on conditions of their own. In the petition they asked if they could be 
Christians without Christ. The reply sent to Friedlander was in effect that Christianity which 
left Christ out was meaningless. While we know that the Frankists embraced Mendelssohn's 
works and that his circle were involved with them, the question is if Mendelssohn ever came 
directly in contact with the Frankists. The answer to that question is a definite one, for 
Mendelssohn met in Hamburg with Frankist Jonathan Eibeschutz in 1761 and, interestingly 
enough, Eibeschutz wrote an essay extoUing Mendelssohn which appeared in 1838, long after 
his death, in a pubhcation called Kerem Chemed. 

We can see from our study of the Frankists and their elite that they were truly monsters. 
Indeed the concept has been preserved and not by accident in the novel Frankenstein which 
deals with the creation of the Frankenstein monster. Mary Shelley (the wife of the famous poet 
Shelley) who wrote Frankenstein, was a member, together with her husband, of the lUuminati. 
The symboUsm inherent in the name Frankenstein is as follows. The word Frank stands for 
Jacob Frank, founder of the Frankists. The EN is an AngUcisation and abbreviation of the 
three letter Hebrew word "ayin" which stands for eye, e resembles the first letter and n is for 
the last. ... Stein in German stands for stone. In the symbol of the Cult of the All-Seeing Eye as 
in the great seal of the U.S. found on the American dollar bill the eye stands over stones, 
forming the base of the pyramid. So Frankenstein = Frank + eye + stone. But what is the 
symboHsm of the Frankenstein monster? As we have pointed out, the Frankists were tied in 
with mystical Kabbalism and there is a Kabbalistic tradition of such monsters known as 
Golems. The Golem concept is discussed in detail in Professor Scholem's book The Kabbala and 
Its Symbolism in chapter V titled The Idea of a Golem. In the classical construction of a Golem, 
the KabbaUst forms a figure of a man out of earth or clay and writes one of the secret names of 
God on a parchment and places it in a cavity in the Golem's head. After writing the proper 
formula, depending on which legend you care to follow, the Golem comes alive. 

The cryptic symboHsm of the Frankenstein monster is that the dead and decrepit ideas of the 
old world are to be given new Hfe by great mystical savants, purveyors of wisdom, who will 
harness the great secrets of the universe and destroy the old world and bring the millenium. In 
the novel Frankenstein's creator studied at the same university that Adam Weishaupt, founder 
of the lUuminati was Professor at, Ingolstadt. 

Rasputin, who played a major role in the Russian Revolutions, espoused a doctrine which was 
identical to that of the Frankists of "redemption through sin." This will be discussed later in 
detail. Suffice it to say that the Frankists and their eUte played a leading role in the 
development of Communism and that they continue to be an eUte today within the wider 
Communist circle but nevertheless tend to be stand-offish forming a cUque within a clique, as 
they did during the latter 18th and early 19th centuries when they chose to make lUuminati 
Masonic Lodges their stomping grounds. 

While the Frankists were stand-offish and married among themselves, the feeling was quite 
mutual. Since it is known that the Sabbatians and Frankists indulged in adultery, their children 
carried with them the taint of what is referred to in Jewish Law as being in the category of 
mamzer or bastardy. This is based on a verse in Deuteronomy, "a mamzer shall not come into 
the congregation of the Lord" (Deut. 23:3) which prohibits marrying or admitting into the 

Jewish fold any progeny of incestuous sexual relations and adultery.'" 

Anyone who was a member of a Frankist or Sabbatian family was shunned by the rehgious 
Jewish community. In those days, many Jewish communities had what is known as a Sefer 
Yuchsin, records of pedigree, which recorded the status of people that were converted from 
other religions into Judaism and kept records of illegitimate births but not children born of 
Jewish parents out of wedlock, which according to Judaism have no taint of illegitimacy 

It should be pointed out that the Frankists and their elite were not monoUthic in character. 
There were people who were brought up in these circles that rebelled against their environment 
and sought to rectify their Uves. One such example is Edmond Rothschild, son of James, who 
contrary to the Reform and Frankist teachings embraced Zionism and gave huge sums of 
money for the settlement of Israel and for maintaining institutions where authentic Torah 
values were retained and intensively pursued. It was he who rebelled against the intrigues of 
the House of Rothschild, spurned Abraham Geiger's eulogy of his father, and the teachings of 
Marx, Engels and their radical friend Heinrich Heine (1799-1856) whose patronage the Bund 
had assigned to Edmond's mother Bette. 

While the Bank of Rothschild was growing by leaps and bounds, another banking interest, but 
not as large, was quietly developing. It was the Mendelssohn bank, run by the brothers 
Abraham Mendelssohn (1776-1835) and Joseph (1770-1848), Moses' son, Abraham 
Mendelssohn married Daniel Itzig's granddaughter Leah Salomon. He was the father of the 
musician FeUx. Abraham converted to Christianity in 1822. Whereas his brother Joseph did 
not convert, Joseph's son George Benjamin (1794-1874) did. He, incidentally, was Karl Marx's 
professor of geography at Bonn. 

The Mendelssohn Bank was active in German and foreign railway issues and state loans. They 
were known as specialists in Russian securities. The Bank persisted after World War I and was 
absorbed after Hitler came to power in 1939 by the Deutsche Bank. 

Among Mendelssohn's descendants were Fehx Gilbert the historian, the philosopher Leonard 
Nelson (1882-1927), and more recently, Kurt Hensel, a diplomatic attache from West Germany 
to Israel, who arrived in 1968. 


Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1723-1939 

By Jacob Katz 

Translated from the Hebrew by Leonard Oschry 

Harvard University Press, Cambridge, l\/lassaschusetts, 1970 

Chapter 1 

The Problem and Its Background 

The two names, Jews and Freemasons, joined together will most likely arouse different 
associations in different minds, each association reflecting the individual's cultural and national 
background. Although almost everyone has heard of the name "Freemasons;' only to a few will 
the term denote more than the image of a selective secret society, active at one time or another 
in history, and still claiming the allegiance of some individuals. Yet, if the Freemasons 
themselves constitute a puzzle, their being coupled with Jews seems even more astonishing. Are 
the two in any way connected? Any person of European extraction (PoUsh, Rumanian, 
Hungarian. German, or French) — or anyone famiUar with the recent history of these countries 
during the rise of anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe and Germany in the years between the two 
World Wars, and before and during the Dreyfus Affair in France, will recall that the 
combination of the two names became a popular slogan. Anti-Semites kept reiterating it in their 
speeches, in the press, and in inflammatory tracts. They tried to convey the impression that the 
Jews and the Freemasons had formed an alliance to endanger the states where they happened 
to live. A special notoriety was achieved by the brochure The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 
which purported to contain the proceedings of a session of the elders of the Jews, who were 
plotting, in league with the Masonic lodges, to seize control of the world. This pamphlet, which 
first appeared in Russia, circulated widely in a German translation prepared in 1919, and 
subsequently was disseminated in millions of copies in a variety of languages. 

As for the German Freemasons, their outcry was motivated by a special consideration. Hitherto 
they had been more readily suspected of an aversion to, rather than sympathy for, Jews. For 
the most part, their lodges were considered hives of anti-Semitism-and not without reason. 
Indeed, with the rise of political anti-Semitism in Germany during the 1880's, Jews found their 
position in the Masonic lodges becoming precarious. Even such lodges which had heretofore 
been accustomed to accepting Jews as members or admitting them as visitors now barred them. 
Actually Jews had never gained free access to the German lodges-not even during the period of 
greatest social advances, the sixties and seventies of the nineteenth century. In some lodges, 
membership was made conditional upon adherence to the Christian faith. Nor was the 

stipulation rescinded during the years when liberahsm reached its peak. Such were the lodges 
of Prussia, for the most part, with their centers in Berhn and their branches extending beyond 
its borders. Starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a long and protracted struggle, 
a war of words and ideas reflecting a social conflict, raged incessantly between the upholders of 
the Christian restriction and their opponents. Among the participants were, firstly, all those 
Jews who had been initiated into Masonry in other countries, or who had themselves founded 
lodges in Germany under the auspices of the French and EngUsh branches of the movement. 
They were joined by non-Jews as well and, during the thirties and forties, by entire lodges who 
argued that Masonry stood above all rehgious differences. The upholders of this principle 
enjoyed the support of the Masonic associations abroad: in Holland, England, France, and even 
the United States of America. From this fact, it becomes evident that the Masons of those 
countries never acquiesced in any restriction based on rehgion. In fact, if we trace the history of 
the Freemasons back to its very inception, we find that the principle of rehgious toleration was 
already incorporated in the very first constitution compiled in England in the 1720'S. Historical 
research will have to find the answer to the question: how far was this principle enforced in the 
areas where it was accepted in theory, and how and why was it rejected in other areas, in both 
theory and practice? 

This brief survey has proceeded in the reverse direction, from the present to the past. It has 
brought to Ught the changes and transformations in the attitudes of Freemasons to Jews. That 
the Masons found it necessary to take a stand against Jews shows that the latter kept on 
pressing to enter the order. We should bear in mind that the first, the London Grand Lodge, 
was founded in 1717, and that lodges in the continental countries sprang up from 1730 to 1750. 
At that time a new type of Jew was emerging, one who had acquired some Western education 
and had adjusted his behavior to conform to the standards accepted among gentiles, to the 
extent that he now could aspire to full membership in their society. This new Jew first made his 
appearance among the Sephardim of England, Holland, and France and afterward among the 
Ashkenazim of all Western countries. After the 1780's he became a permanent feature of 
European social Ufe as becomes evident from the number of Jews who kept knocking at the 
doors of the Masonic lodges. From then onward, the stream of entry seekers flowed incessantly. 
All the efforts to block their admission failed to deter them. As a result, struggles and conflicts 
ensued between those clamoring for the lodge doors to be opened and those who strove to keep 
the doors closed. 

As far as the history of the relations between Jews and the Freemasons is concerned, there can 
be no doubt 'where the topic belongs. Here we have an unobserved sideshow of the process of 
Jews becoming absorbed in European society. One aspect of this phenomenon is the desire of 
Jews to find a common social framework uniting them with non-Jews, usually referred to as 
assimilation. Nor was this in truth the unilateral aim of Jews. No assimilation can be effective 
unless the absorbing body is willing to assimilate the foreign body. Indeed, many segments of 
the surrounding society encouraged the assimilation of Jews, and exemplary instances of this 
attitude can be found among the Freemasons. Yet the readiness to accept Jews into European 
society was not universal, and even Freemasons imposed restrictions, often showing distinct 
reserve and even open hostihty. This aspect of the phenomenon belongs in the category usually 
referred to as social anti-Semitism which, as is common knowledge, consists of many types and 
varying degrees of intensity. In our account of the relations between Jews and Freemasons, we 

shall encounter various forms of reservations against Jews, ranging from outright rejection, the 
utter refusal to estabhsh any social contact with them, to avoidance of them on account of the 
reUgious attitudes separating Jews and Christians. Rehgious antagonism produced its effects, 
even though both groups had, at that time, abandoned the dogmatic and behavioral patterns of 
their churches and congregations. 

The acceptance of Jews into European society was conditioned by the change in their civil 
status. Previously regarded as foreigners who were granted residence privileges by special 
decree, Jews had now, as a result of the emancipation, acquired civil rights. Yet such rights 
were not conferred upon them automatically. In most locaUties, Jews were forced to engage in a 
protracted struggle. They achieved full citizenship step by step, having to wrest each new 
position in turn. Surprisingly, the Jewish effort to secure emancipation ran parallel with the 
history of their relations with the Freemasons. It could not by any means have been foreseen 
that methods suited to the state-an institution which coerces by the authority of law - should 
also make their appearance within the framework of a voluntary movement, where 
membership in the association of affiUated societies was a matter of free choice. Historical facts, 
however, defy reason, and our description will show that there was a close and far-reaching 
correspondence between the struggle of the Jewish community to acquire civil rights and Jews 
striving for equaUty among the Freemasons. We can discern the initial explanation for this 
phenomenon if we keep the nature of the Masonic order in mind. Although the association is 
basically voluntary, nevertheless its laws and regulations are absolutely binding upon all its 
members. Since the original constitution had laid down that in the lodges no man could be 
discriminated against on the grounds of his religion, the striving for the implementation of the 
rule, wherever it was assailed or violated, was fully justified. On the other hand, that this 
principle, permanently recorded in the written constitution, could be violated, shows what 
obstacles lay in the path of its practical implementation. In all these respects, there is a close 
resemblance between Masonic emancipation-a term coined and used by the Masons themselves, 
in their time-and the over-all civil emancipation. The history of Masonic emancipation is a 
mirror clearly reflecting the problems inherent in civil emancipation. 

If we have spoken of assimilation, anti-Semitism, and emancipation in the general community 
and in the Masonic society as manifesting similarities, we can also speak of a fourth 
phenomenon in which a direct, reciprocal influence was exerted by both. We refer here to the 
Reform movement, which rose and developed at the same time as an ever-increasing number of 
Jews directed their steps toward the Masonic lodges. Are these two movements, then, connected 
by some common bond? Indeed, the Masonic lodges did not merely constitute some mere social 
framework; they represented a Weltanschauung bordering on reUgion. The humanistic lodges, 
which had opened the doors to Jews, adopted a universahstic position, claiming that there was 
fundamentally only one rehgion common to all mankind. This view coincided to some extent 
with the tenets of the Reform movement. The question arises whether some of the adherents, in 
word and deed, of the movement were not also active in the Masonic lodges. To this question 
my book will give an unequivocal answer. 

From what I have written so far, we find that the history of Jewish-Freemason relations will 
lead us into the thick of all the problems claiming the attention of the historians of Jewry's 
recent past: assimilation, the Reform movement, emancipation, anti-Semitism. A complete 

literature dealing with these topics has been produced; yet, their connection with the Masonic 
movement has hardly been paid any notice. This curious fact may be accounted for by the 
pecuHar circumstances affecting the bibUography of Masonic Hterature, a consequence of the 
nature of the movement itself. Since the lodges conducted their activities in complete, or semi- 
secrecy, their affairs did not attract the attention of research scholars. As for the existing 
histories of certain, specific lodges, as well as the accounts of the movement as a whole, these 
were compiled, for the most part, by lodge members who alone possessed free access to the 
relevant source material. Most of these writers were amateur historians. Only very few of the 
studies in the history of the movement were written by scholars of any competence and in 
accordance with the canons of scientific, historical criticism. Furthermore, Hke other works on 
Masonry, these history books have not been disclosed to the scrutiny of ordinary readers. Most 
Masonic works contain the note that they "have been pubUshed as manuscripts for brethren" - 
not for distribution in the book market, but for circulation among the members of the Masonic 
lodges only. From time to time Freemasons pubhshed works explaining the nature of the 
movement, designed for the general reading pubhc. These writings, however, were apologetic in 
nature, aiming only to refute adverse criticism. Both the attacks and the rebuttals are available 
to anyone interested in tracing the history of the Freemasons. Yet both are rather dubious 
sources for the construction of an authentic historical account. No wonder that most, and 
especially Jewish, historians have overlooked the problems connected with the history of this 
movement. With the exception of a small book in Russian, describing the first encounters 
between Jews and Freemasons at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth 
century, no book on modern Jewish history has ever grappled with this problem. 

The same difficulties encountered in the past continue to impede research to this very day. 
True, the comprehensive bibUography prepared by August Wolfstieg in 1923, which alone 
contains 23,000 entries, is at the disposal of the research scholar. It has been enlarged by 
several supplements since then. Yet, for the reasons mentioned above, the works listed in the 
bibUography have not been placed in pubUc Ubraries. Even the largest collections, as, for 
instance, in the BerUn StaatsbibUothek (now housed in Marburg) or the Cornell University 
Library, are far from complete. The person desirous of studying any topic in Masonic affairs 
must of necessity have recourse to the Masonic libraries themselves and the archives of the 
lodges. These sources are usually totally barred to non-Masons. Furthermore, in the last 
generation the quantity of extant Masonic material has been greatly reduced, especially in 
Germany. The Nazis confiscated the Ubraries on the pretext that they were going to expose the 
historic truth hidden in these sources. They failed to accompUsh very much, even in the 
carrying out of this design.6 In the meantime, the materials were scattered far and wide; no one 
knows whether they were destroyed during the war or hidden away somewhere. A more 
favorable situation obtains in France. The Grand Orient archive has been entrusted to the 
BibUotheque Nationale and is open to readers. A number of scholarly works on various aspects 
of the History of the Freemasons in France could therefore be written, although in that country, 
even now, the subject arouses strong feelings between the ardent adherents and the vehement 
opponents of Masonry. In England the archives of the Grand Lodge are still closed to outsiders. 

Among the Freemasons of that country, however, there are a number of genuine historians, or 
at least individuals who have acquired some proficiency in historical research. These members 
have joined together in a single lodge and their pubUcations approach proper professional 


Holland, among all the countries, provides the outstanding exception. The lodge Ubrary located 
in The Hague, which comprises a large collection of books and manuscripts, is open to the 
inspection of scholars. This Ubrary was confiscated during the Nazi occupation, but by far the 
major portion of the material was subsequently recovered. Among these items is the "Kloss 
Collection," the legacy of George Kloss (1787-1854) of Frankfurt, one of the great Masonic 
historians of the nineteenth century. Kloss participated actively in the struggle between the 
humanistic and Christian currents in masonry and collected the documents pertaining to the 
controversy. Complete chapters of this book are based on materials discovered in his collection; 
nor could it have been written altogether had not the rich resources of the Ubrary of the Grand 
Lodge of Holland been available. 

The materials for this work have been culled from sources scattered abroad in several 
countries. For the most part, these materials touch upon the history of one particular country, 
Germany. Although the Jews constituted a problem in the lodges of all countries -and we shall 
investigate the underlying, compelling causes - nowhere did it reach such a pitch of intensity or 
create such disturbances as in Germany. In England and Holland the problem was solved in 
principle when the first candidates appUed for admission. From then on the question, though 
not disappearing entirely, only arose at intervals. In France, the Revolution had inculcated the 
ideal of equaUty among the Masons as well, and the problem vanished almost entirely. On the 
other hand, the Jewish problem claimed the attention of the German lodges throughout their 
entire existence, created wide schisms among them, and at times erupted into fierce, disruptive 
controversy. The object of their concern was whether Jews were fit to be accepted as members, 
or else admitted as visitors once they had been accepted as Masons elsewhere. Generation after 
generation in Germany continued to debate the question and an entire Uterature, pro and con, 
accumulated. Now, just as the German attitude is the exception among the countries in Jewish- 
Masonic relations, so is it unique, too, in the second topic coming into the purview of this book, 
the spurious Jewish-Masonic plot. The allegation that such a plot existed gained wide credence 
in many countries. Yet in none, was the beUef so widespread or so decisively influential as in 
Germany. Only in that country did a movement arise and adopt the slogan "Jews and 
Freemasons" as the point of departure in a campaign to destroy both. 

The historian is not justified in projecting from the present to the past. Hence he cannot regard 
the fate of the Freemasons and especially the Jews in the Third Reich as an indication of an 
inherent weakness in their position in earUer times. When the historian does seek to explain 
later events by their roots in the past, he must first uncover the roots as they existed before, and 
then proceed to show the causal connection between earUer and later events. The questions of 
how such events could take place in Germany during the thirties and forties of the twentieth 
century, and whether they were conditioned by past German-Jewish relations will occupy the 
attention of historians for many generations to come. No well-grounded answer can be given 
without a prior, meticulous examination of the relations that arose when Jews were first 
becoming absorbed in German society. Apparently the history of these relations in the Masonic 
movement could provide a not insignificant contribution to the understanding of the problem 
from two different points of approach. On the one hand, the Jewish struggle to gain entry to the 
Masonic lodges exempUfies the difficulties encountered by Jews in becoming absorbed in 

Germany, as compared with the rest of Western society. On the other hand, a similar, though 
not identical, fate suffered by Freemasons in the Third Reich shows that here a profound 
revolution transformed German society itself, to the extent that wheels of fortune turned on a 
group Uke the Freemasons which had been hostile to Jews, and now the Masons were attacked 
and, in great measure, crushed along with the Jews. 

The abundance of topics touched by the subject of this book requires a careful balancing of the 
material so as to avoid the omission, as far as possible, of relevant details, and yet permit the 
estabUshing of certain generaUzations. My presentation is chronological. In the end, however, 
we shall have to return, sum up our findings, and place them in proper perspective, and at the 
same time analyze their historical significance. 

I shall first present the problem arising from the confrontation of Jews and Freemasons. We 
have already estabUshed that the emergence of the Freemasons and the entry of Jews into 
European society took place almost simultaneously. The question is whether this was a pure 
coincidence of discrete social events, or whether the two processes were in some way connected. 
The two events-the founding of a new society, a community of lodges; and the acceptance of a 
rejected group, namely Jews-are the symptoms of the growing transformation of the old 
European society. The mind of eighteenth-century man could no longer acquiesce in the rigid 
division of society into estates. Similarly, to evaluate man by reference to his origin or rehgion 
seemed absurd. Eighteenth-century man, therefore, proceeded to found lodges open to 
members of all groups. The individual Jew-or the Jewish group-had now acquired a new 
defender, and was here and there even welcomed into the surrounding society. 

These developments were not mere fortuitous events. They were logically justified by the 
principle which holds, as its main theme that man is to be judged by his individual worth and 
not by the social collective to which he belongs. This appraisal of a person in accordance with 
his individual, human characteristics is the point of origin for the estabUshment of universal 
rules vaUd for every man as man. The principle of universaUty was the justification for most of 
the social transformations of the eighteenth century, among them the founding of the Masonic 
lodges and the opening to Jews of the doors of European society. 

Had the principle of universality been appUed with complete consistency, Jews would have been 
granted free access to all sectors of society and above all to the Masonic lodges. In reaUty, the 
doctrine only provided Jews with the opportunity to demand the practical implementation of a 
principal accepted by all in theory. The narrative of this book will show how formidable were 
the obstacles obstructing the attainment of this goal. The survival power of preconceived ideas 
and the burden of the reUgious heritage of the recent and distant past, and on the part of both 
Christian and Jew, combined to impede the fulfillment of the principle. The key to 
understanding the subsequent events Ues in the fact that even in the age when the doctrine of 
universaUty received general assent it was not converted into a practical guideUne for public 

The characteristic feature of the latest period-the topic of my final chapter-is the retrogression 
occurring on the plane of social reahty and, even more so, on the ideological plane. In Germany 

the direction was reversed and even such lodges as had previously admitted Jews now barred 
them. Jews who had considered themselves socially integrated were thrust back into their own 
confines. Conditions were different in France. There the Masonic movement maintained its 
allegiance to the ideal of universaUty. No barriers were erected in the way of Jews seeking to 
enter the lodges. Yet a directional change occurred in both countries. In the broad stretches of 
public life, a halt was called to the progress of the ideal of absolute universahty. Here and there 
its validity, by virtue of which Jews were, at least formally, integrated into the community, was 
now challenged. In France, as in Germany, demands to aboHsh the emancipation of Jews and to 
abandon its underlying principle of universahty made themselves heard. Within this context, 
however, Jewish-Freemason relations differed in both countries. The Freemasons in Germany 
were divided among themselves; there were the proponents and opponents of the principle of 
universaUty. In France, by contrast. Freemasons formed a united front in favor of absolute 
universaUty. There, clearly, the Masons stood together on the side of the Jews. 

This is the background, then, for the cry, "Jews and Freemasons." In tracing its rise we will be 
concerned with the conscious exploitation of a poUtical instrument. If, in the first part of the 
book, attention is concentrated on what transpired between Jews and Freemasons inside the 
lodges, our attention, in the last section, will be directed outward to the public, political arena 
where the subject of Jews and Freemasons had been dragged by the propagandist's brutal 

Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Preface 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 1 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 2 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 3 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 4 
Sayings of Jacob Frank 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1723-1939 

By Jacob Katz 

Translated from the Hebrew by Leonard Oschry 

Harvard University Press, Cambridge, l\/lassaschusetts, 1970 

Chapter 2 

Early Encounters 

Masonic literature devotes considerable attention to the history of the movement. Here legend, wild 
speculation, and serious historical studies are mixed indiscriminately. The Masonic expositors were 
interested in tracing the movement back to some genealogical tree rooted in the human past. They 
attached their movement to similar groups, like the Templars, which had emerged in the Middle 
Ages, or even ascribed its beginnings to antiquity, to early Biblical times; King Solomon, the builder 
of the Temple and Hiram, King of Tyre, who assisted in its construction, became central figures in 
Masonic history. Yet factual historical considerations as well gave rise to numerous discussions and 
investigations. After all, the Freemasons did not constitute the first exclusive society ever to be 
formed; societies, more or less secret, beginning with the craft guilds and ending with the Alchemists, 
Theosophists, and Rosicrucians in the seventeenth century had preceded them. Whether the 
Freemasons were no more than a variation of these groups was a question that could quite seriously 
be asked. The answers, however, were not always based on serious research or factual studies, but 
stemmed instead from individual preferences for a particular point of view. Some attempted to 
blacken the movement by associating it with former groups like the Alchemists or Theosophists. The 
Freemasons themselves were interested at times in discovering or inventing some ties binding them 
to guilds previously existing in their own country, thereby demonstrating that the movement was a 
local outgrowth, French or German as the case might be, and not a transplant from a foreign country, 
namely England. 

Historically, the truth is that the movement did originate in England, the year 1717, from which the 
annals of the Freemasons are normally counted, being particularly significant. Obviously certain 
noteworthy events had occurred prior to that date, events which were the precursors of what took 
place in that year. Long before them, craftsmen in the building as in other trades had banded together 
to promote higher standards of workmanship and to protect their common interests. At the same time, 
these associations or lodges served as the framework for the cultivation of social relations, education, 
and discipline which were not without some spiritual significance. 

These masons were divided into three classes or degrees: apprentices, fellow-crafts, and masters. 

Their respective rights and obligations were defined by the constitutions of their societies . Members 
of the same class would assist one another, and be recognized by one another through certain secret 
signs and passwords. Here and there, too, opportunities presented themselves for spiritual and 
religious edification by the transmission of specific traditions, legends, and concepts and by the 
observance of ceremonies on certain, appointed occasions. 

In the seventeenth century events occurred which decisively influenced the history of these guilds. 
Attracted by the side benefits of the associations, individuals who were not craftsmen sought and 
gained admission to the guilds. These new members were accorded a special designation: speculative, 
as distinct from the regular or operative Masons. Apparently circumstances inherent in the 
technological or economic history of England, but which are not quite clear to us, influenced the 
guilds progressively to reduce their professional functions and benefits to the extent that the 
speculative Masons outnumbered and finally completely displaced the operative Masons. 

Then, in 1717, the four lodges of London met together and elected an over-all executive, known as 
the Grand Lodge, All four had previously divested themselves of any professional character and had 
become Freemason lodges in the later denotation of the term. Dignitaries of the city of London, 
including clergy and noblemen, were among the members. The Master of Grand Lodge was John, 
Duke of Montague, and he appointed, four years later, the Rev. James Anderson to frame a new. 
Masonic constitution which would become binding upon all the lodges. This work was completed in 
1723 and the results were published in the same year. The existence of a printed constitution ratified 
by the Grand Lodge of London induced other lodges to accept its rules, and new lodges, conforming 
to these by-laws, were established first in England and. during the thirties and forties, in continental 
countries as well. The Grand Lodge of London was recognized as the body empowered to authorize 
new lodges. It was referred to as the Mother Lodge; those founded under its auspices, as daughter 
lodges. In the course of time. Grand Lodges were established in other countries as well. Occasionally 
several Grand Lodges existed side by side, each granting independent authorization to individual 
daughter lodges. 

The constitution compiled by Anderson was not entirely invented by him and the colleagues 
collaborating with him. Much of what had been incorporated in it was part of the tradition preserved 
in the lodges, and this tradition, in turn, was permeated with Christian concepts and symbols. So, for 
instance, June 24, John the Baptist's day, was appointed a Masonic holiday on which the members 
were to assemble, perform certain rites, and partake of a common meal. Nevertheless, the influence 
of ideas current in England at the time is perceptible, and this is clearly evident in the opening 
paragraph, "The First Charge," where the relation of the Freemason to God and religion is defined. 
Since the controversy on whether Jews were or were not fit to become Freemasons later hinged on 
this clause, its text should be examined. 

I. Concerning GOD and RELIGION. A Mason is obUged by his Tenure, to obey the moral Law: and 
if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irreligious Libertine. But 
though in ancient Times Masons were charg'd in every Country to be of the Religion of that country 
or Nation, whatever it was, yet it's now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in 
which all Men agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves; That is, to be good Men and 
true. Or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be 
distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Center of Union, and the Means of conciliating true 

Friendship among Persons that must have remain'd at a perpetual Distance. 

At first sight, this paragraph appears to place Freemasonry beyond the confines of any particular, 
positive religion. The moral law based on the "religion in which all Men agree" was to be the sole 
condition determining the worthiness of any individual to become a Freemason. Such a formulation 
rests upon the premise that belief in God is the natural heritage of every man and is a sufficient 
guarantee of his obedience to the moral law. Here we find ourselves within the atmosphere of 
eighteenth-century deism which adopted an attitude of indifference to the particular, historical 
religion claiming the allegiance of any specific individual. The author of the constitution assumed 
that Freemasons had belonged to various religions in the past, and so Freemasons could belong to any 
religion, including the Jewish, at present as well. 

This last conclusion is a logical consequence of the wording of the paragraph. Yet there is no explicit 
proof, or even an allusion, in the words of the author that he had such an idea in mind at the time of 
writing. His purpose was to transcend the individual differences of the Anglo-Christian sects: 
Anglicans, Catholics, and Puritans, and their various denominations. He wanted them to join together 
in a single association which would overlook individual dogmas and rites. Hence his formulation was 
couched in the terminology current in deistic thinking which claimed that not only the Christian 
denominations, but all religions, possessed a common foundation. At that time Jews had been living 
in England for the past two generations. Their numbers were small and they Uved as recently arrived 
immigrants on the fringe of British society. Yet, even if some of them did aspire to become integrated 
in English society, it must not be assumed that an exclusive group Uke the Freemasons regarded Jews 
as constituting a problem which required the wording of the constitution to be adjusted to 
accommodate them. 

That certain doubts did arise concerning the deistic basis of the constitution is evident from the 
amended version of the second edition published in 1738. 1 shall quote the sentences in which the 
original formulation has been changed: 

A Mason is obliged by his Tenure to observe the Moral Law as a true Noachide ... In ancient Times 
the Christian Masons were charged to comply with the Christian Usages of each Country where they 
travell'd or work'd: But Masonry being found in all Nations, even of diverse Religions, they are now 
only charged to adhere to that Religion in which all Men agree (leaving each Brother to his own 
particular Opinions) that is, to be Good Men and True Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever 
names. Religions or Persuasions they may be distinguished: For they all agree in the 3 great Articles 
of Noah, enough to preserve the Cement of the Lodge. 

The "Religion of that country" is now replaced by "the Christian Usages of each Country" with which 
Christian Masons had been obliged to comply in the past. Yet even this second formulation assumes 
the existence of non-Christian Masonic lodges. The author regards the adherents of all religions as 
being subject to the moral law but, in the later versions, these religions are held to subscribe to a 
common concept: the three "great Articles of Noah." The author responsible for the wording of the 
constitutions of 1738 wrote as if the concept, "Noachide" and the "great Articles of Noah," were 
universally known. As the learned opponents of the Masons in the nineteenth century pointed out, 
however, these terms were culled from John Selden's De jure naturali et gentium juxta disciplinam 

Ebraeorum, which had described the seven Noachide laws as part of the ancient Jewish legal heritage. 
Christian tradition had never known of any such concept as Noachide commandments. It was, 
however, current in Talmudic and medieval Judaism as the grounds for tolerance toward such 
gentiles as Jews considered deserving of respect. If a prior revelation had occurred in the time of 
Noah and this revelation was vouchsafed to all mankind, then all who acknowledged and obeyed the 
commandments given at the time would attain salvation. Christianity lacked a principle of this nature 
and so found difficulty in according any positive religious status to those beyond its pale. The 
introduction of this concept, culled from ancient Jewish jurisprudence, into European thought by 
identifying it with the law of nature provided non- Jewish thinkers with an intellectual instrument 
which allowed them to justify toleration without abandoning their belief in divine revelation. Here is 
the train of thought behind the amended text of the Masonic constitutions. 

Far removed as these constitutions were from any intention of making provision for Jews, they 
nevertheless, consciously or unconsciously, absorbed some traces of Jewish teaching. The amended 
formulation provided the basis for the German version prepared in 1741. On the other hand, the later 
EngUsh editions of the constitutions restored the original text, which was based on pure, formal, 
deistic foundations and was no longer tied to any particular, theological concepts. 

As has been stated, there is no reason to assume that the authors of the English constitutions intended, 
in their universal tolerance, to provide for Jewish candidates in the flesh. Yet, when such candidates 
did apply for admission, the principle was followed in practice. The first instance of a Jew's being 
admitted to a Masonic lodge took place, as far as we know, in 1732. One, Edward Rose, was initiated 
into the London lodge in the presence of Jews and non-Jews. This event was a novelty and excited 
attention. Soon afterward the lodges began debating the propriety or otherwise of admitting this Jew. 
That the final decision was not unfavorable is conclusively proved by the fact that Jews in significant 
numbers were admitted to membership in the ensuing years. Obviously Jewish names are found 
among the participants in the affairs of the Grand Lodge of London even before 1740, and several of 
these individuals rose to high office. One, Allegri by name, declared before a lodge in Frankfurt that 
he had been initiated in London as early as in 1735. In 1759 a petition was presented to the same 
Grand Lodge asking that authorization be granted to a new lodge; about half of the twenty-three 
signatures on the petition seem to have been Jewish names. 

It is evident that at least some of these Jews sought to retain their own religious principles within the 
framework of the lodges. In 1756 an anthology of Masonic prayers appeared in print, among them 
one to be recited "at the opening of the lodge meeting and the like for the use of Jewish Freemasons," 
while the other prayers were addressed to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, the Jewish prayers 
contained nothing at variance with the Jewish tradition. Moses is referred to here as the Master of a 
Lodge in his time, teaching the Torah to Aaron, his sons, and the elders-an allusion to a Talmudic 
passage. Clearly the prayer was composed by a Jew. The title page of the book containing the prayer 
offers the information that this prayer was intended for the use of "Jewish lodges." This would 
indicate that the number of Jewish Masons had increased so greatly that they had already formed a 
lodge of their own by that date. Another source reveals the existence of a Jewish lodge some ten 
years later. 

One of the first countries where the Masonic movement gained a foothold and then spread was 
Holland. There the local lodges followed British leadership and adopted the same attitude toward 

Jews as had prevailed in England. In principle, the lodges were open to Jews, and Jewish members 
were accepted in practice. Some evidence, by no means sufficiently clear and belonging to a later 
date, seems to indicate that a Jewish lodge did exist in Holland. 

The earliest Jewish Freemasons in both Holland and England were Sephardim. The participants in the 
Grand Lodge of London, mentioned above, included the Mendez, De Medina, De Costa, Alvares, and 
Baruch (the last named may possibly have been an Ashkenazi) families. Among the petitioners of 
1759, such names appear as Jacub Moses, Lazars Levy, and Jacub Arons, all of whom may have been 
Ashkenazim. We know the exact text of a membership certificate, dated 1756, of a Jew, Emanuel 
Harris, a native of Halle, Germany, who had changed his name from Menachem Mendel Wolff. The 
text of this certificate was published in 1769 by the research scholar Olof Gerhard Tychsen, who 
mentioned as a commonly' known fact that in England, as contrasted with Germany, Jews were 
admitted to the Masonic lodges as a matter of course. Tychsen was even able to relate that one of the 
affiliates of the Grand Lodge of London was referred to as "The Jewish Lodge" on account of the 
composition of its membership. 

The admission of Jews into the lodges of England and Holland is a sign that tensions between Jews 
and their surrounding environment, at least for some segments of both populations, were abating. 
Rational principles had not entirely eUminated the Christian elements in Masonry, but had so 
tempered extremism that the brethren were now ready and accustomed to allowing Jews to mix in 
their company. Naturally, Jews also were affected by similar processes. Participants in the 
predominantly Christian lodges and especially those who shared in the common meals were forced to 
make compromises at the expense of their Jewish traditions. They were able to justify their behavior 
as conforming to the mood prevaiUng among the Christians-and this was one of the main forces 
impelHng the spread of Masonry-the feeUng that the specific precepts of a particular reUgion did not 
constitute its significant feature, nor its ideological content its exclusive possession. Membership in a 
Masonic lodge, on the other hand, offered great advantages. It was surely worthwhile to belong to an 
association composed of prominent members of society. Belonging in their company would enhance 
one's prestige, and sometimes even confer tangible benefits. It afforded opportunities to be introduced 
to, and establish contact with, circles which Jews could never otherwise have reached. Membership 
was especially desirable for those whose business affairs took them to other cities and even abroad. 
Wherever the Mason might happen to be, his membership in one lodge opened the doors of all the 
others to him. These social considerations must certainly have contributed to the spread of 
Freemasonry throughout Europe. And all these incentives were especially attractive to Jews. 

Nevertheless, the existence of separate Jewish lodges indicates some hesitancy which presumably 
was felt on both sides. The existence of a principle as such that admission should not be denied to 
Jews did not guarantee that no restraints would be imposed in practice. The application of any 
candidate for admission had to be voted on by the members of the particular lodge, and they enjoyed 
the right to reject his application without stating any reason for their action. An individual's 
Jewishness could conceivably have provided the pretext for his rejection without any objection being 
raised in principle against Jews as such. It is difficult to believe that French and Dutch Masons 
always stood above the prevailing anti- Jewish prejudices, and not in respect of religion alone. We do 
find that a lodge in London decided in 1793 not to allow the recommendation at any Jew for 
membership since there was no possibility of his being accepted. We also learn of an explicit 
complaint emanating from Holland at the beginning of the nineteenth century against anti-jewish 

discrimination in the admission practices of certain lodges. 

Alleged or real discrimination, however, did not imply that complete rejection or discrimination was 
enforced. In principle, the British and Dutch lodges still remained open to Jews as the occasion 

A sudden change turned the development of the Masonic movement in France in a new direction. 
There, too, the first lodges founded in the 1730's followed the English example, and as long as they 
adhered to original Masonic conceptions they could not cast any doubt upon the acceptability of Jews 
as members. Within the first generation of the penetration of Freemasonry into that country, however, 
a new attitude became evident in France, one which sought to find the basis of Masonic ideology in 
Christian foundations. The upholders of this view tried to trace the genealogical roots of Freemasonry 
back to the medieval Christian orders, and argued that the lodges were only a reincarnation of the 
Knights of Saint John of crusader times. A new. Christian element was introduced into Masonry, and 
a new rule stated that only Christians were worthy of being brethren in the lodges. In 1742, a book 
entitled Apologie pour I'ordre des Franc-Macons appeared. One of its paragraphs asserts: "The order 
is open to Christians only. It is neither possible nor permissible to accept any person outside the 
Christian church as a Freemason. Hence Jews, Moslems and pagans are excluded as nonbelievers. 
The constitution of the Grand Lodge of France, which was ratified in 1755, contained an explicit 
passage which made baptism a prerequisite for membership. 

This identification of Freemasonry with the Christian faith emerged from a group which owed 
allegiance both to Freemasonry and the Church, and sought to affect some compromise between 
them. The very title, Apologie, indicates the point of departure of the book; its underlying motive was 
the need of Freemasons to defend themselves against the charges leveled at them by churchmen. In 
fact, from the very inception of the movement. Freemasons had been subjected to severe attacks. 
They were suspected of harboring intentions to subvert the foundations of the Church. The neutrality 
of their first constitution to the patterns of positive religion, even if this was interpreted as 
indifference to the variations of dogma and modes of worship, was sufficient of itself to provoke 
antagonism, especially by the Catholic Church. Nor was the reaction slow in coming: on April 28, 
1738, Pope Clemens XII issued his bull against the Freemasons. Their principal transgression was 
their willingness to accept members of all religions and sects, and their adoption of "natural 
righteousness" as a substitute for the true faith. The Church regarded the banding together of a group 
in membership based on pyre humanistic principles as threatening to remove the individual Catholic 
from the sphere of Influence of his Church. Hence it forbade its adherents to join the association 
under pain of excommunication. 

If the above-mentioned Apologie, which appeared four years later, was not actually a direct reply to 
the Papal bull, it did at least answer the arguments presented in that document. The book's emphasis 
on the Christian character of Freemasonry was intended to dull the edge of the contention that the 
Masons were drawn from diverse rehgions. On the contrary, the movement was declared to be 
exclusively Christian. Jews being non-Christians, it was possibly on these, not on personal, grounds 
that they were denied admission. It is difficult to conceive that Jews should have constituted any real 
problem in France at the time with regard to Freemasonry-any more than could Moslems or pagans. It 
may be assumed that the three religions were declared unacceptable only to emphasize the Christian 
character of the brotherhood. Even during the succeeding decades we hear nothing about Jews 

struggling to enter, or of efforts to bar them from entering, Masonic lodges. Instead 'we find one 
source upholding the Christian character of the movement and at the same time declaring Jews 
acceptable in exceptional cases. Masons were obliged, at least, to be "familiar with the sacred 
mysteries of the Christian faith'" "Only as an exception, as an expression of deference to the Old 
Testament, is a Jew able, on rare occasions, to take part in it." These observations appeared in the 
first Masonic "encyclopedia to be published in France in 1766 and convey the impression of being an 
attempt to justify the fact-infrequently as the phenomenon may have occurred-of Jewish membership 
in the lodges, a fact which was in conflict with the basic principles of Freemasonry, as it was now 
interpreted in France. 

The question of Jewish acceptability assumed much more serious proportions in Germany. Its cities, 
at least some of the larger centers, had larger Jewish populations than the English or French (though 
not as large as the Dutch). Had many Jews begun all at once to knock on the gates of the lodges, then 
granting them membership would have constituted a grave problem for the Masons. This did happen 
at a later date, as we shall see in due course, when the process of social change had mass-produced a 
type of Jew who sought to enter Christian or Judeo-Christian society. Yet during the first decades of 
the widespread emergence of Masonic lodges in Germany (that is, until the 1770's), German Jews 
were, with few exceptions, too securely tied to and concentrated within their own society and culture. 
We hear of three Jews visiting one of the Hamburg lodges in 1749, that is to say, they came armed 
with membership certificates acquired elsewhere and were permitted to take part in the proceedings 
of the lodge. They were "Portuguese Jews," presumably belonging to lodges in England or Holland, 
like those cases referred to earlier. 

We must, however, revert to those instances since they afford an indication of the infrequency of 
such occurrences. That same Allegri, who claimed to have been admitted to membership in London 
in 1735, spent some time in Germany in the sixties. He recounted that he had visited lodges in 
Mannheim and other German cities, but had refrained from doing so in Frankfurt because of the 
"prejudices of the German Jews." Similarly, O. G. Tychsen noted in 1769 that the few Jews who had 
become Freemasons were constrained to hide the fact from their coreligionists for fear of being 
branded as "heretics." He likewise remarked that, when the Jewish Freemason who had printed his 
certificate passed through his city of Btzow, his religiosity was questioned by local Jews. His 
Masonic affihation had rendered him suspect in their eyes. Apparently, in the sixties, membership in 
the movement 'was still regarded as a breach of the Jewish faith, and this fact is both the reason for, 
as well as an indication of, the rarity of the phenomenon. 

It may reasonably be assumed that Jewish candidates for admission to the movement appeared more 
frequently in Germany than in France. Yet no need had arisen as yet to treat them differently there 
than in France. The German movement had also stemmed from English roots; Anderson's 
constitutions had been translated into German in 1743 and this version was reprinted several times 
thereafter. An appendix had been added to the by-laws, but this was nothing more than a German 
translation of the French Apologie. The two documents, as we have seen, diverged from one another 
in their aims, and were in direct contradiction in their respective attitudes to the candidate's loyalty to 
a particular religion. In its original, English version the constitutions had laid down that adherence to 
any particular positive reUgion was a matter of no consequence. Yet the supplement asserted that 
adherence to the Christian religion was an essential precondition for membership. The 
incompatibility of the two statements now brought together in the same volume did not escape the 

notice of some of the members. Nevertheless, in those times the problem did not loom so large as to 
require an authoritative and decisive solution, as Jews were only admitted here and there into 
Masonic membership. With the passage of time, however, the tendency grew increasingly stronger to 
regard Freemasonry as a Christian institution where a Jew had no business to be found. 

The oldest and the pre-eminent Berlin lodge was the Grosse National-Mutterloge zu den drei 
Weltkugeln. Together with the Grosse Landesloge van Deutschland, it later waged a bitter and 
unrelenting struggle to bar the entry of Jews. At first, however, no definite policy was adopted. On 
February 7, 1763, the application of a Jew, Bruck by name, was considered and rejected. In spite of- 
or perhaps on account of-his offer to pay 100 guilders to the lodge treasury, some blemish in his 
character or conduct was discovered. His Jewishness was not held to disqualify him. The by-laws 
which were adopted three years later set down the same qualifications for membership stipulated in 
the French Apologie: "Only a Christian is eligible for membership in our respectable [ehrwurdigen] 
order, but on no account Jews, Moslems, or pagans. Lodges which have admitted any of these to their 
community have thereby clearly proved that they have no knowledge of the nature of the 
Freemasons." The last sentence is polemical in tone and is directed against those lodges who had 
shown leniency in practice and had admitted Jews. Actually I have evidence that the Royal York, the 
lodge competing in Berlin with the Mutterloge, accepted a Jew a year later. His name was Moses 
Tobias, and the minutes we have report his initiation, noting that the candidate swore his Masonic 
oath on the Pentateuch. This precise designation was obviously meant to exclude the New Testament, 
the book used for this purpose at the initiation of gentile candidates. Tobias, who subsequently left 
Berlin, was presented with his membership certificate by the Royal York as late as in June 1774 with 
the express approval of the other Mother Lodge, the Landesloge, with which it had been connected 
for some time. In the course of time, the Royal York too succumbed to the prevailing anti- Jewish 
pressure, even though in theory it still maintained the principle of Jewish acceptability. In 1784 its 
Essingen affiliate inquired of the leaders of the Berlin lodge whether it was permissible to grant entry 
to wealthy Jews as members, in the same way as they were being admitted in England. The Berlin 
lodge replied that it was true that Jews from England bearing membership cards had made their 
appearance at intervals, for indeed there were Jews worthy to be admitted to all lodges, were it not for 
the prejudice against Jews in general which was not entirely baseless. The advice offered to the 
inquirers was that the Jewish applicants should be most carefully scrutinized and that, in any event, 
appropriate initiation fees should be levied on them. Another precondition for the admission of Jews 
was that they be clean-shaven. 

There were similar divisions of opinion in Frankfurt and vicinity at that very time. A lodge founded 
in Kassel applied for authorization to the Zur Einigkeit lodge in Frankfurt. Which, in turn, acted on 
behalf of the Grand Lodge of London. One of the signatories to the application was a Jew-a clear 
indication that his townsmen found him worthy to mix in their company. His name, however, 
provided the Frankfurt lodge 'with the pretext to deny the lodge the authorization it sought. Two 
Jews, Baruch and Tonsica, were admitted to membership in a Winkelloge (one not officially 
recognized by the Mother Lodge) in 1758. When this lodge finally received its authorization, the 
Jews were forced to resign. 

These examples reflect the state of affairs that came into being and continued until the 1780's, A 
description written by one of the leading German Masons sums up the events of those years. The 
author, Johann August Strack, compiled this apologetic work in 1770 and republished it in an 

enlarged edition in 1778. Replying to the accusation of indifference on the part of the Masons to the 
Christian faith, Strack repeated the answer already advanced in the French Apologie: that Masons 
adhere to the Christian religion is attested to by the fact that no member of any other faith, be he Jew, 
Moslem, or pagan, is accepted by them. "And even if examples are cited of Jews who were 
Freemasons, no responsibility devolves on us. It should fall instead upon those spurious [unachte] 
lodges which have, at times, formed such unnatural connections. It is essentially impossible for any 
persons other than Christians to be Freemasons." Those lodges, then, which sought to represent the 
main or official outlook of Freemasonry expressed their uniqueness by emphasizing their Christian 
exclusiveness. Evidence to this effect is found in the contemporaneous Masonic classic, Lessing's 
Ernst und Falk (1778-1780), whose contents will be examined in some detail further on. "Allow 
enlightened Jews to come and seek admission?" The author aims this challenge at the Freemasons. 
He himself formulates the answer: "A Jew? The Freemason is at least obliged to be a Christian:" Jews 
striving for admission were forced to content themselves with membership in one of the non- 
authorized lodges, which by their very nature never acquired more than a marginal and doubtful 
status by the side of the central and Grand Lodges. 

In the same period Jews aspiring to Masonic membership occupied a marginal status in their own 
community. The Jewish names listed in the Masonic rosters of those days are not known to us from 
any other source. We must assume that, if they were not doubtful and unprincipled characters, like 
some mentioned before, they were at least unconventional persons who were anxious to find their 
way individually into the non- Jewish world. Socially, the vast majority of Jews were at this stage 
certainly confined within their own community. Yet, by the seventies at the latest, a circle of 
enlightened Jews becomes discernible, concentrated especially round Moses Mendelssohn, a group of 
people who looked longingly for some social and intellectual contact with the surrounding society. 
The Masonic lodges, however, hardly seemed to suggest themselves as the suitable and effective 
instrument for social integration. Mendelssohn was somewhat critical of his friend Lessing's 
membership in the Masonic movement. It is related that Mendelssohn taunted his friend, whether 
seriously or in jest, about the secrets he had unlocked as a result of the revelations vouchsafed to him 
as a Mason. "From our earliest youth, we have been seeking for the truth. From the beginning of our 
acquaintance, we have searched together 'with all the effort and earnestness such a search fittingly 
requires. Yet, is it now possible that truths exist which Lessing has solemnly sworn not to divulge to 
the person who has been his faithful friend for these twenty-five years?" Apparently Mendelssohn 
resented his friend's presuming, as a Freemason, to possess certain knowledge which he was not 
permitted to share with one who had been his faithful ally in the very search for truth. 

In his 'written remarks on Lessing's Ernst und Falk, Mendelssohn dealt with the more serious issue of 
principle. The book itself is apologetic and consists of the conversations of the two friends whose 
names form its title. Here Freemasonry is presented, at times, as the area where universal brotherhood 
in all its purity is aspired to in theory; and at others, as it exists in reality, as an association of persons 
belonging to a specific class and religion, as a society protected against intrusion from without and 
embroiled within, and as a group the members of which are more interested in satisfying their mystic 
curiosity and craving for alchemistic adventure rather than in cultivating human perfection. Yet, 
despite Lessing's inclusion of such criticisms in his work, his intention was, understandably, to judge 
Freemasonry by its lofty ideals and not as it existed in practice. Mendelssohn accordingly pointed out 
that here Lessing resembled the modern Berlin theologians, and all the criticism leveled at them 
applied to him as well. The implication of the analogy was apparently that Freemasonry was similar 

to rational theology, in proclaiming universal principles without following them in practice. 

Whether Mendelssohn's critique was expressing the resentment of the Jew at having been excluded 
from the Masonic association is not clear. His philosophical detachment kept him from aspiring to 
goals beyond his reach. In any event, he remained outside, while all his friends belonged - as did 
anyone who had made a name for himself in the intellectual world - to some Masonic lodge or other. 
Whatever motives may have inspired Mendelssohn were unique to him and could not furnish any 
example for the many in the succeeding generations. 

Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Preface 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 1 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 2 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 3 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 4 
Sayings of Jacob Frank 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe 

By Jacob Katz 

Translated from the Hebrew by Leonard Oschry 

Chapter III. The Order of the Asiatic Brethren 

The generation growing up in the shadow of Mendelssohn accepted his ideal of the removal of 
all barriers separating Jews from Christians, but did not inherit his virtues of patience and 
moderation. His disciples and followers desired to attain in practice what they had been taught 
to beUeve in, and sought to hasten the process of absorption into the cells of their social 
environment-and here the Masonic cells were held to be of basic importance. Although these 
individuals were unable to crush the opposition, they would support every effort on the part of 
the Freemasons to create new frameworks where the principle of equaUty of Jews and non- 
Jews would be upheld. Three or four such attempts took place around the end of 
Mendelssohn's Ufetime (1786), the period of the enactment of the first laws aimed at the 
removal of civil disabilities from Jews and of the first agitation for the integration of Jews into 
the general society. The initial attempt led to the flaring up of the first controversy over the 
acceptance of Jews in Masonic lodges. 

The earhest attempt to found a Masonic order with the avowed purpose of accepting both Jews 
and Christians in its ranks was the formation of the Order of the Asiatic Brethren or, to give it 
its full name. Die Brder St. Johannes des Evangehsten aus Asien in Europa. We are fully 
famiUar with the history of this society which was more important than all the others because 
of the scope of its activities and its influence. Founded in Vienna in 1780-81, its central figure 
and promoter was Hans Heinrich von Ecker und Eckhoffen, of Bavarian extraction. He and his 
younger brother Hans Carl (whom we shall meet again) had behind them a rich past in the 
history of the Masonic societies in Germany. The Eckers were of the type of aristocrats who 
had lost their property and forefeited the economic support of their class. Yet, because of their 
illustrious name, their family connections, and their confident bearing they had succeeded, at 
least outwardly, in preserving their associations with the ruling classes. They were not at all 
discriminating in their choice of occupation-so long as it allowed them to maintain their 
standard of Hving. This could best be achieved through association with those who wielded the 
real power in the states: the absolute princes, and the rising capitalists who enjoyed their 
patronage. Members of Masonic societies were at times drawn from the upper and propertied 
classes, but because these organizations often had need of individuals ready to perform 
remunerative functions, they also served as a refuge for those searching an easy, but not always 
honest, liveUhood. Heinrich was a man of this type. He had been active among the Rosicrucians 
in Bavaria and Austria, whose dabbhng in alchemy served as confidence schemes to swindle 
money out of the naive and reckless. As a result of some quarrel, he severed his connections 
with them and, in 1781, published a book denouncing them. At that very time he was busy 
forming a new order, later to become renowned as the Order of the Asiatic Brethren but known 

in its first manifestation as Die Ritter vom wahren Licht. 

I have no firsthand evidence on the immediate causes for the emergence of this order. 
Information has been culled from statements of members who became active later. According 
to them, an erstwhile Franciscan monk, Justus, whose civil name had been Bischoff, had taken 
a prominent part in its founding. Justus had spent years in the Orient, especially in Jerusalem, 
where he had struck up an acquaintance with Jewish Cabalists. He studied their discipUnes and 
even obtained from them manuscripts which constituted the source for the Order's theosophic 
doctrines and ceremonial regulations. Although these details have not been corroborated, the 
traces of such a personality are very real, so that Uttle if any doubt can be cast on his existence. 
On another figure, Azariah by name, who is reputed to have given Justus the manuscripts, the 
evidence is rather doubtful. According to the testimony (which we shall examine presently) of 
Ephraim Joseph Hirschfeld, Azariah belonged to a cabaUstic sect identified, according to 
another version, as a vestige of the Sabbatai Zevi movement. He entrusted all his affairs to his 
sons, while he himself traveled from place to place as an emissary of the sect. Nevertheless, even 
though the connection of the Asiatic brethren with the Sabbatian movement is conclusively 
proved by another source, as we shall soon see, the personaUty of Azariah lacks substance; 
information about him is too meager and full of contradictions. It seems that his existence was 
invented by members of the Order to lend credence to the assertion that their tradition had 
come from the Orient. The participation of a third person is beyond all doubt. He was Baron 
Thomas von Schoenfeld, an apostate Jew, who had made a name for himself as a proUfic writer. 
His participation is prominently featured in the historical description of the Order, and his 
share in its founding is known from another source. Schoenfeld had much of the character of 
an adventurer, in both the intellectual and common connotations of the term. He turned up in 
Paris during the French Revolution and was executed during the Reign of Terror. For the 
Order of the Asiatic Brethren, Schoenfeld fulfilled the function of copyist and translator of 
Jewish CabaUstic works. The Order's historian, Franz Josef Molitor, had it by tradition that 
Schoenfeld was a grandson of R. Jonathan Eybeschtz, whose collection of Sabbatian 
cabaUstic works he had inherited. We, however, are better acquainted with Schoenfeld 's 
pedigree. He was a member of the Dobruschka family of Brnn and was in no way related, 
either by blood or marriage, to Eybeschutz. Nevertheless, the assertion was not altogether 
fortuitous for Mosheh Dobruschka, alias Thomas von Schoenfeld, actually had been an active 
adherent of the Sabbatian movement. As we shall see later, he incorporated liberal portions of 
Sabbatian doctrines in the teachings of the Order. 1 1 is doubtful whether Ecker und Eckhoffen 
was capable of distinguishing between the various CabaUstic systems of thought, and it is 
improbable that he was especially interested in the Order's possessing a specific Sabbatian 
character. Yet it is equally obvious that he wanted to tie the Order to a tradition derived, in 
some manner, from the Orient, as the name, "The Asiatic Brethren in Europe," clearly shows. 
The Order had to possess some novel trait to set it off from the other lodges and orders, and its 
novelty was the tracing of its descent to some Oriental source. Justus' connections with the East 
and Schoenfeld's provision of CabaUstic source material gave this contention some semblance 
of authenticity. 

On the other hand, it is also doubtful whether Ecker had ever intended to make his order the 
catch-all for a mixed society of Jews and gentiles. In his above-mentioned book he had taken 
issue with the Rosicrucians for sinning against Jews by not accepting them as members unless 

they were extremely affluent. His present, knightly order was presumably prepared to accept 
Jews-yet took no steps to pave the road for them to enter. True, the doctrines of the Ritter vom 
wahren Licht contained elements derived from Cabahstic sources. At this stage, however, the 
ideas were still clearly subject to Christian interpretation, and no syncretistic tendencies are 
discernible for merging the two religions. Ecker had intended to present his program for the 
new order to an assembly of all the Freemasons which was to have gathered in Wilhelmsbad 
near Hanau in 1782. The assembly had been convened by the head of all the German Masons, 
Duke Frederick of Brunswick, for the purpose of reviving the movement by introducing 
improvements in the conduct of its business. In this endeavor, he received the cooperation of 
the Landgrave Carl von Hessen, who administered the province of Schleswig on behalf of the 
Danish monarchy. Through Landgrave Carl, Ecker hoped to exert some influence in the 
forthcoming conference. He traveled to Schleswig at the beginning of 1782 and tried to gain an 
audience with the Landgrave. What occurred between them is not known. Ecker did not, 
however, succeed in his quest, since a protest was filed against his appearance in Wilhelmsbad 
from a prominent quarter in the Berhn lodge. Had Ecker, even then, included in the opening of 
his constitution any paragraph providing Jews with the prospect of being accepted on an equal 
level with Christians, he could never have hoped to have his constitution ratified by the 
conference at large. The tenor of the Berhn protest, too, proves that the Jewish question had 
nowhere been placed on the agenda. Here the purity of Christianity, which the Masons were 
obUged strictly to uphold, was at issue. Ecker had been held to have contaminated Christian 
purity, not by attempting to open the gates of his proposed order to Jews, but by his 
Rosicrucian activities which were still held against him, and because he had been denounced as 
a magician consorting with occult powers. 

Possibly Ecker's failure to impose his patterns upon the existing lodges impelled him to build 
new organizational units of his own and, in so doing, he encountered Jewish candidates seeking 
to join his group. These were, after all, the years when the Edict of Toleration had been 
promulgated (in Bohemia, in October 1781, and in Austria, in January 1782). In the other 
German principaUties as well, the eighties constituted the period when hopes ran high for a 
change in the poUtical status of the Jewish community, as an ever greater number of Jews 
withdrew from the social and reUgious framework of their own people. The time seemed 
opportune for the removal of the barriers keeping Jews from joining gentile company and for 
the founding of a society composed of members of both faiths. The first paragraph of the 
general constitution of the Asiatic Brethren, which was completed in November 1784, 
announced the removal of these barriers: 

Any brother, irrespective of his reUgion, class, or system, may join the Order, provided he is an 
upright person in thought and deed. Since the good and welfare of mankind are the sole 
purpose of our approach, these cannot be dependent on any other circumstance, be it a man's 
reUgion, his birth, or the class into which he has been bred. 

The permission to enter presumably was intended for the rich Jews of Vienna and the 
enUghtened Jewries of other cities, who were attracted to Ecker's company for social reasons. It 
is even more astonishing that Ecker should also have found a Jewish associate who assisted him 
in promoting the spiritual activities which were to justify the existence of the group. 

Having failed in Schleswig, Ecker returned to Austria and took up residence in Innsbruck, in 
the Tyrol. There he worked to spread the Order until his return to Vienna in 1784, and there he 
became acquainted with Ephraim Josef Hirschel (later Hirschfeld) who was introduced to him 
as a rather unusual young Jew, well-educated but persecuted by his coreUgionists on account of 
his ideas. Hirschfeld had been Uving in Innsbruck since 1782. He was employed as a 
bookkeeper by the wealthy Jew, Gabriel Uffenheimer, to whom the TyroUan salt mines had 
been farmed out. Later, employee and employer quarreled, Utigation ensued, and Hirschfeld 
was awarded a considerable sum of money by the court. While the proceedings were still in 
progress, he entered the local institution of higher learning and also accepted occasional, part- 
time employment as teacher and bookkeeper with the local aristocratic famiUes. Through his 
work, he was brought into contact with the Baron who had him copy the writings of the Order, 
only to discover that the copyist himself had, in the meantime, become interested in their 

We are now famihar with Hirschfeld's origin and early life. He had been born in Karlsruhe. 
His father was a cantor and Talmudic scholar, author of a work on rabbinic law (novellae on 
treatises of the Babylonian Talmud), learned in Cabalistic Uterature, and had produced a 
Yiddish translation of Rabbi Mosheh Alshekh's commentary on Genesis. The elder Hirschfeld 
was highly ambitious. He did not Hve at peace with the local rabbi, Nathaniel Weill, whose 
commentary he set out to attack in his own work. However, he received the written 
approbation of prominent rabbinic authorities in other cities, among them the renowned Rabbi 
Ezekiel Landau of Prague. Most extraordinary of all was the fact that he had prefaced his work 
with a dedication in German, addressed to the Margrave, Karl Friedrich of Baden-indicating 
that the father sought to attract the attention of people of high station. His son, Ephraim, 
reaped the benefit of the father's endeavors, Johann Georg Schlosser, Goethe's brother-in-law 
and a leading official in the Margrave's service, provided for the son's education, perhaps after 
the elder Hirschfeld had died. He enrolled him in the local gymnasium and later sent him to the 
University of Strasbourg to study medicine. Hirschfeld did not complete this course of studies; 
instead he acquired a grounding in languages, philosophy, and literature and became 
accomplished in the social graces, a rather unusual feat among his Jewish contemporaries. In 
addition to the habits acquired through education and training, Hirschfeld possessed unusual 
innate traits: on the one hand he tended to isolation and soUtude, while on the other he excelled 
in the art of conversation, exuded charm and confidence, and stoutly defended his considered 
opinions. This combination of features drew attention to him as an original, though somewhat 
odd, person. After his sojourn in Strasbourg, Hirschfeld moved to BerUn, taking with him the 
recommendation of his benefactor, Schlosser, to Moses Mendelssohn. There he obtained 
employment as tutor and bookkeeper in the household of David Friedlander. According to the 
testimonial given to him by Mendelssohn, when he left BerUn two years later, Hirschfeld had 
been a frequent visitor in the Mendelssohn home as well as in the homes of the city dignitaries. 
According to Friedlander' s brother-in-law, Isaac Daniel Itzig, Mendelssohn took an interest in 
Hirschfeld and tried to find an explanation for his strange conduct. (At times he would sit 
speechless, even in company, behavior which Mendelssohn ascribed to extreme hypochondria.) 
Mendelssohn befriended Hirschfeld just as he had befriended others who had entered his house 
and had subsequently developed into admirers and disciples. Hirschfeld, however, was an 
exception. Apparently he never had subscribed to Mendelssohn's rationaUstic doctrines, even 
when he was closely associated with his mentor, and he later openly turned against them. At all 

events, he refused to throw in his lot with this circle of intellectuals, which apparently is the 
reason there is no record of his stay either in Berlin or Vienna among the written remains of 
that group. From BerUn, Hirschfeld went to Innsbruck where, as we have seen, he struck up an 
acquaintance with Ecker. There too he was admitted to the Order of the Asiatics and its 
spiritual world. Hirschfeld frequently accompanied Ecker on his travels, and so made the 
acquaintance of other leaders of the Order. In the spring of 1785, he joined Ecker in Vienna 
and became attached to his home. They became firm friends and constituted, as one of the 
Vienna circle dubbed them, "a pair of originals." 

By the time Hirschfeld joined it, the Order already possessed a written, ratified constitution, 
and the Vienna group at least was governed by these laws. It is worthwhile to cast a glance over 
this group and see who (in addition to the founders we have met before) participated in its 
activities. There were outstanding dignitaries among the non- Jewish members. MoUtor 
mentions the Duke of Lichtenstein, Count Westenburg, Count Thun, and, anonymously, the 
Austrian Minister of Justice (N.N.). 

Another source, relying on hearsay, Hsts the following: Max Joseph Freiherr von Linden, Otto 
Freiherr von Gemmingen, Freiherr von Stubitza, and others. The documents in my possession 
mention several other members by name: J. B. P. Hartenfels, Franz Meltzer, Joseph von 
Juhsz, Johann GottUeb Walstein, Franz de Nevoy, Fr. van Ost, Jacob Jg. Zuz. Three of these 
were army officers; two, court officials; one, a doctor of medicine; neither the status nor 
occupation of the one remaining is known. As for these Christian members of the Order, Jews 
would have been only too proud to associate with their class on intimate social terms. Three 
wealthy Viennese Jews did belong to the Order: Arnstein, Eskeles, and Hnig, and there is no 
reason for presuming that there were no others. The information concerning this Order comes 
to us purely incidentally. We have no roster of its members, nor do we know when each 
individual was initiated into membership and whether it was before or after the arrival of 
Hirschfeld. Nevertheless, the evidence is clear that Hirschfeld actively endeavored to attract 
Jews to the Order, and that the three honorable gentlemen were accepted through his 
intercession. He maintained connections with wealthy bankers and engaged in financial 
transactions through the agency of Itzig in BerUn, Arnstein's brother-in-law, to the extent that 
his operations not only benefitted the coffers of the Order but filled his own pockets as well. He 
became financially independent as a result. In spite of his continuing to Uve in Ecker's home, 
credence should be accorded his statement-made after the dissolution of their association-that 
he gave his hosts more than he took from them. 

As time progressed Hirschfeld's functions in the Order of the Asiatics increased. True, the 
constitution had been completed before he arrived in Vienna and, according to MoHtor, who 
derived his information directly from Hirschfeld, the other, basic writings of the Order were 
not compiled by him but by Baron Schoenfeld. There were current needs, however, to attend to. 
Instructions had to be written down, which would guide the members in their "work"; these 
consisted of reflective interpretations of the symbols, word and letter combinations, and so on. 
Consistent with the origin of the doctrine of the Asiatics as a whole, the material for this 
spiritual activity, too, had been culled from Cabalistic Hterature. Very few members were at all 
famiUar with these writings, and the group had been forced to rely on Justus and Baron 
Schoenfeld. Hirschfeld claimed to have received his instruction in gaining understanding of this 

literature from the former, but it is possible that he had acquired the rudiments from his own 
father. Some time later, he wrote a book incorporating Cabahstic concepts. It should not be 
assumed however that he really understood Cabalistic systems with any profundity. Yet he was 
a "discovery" as far as Ecker was concerned. Until then, Ecker had been utterly dependent on 
Schoenfeld, who had exploited his advantage by exacting, whatever remuneration he wished. 
Now Schoenfeld was challenged by a competitor. Hirschfeld's abihties, however, fell short of 
the work he was required to perform, and so he conceived the idea of inviting his younger 
brother, Pascal-who was apparently better quaUfied, since his education had centered mainly in 
studying the Jewish traditional sources-to join him. (Pascal was, however, his brother's inferior 
in personahty traits and mental powers.) As a result of the presence of the two brothers, 
Schoenfeld was relegated to an insignificant position in the Order. Some time later he was 
expelled from the Vienna circle, though as we shall see, he did not sever his connections with 
the members altogether. 

From 1785 to 1787, the two brothers served more or less as secretaries to the Order, and 
Ephraim Joseph was dignified by the title of Oker Harim (Uterally, "uprooter of Mountains). 
The various offices, too, were designated by Hebrew terms, and the members were addressed 
by names culled from Hebraic sources. Heinrich von Ecker was called Abraham: his brother, 
Israel: Justus, Ish Zaddik (righteous person), and Baron von Schoenfeld, Isaac ben Joseph. The 
use of the Hebrew language was no novelty, since this had been an accepted practice among 
Freemasons. The latter, however, generally restricted their choice to Biblical expressions, while 
the former drew upon the vocabulary of rabbinic Uterature, an indication that Jews who had 
received a traditional education exercized a considerable influence. In their use of alien 
concepts, the Asiatics differed from the other Freemasons, whose reUance on Hebrew was 
intended only to surround Masonic activities with an exotic aura. Here it was intended to give 
prominence to the Jewish element incorporated in the Order. The full purpose of this custom is 
exposed by the fact that Hebrew names were assigned to Christian members only, while Jews 
were given names with Christian overtones. In their decision to admit Jews, the Asiatics reUed 
upon the well known paragraph of the EngUsh Masonic constitution, which limited the reUgious 
quaUfications for membership to the universal principles common to all the sons of Noah. In 
contradistinction to the English lodges, however, Jews and Christians were not accepted here 
without regard to their denominations. The two reUgions were not ignored. The intention was 
to extract principles from both faiths and to create from the combination a composite pattern 
of ideas which would serve as a basis on which the ceremonial procedures in which Christian 
and Jewish symbols both played their parts could be constructed. 

In theory, the Order of the Asiatics had not been founded as a substitute for Freemasonry but 
to construct an upper level above the regular Masonic structure. The assumption was that the 
members had already become famihar with the three main levels of Masonic lore and that a 
new order had come into being which promised to open doors to additional mysteries. In this 
respect, the Asiatics were following the example of, among others, the Scottish rite, which also 
had been constructed over and above the three original degrees of the Masonic order. This is 
the impHcation of the sentence, quoted above, from the first paragraph of the constitution that 
members would be accepted regardless of their reUgion, class, or "system"-the last term 
referring to the "system" of the Masonic lodge through which the candidate had previously 
passed. Yet, to follow this procedure in practice was quite difficult. Jews had not been 

permitted to become Freemasons; they should therefore have been inehgible for membership in 
the Order of the Asiatics. 

It appears either that Ecker exerted considerable effort to pave the way for Jews to enter the 
Masonic brotherhood, or that he deluded Jewish dignitaries into believing that his efforts might 
meet with some success. Yet anyone who might have given credence to his assurances was 
doomed to disappointment. The regular lodges were still barred to Jews. If the leaders of the 
Order of the Asiatics desired to follow the practice of admitting only former Masons, they 
would have to find some substitute to serve the needs of the Jews. A solution was found. Special 
Melchizedek lodges, so called to distinguish them from those named after John the Baptist, 
were founded. The writings of the Order of the Asiatics speak of the Melchizedek rite as well- 
known, the proof being that "Jews, Turks, Persians, Armenians, and Copts labor in it." Yet, as 
we shall see later, this was an invention, a makeshift measure, but sufficient to show that some 
effort was being made to include Jews in the same order as gentiles. Jewish admission was 
made conditional, however, in practice if not in theory, on the candidate's relinquishing the 
Judaism prevailed at that time. 

The ideology of the Asiatic Brethren has been subjected to a critical analysis by Professor 
Gershom Scholem. His study has revealed that on its theoretical level this ideology was a 
conglomeration of principles drawn from Christian and Jewish sources. CabaUstic and 
Sabbatian ideas were jumbled together with Christian theosophic doctrines. The same appUed 
to symbols and festive and memorial days, which were fundamental to the activities of the 
various degrees of the Order. Along with Christian holidays, such as Christmas and John the 
Apostle's Day, Jewish festivals, such as the anniversaries of the birth and death of Moses, of the 
Exodus, and of the Giving of the Law, were celebrated. The Christian Asiatic, however, did not 
have to suffer pangs of conscience. He could easily have regarded himself as completely faithful 
to the tenets of his rehgion-and even look upon himself as reverting to the same pristine form of 
Christianity which was preserved within Judaism. The Jew, on the other hand, could hardly 
remain obUvious to the fact that he was trespassing beyond the boundaries of his own 
traditions. The adoption of Christian symbols could on no account be reconciled with the 
doctrines of Judaism. And, if these acts were not a sufficiently serious breach of his faith, he 
was also required, as a member of the Order, to eat pork with milk as part of some solemn 
celebration. Even the most ignorant of Jews was fully aware that he was thereby violating a law 
of his own religion. Such antinomian tendencies could only be found in Sabbatian conceptions, 
and this influence, as we have seen before, was clearly prevalent. The apostate and Sabbatian 
Moses Dobrushka-Schoenfeld served as the transmission Une, carrying this influence to the 
Order of the Asiatics. Others too may have possessed a similar Sabbatian background, and 
their sectarian past paved the way for their participation in a Judeo-Christian society which 
had adopted their previous doctrines and observances. 

The readiness of the Jewish members to transgress the boundaries of their reUgion might have 
been derived from another source. Hirschfeld had become estranged from Jewish observance 
even before he made the acquaintance of the Asiatic Brethren. His sojourn among the 
"enUghtened" BerUn Jews and his earUer academic career at the gymnasium and university 
might very likely have led him away from his past. The other members of the Order were not 
known as past Sabbatians, but rather as adherents of the disintegrating tendencies of the 

Haskalah which, expHcitly or tacitly, provided the justification for abandoning Jewish 
traditions. The histories of the Itzig and Arnstein famihes in Berhn and Vienna respectively 
furnish a clear example of this process of aUenation, which impelled many to forsake Judaism 
altogether and left others behind, with their bearings lost and the security of their environment 
destroyed. The lost souls of the latter group were easy targets for recruitment in orders of the 
Asiatic Brethren variety, since such an association offered them a new social haven, beyond the 
borders of Judaism, but where they were not called upon to sever their former connections and 
to adopt Christianity. The rehgious syncretism of the Order, which might be interpreted as 
according a status to Judaism within Christianity, was less of a restraint and more of a stimulus 
and an attraction. 

The Masonic orders were not local organizations. Their tentacles penetrated into numerous 
cities and countries. Following suit, the founders of the new order also sought to spread beyond 
the Umits of Vienna. But Ecker failed in his attempt to estabUsh his order as a superstructure 
for all German Freemasons, and was forced to divert his efforts to the founding of new societies 
in various locaUties. We have already met him between 1783 and 1785, traveUng through 
Austrian and German cities, conducting his propaganda tour. As to the measure of his success, 
we have no reUable information: still, it seems to have been considerable. The center of the 
movement remained in Vienna until the end of 1786 or the beginning of 1787. There the 
"Sanhedrin" which governed the order had its seat. It was a body composed of seven members 
as well as several officeholders and salaried employees. The "Sanhedrin" delegated powers to 
the heads of the districts-four in number-for all of Europe and these heads conferred 
authorization on the individual cells in their respective regions. 

In theory, restrictive entrance requirements and a certain measure of supervision were 
supposed to be enforced by the "Sanhedrin." In practice, however, membership and new lodge 
authorizations were granted with the utmost generosity. We know of the existence of Asiatic 
lodges in Prague, Innsbruck, Berhn, Frankfurt, and Hamburg. The Encyclopedic der 
Freimaurerei, published in 1822, mentions that the cities of Wetzlar and Marburg were 
teeming with devotees of the Order. A strong chapter must have existed in Prague, although we 
have almost no information on it. In Innsbruck the society was composed of the local 
aristocracy. As for Berhn, the sources yield only the name of Itzig, but other relevant Hterature 
mentions Bischofswerder, WUner, and even the Crown Prince, who was later to become King 
Frederick WiUiam. From Hirschfeld's 1787 visit to Frankfurt we learn of a lodge in that city; 
its members are not referred to by their real names, but by the pseudonyms conferred on them 
by their lodges, better known are the Hamburg brethren. Here Hved Carl, Ecker's younger 
brother. He had been an active Mason even before the Order of the Asiatic Brethren came into 
existence. In his attitude toward Jews he showed himself ready to follow in his brother's 
footsteps. In 1783 he founded a lodge which admitted two Jewish members: Isaac Oppenheimer 
and Gottschalk Samson. This society was short-Hved, but two years later Carl von Ecker 
founded a new lodge, which was formally initiated in December 1785. His older brother, who 
Hved in Vienna, happened to be in Hamburg on that occasion and he persuaded the group to 
join the Order of the Asiatics. The 1786 membership roster gives the names, ages, occupations, 
and class of twenty-four persons, no distinguished persons are included, for, unlike Vienna, 
Hamburg was not the residence of high nobility. Eight of the names, however, bore the prefix 
"von"; the others too seem to have been borne by men of substance, to judge by their 

occupations: bankers, merchants, physicians, and even a clergyman. Six can definitely be 
identified as Jews. Beside Samson, mentioned previously, they are Isaac Guggenheimer, Jacob 
Gtz, Wolf Nathan Liepmann, Hirsch Wolf, and Marcus Jacob Schlesinger. Two were 
bankers; two merchants; one a court agent; one a physician. With the exception of the 
physician, Hirsch Wolf, these Jews were not among the culturally distinguished of the 
generation. Their principal title to membership rested on their readiness to support the Order 
financially and their aspirations to rub shoulders with non-Jews. 

From data on the Hamburg and Vienna groups, we can project conclusions about the other 
cities where branches of the Order were estabUshed. Its swift spread is a clear indication of the 
internal disintegration of a specific stratum of Jewish society in Western Europe. We must also 
take notice of the fact that a certain section of non- Jewish society was ready to estabUsh social 
and spiritual contact with Jews. Yet we should not exaggerate the dimensions of this section, 
even for the period of greatest social progress, the eighties and nineties of the eighteenth 
century. Only a few years after the Order of the Asiatics had been founded, its declared poUcy 
of including Jews and gentiles together in a single group framework was challenged. 

The first pubUc attack on the principle of equality in Freemasonry was launched in Hamburg 
in an eight-page brochure. According to its title, it purported to convey "unbiased and basic 
information on Jewish Masonic lodges and other secret societies in Hamburg." The author 
describes the admission of Jews into the local lodges as a startling innovation. Until that time 
even unauthorized lodges had categorically refused to accept Jews, since these lodges too 
assented to the basic Masonic doctrine that Jesus Christ was the cornerstone of their structure. 
Yet now certain lodges wished to enjoy the benefits of Jewish wealth, and whispered in Jewish 
ears that, in return for 100 reichsthaler, admission to the Masonic order could be obtained. 
According to the author, this hunt for souls was undertaken in the name of a certain prince, a 
Masonic Grossordensmeister, who had ordered that Jews be accepted from now on, "since 
sufferance and tolerance now prevailed universally." Hardly any doubt remains that the prince 
in question was Carl von Hessen, who, as we shall soon see, became the Grossmeister of the 
Asiatics, and who could be described as tending to show tolerance to Jews. The founder of the 
lodge open to Jews must have been Ecker. Essentially the observations of the anonymous 
author agree with what is known to us from other quarters. He must have drawn his 
information from firsthand sources and was even aware that the initiation ceremony was 
concluded with a meal at which pork was served. 

The author was not as much interested to inform as to condemn. He scorned the Jews for 
having accepted the offer, as they usually did, but refusing to pay the price. His bitterest 
resentment was reserved for the founder of the lodge who had removed the restrictions against 
Jews entering the Masonic movement. He wanted to focus the attention of the city government 
on what had taken place in the hope of having an end put to this state of affairs. That same year 
a reply was issued. The rebuttal did not deny a single allegation of the brochure. It rejected the 
slurs on Jewish behavior as being appUcable only to the crude masses. In defending the existing 
practice, the rebuttal points to the custom of the English lodges which had never discriminated 
between Jew and gentile. It is most reasonable to assume that the author of the reply was none 
other than Carl van Ecker himself. 

This minor controversy which occurred in Hamburg in 1786 may be regarded as the opening 
shot in a crushing barrage which rained down upon the heads of the Order of the Asiatics a 
year later. We have already noted that Heinrich van Ecker had come from Vienna to Hamburg 
to attend the induction ceremony of his brother Carl's lodge. The older brother's journey to 
northern Germany had a clear, deliberate purpose: he was seeking the protection for his Order 
of one of the princes who had some sympathy for Freemasonry and its mystic ramifications. 
Such persons were Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick and the Landgrave, Carl von Hessen, and 
Heinrich tried his luck with both. He was in sore need of this protection, since his personal 
standing and the existence of the entire Order in Vienna had been put in jeopardy. The heads 
of the Freemasons (they belonged to the uppermost classes and had influence in government 
circles) had fought the Order of the Asiatics from its very inception. By the end of 1785 they 
had succeeded in persuading Kaiser Joseph II to promulgate a law which would have placed all 
Masonic lodges under strict government supervision. Ecker sought to nip this threat in the bud 
by finding refuge in royal patronage elsewhere, and in Schleswig he found a sympathetic 
response on the part of the Landgrave, Carl van Hessen, with whom he had exchanged words 
previously. All his Ufe Carl had longed to uncover the secrets hidden in Masonic doctrine, and 
he believed Ecker's assertion that these were known to the members of the Asiatic Order. He 
therefore consented to become the head of the Order, and invited Ecker, and through him, 
Hirschfeld, to come and settle in Schleswig. Hirschfeld's brother, Pascal, remained for the time 
being in Vienna. Some time later. Prince Ferdinand too responded, and Carl, the younger of the 
brothers, left Hamburg to join the Prince's court in Brunswick. 

The removal of the center of the Order to Schleswig alerted the Masons outside of Hamburg. At 
the time, Schleswig was under Danish tutelage and Carl von Hessen exercised his office as the 
deputy of the Danish King. Freemasons in Copenhagen, afraid lest the Order of the Asiatics 
acquire influence in their territory, resolved to oppose it openly and expose its nature in public. 
This was not difficult to do. The members of the Order had not been at all particular in whom 
they admitted. Their constitution was therefore not properly guarded and was passed from 
hand to hand. The Copenhagen Masons decided to pubUsh the entire constitution together with 
an introduction and critical notes, so as to show how far the new Order had strayed from the 
authentic principles of Freemasonry. A person capable of handUng the assignment was found, 
and the book, Authentische Nachrichtl von den Ritter und Bruder —Eingeweihten aus Asien, Zur 
Beherzigund fur Freymaurern, was pubhshed anonymously in 1787. The author, however, son 
of a local Protestant clergyman, is known to have been Friedrich Mnter, a Freemason, who 
afterward became famous as an Oriental scholar and the Bishop of Copenhagen. 

In his introduction, inter associated the Order of the Asiatics with the occult current in 
Rosicrucianism which had achieved notoriety for its extortion of money from the guUible and 
for its frauds and swindles. Admittedly, the members of the Order of the Asiatics had held 
themselves out as opposed to the Rosicrucians, but the two were, in truth, of the same type. 
Their common feature was their pursuit of spurious, secret doctrines which confused minds 
and dulled senses. Munter spoke in the name of reason, of the sciences and philosophy of the 
enhghtenment, which alone were the guarantees for the freedom, truth, and happiness of 
mankind. Hand in hand with these discipHnes went rational theology, which stood in no need of 
any allegorical or mystical interpretation of the Holy Scriptures, which claimed authority "in 
spite of human intelligence." Munter represented the position of the educated and enUghtened 

Christian. What does occasion surprise is that this position, which had normally served as the 
starting point for a closer approach to Jews, now became his pretext for opposing the opening 
of the lodge doors to Jews. 

Munter appended his notes to paragraph after paragraph of the constitution of the Order of 
the Asiatics. As for the paragraph which allowed Jews to be accepted in Melchizedek lodges 
from where they would become eUgible for membership in the Order of the Asiatics, he 
attacked it from all sides. Jews were never, according to him, admitted into legitimate lodges 
conducted in accordance with the laws of the Grand Lodge of London. The exceptions were a 
few lodges in Holland, and they had acted illegally in this instance. The other lodges which had 
accepted Jews had never been granted authorization. He asserted that it was an established rule 
among all Freemasons, regardless of their rite, that only Christians were eUgible, "and the 
entire constitution of the Order is predicated on this principle." As for the Melchizedek lodges, 
they were a pure invention of the Order of the Asiatics. Their story that such lodges existed in 
Oriental countries and included "Jews, Turks, Persians, Armenians, and Copts" was a figment 
of the imagination, intended to legalize the entry of Jews into the Masonic lodges in the 
European countries. Thoroughly familiar, with Masonic affairs, Munter possessed in addition a 
keen sense for historical criticism. In this remark, he had undoubtedly hit upon the truth. 
Hirschfeld himself later conceded that the Melchizedek lodges existed only in the mind of 
Heinrich von Ecker. 

Munter' s vigorous attack produced its effect. The Ecker brothers took the attack to be directed 
at them. Heinrich's name had been mentioned expUcitly by Munter as one who had been an 
active member of the Order in Vienna and was now Hving in Schleswig. Heretofore the 
brothers had always been mentioned in the same breath and each was made to suffer for the 
sins of the other. Both depended for their positions on the existence of the Order -- Heinrich 
because he had been invited by Duke Carl of Schleswig as a result of the latter's beUef in the 
truth of the Asiatic doctrines, and Carl because the group flourishing in Hamburg provided 
him with his keep. Now, however, the representatives of the Order had been portrayed as 
money grubbers and the Order itself as possessing a false and confused ideology. It was not 
surprising that both felt constrained to reply. Heinrich compiled a book of one hundred pages 
to which he appended his full name, while Carl published his eighty-page reply anonymously. 

Possibly the brothers dehberately divided the functions between them. On the other hand, each 
might, on his own, have repUed to those accusations which affected his personal circumstances. 
Heinrich, who had made his future dependent upon Duke Carl's beUef in the spiritual benefit 
lying hidden in the ideology of the order, denied Munter's accusations on this aspect. He 
admitted the existence of the Order openly and even proudly. He deUneated its history during 
the past generation and alluded to a prior genealogy from which the Order, as it now existed, 
had descended. All this argument was obviously intended to support the contention that the 
Order of the Asiatics indeed had access to the true interpretations of all Masonic symboUsm. 
Such interpretations also entailed uncovering the very secrets of nature itself, and, although the 
Asiatics were not alchemists seeking to produce gold, they were nevertheless "far-seeing 
investigators of nature, possessing profound insights." They sought to be no more than a group 
"engaged in the ultimate deciphering of all Masonic hieroglyphics, and as a group they 
occupied themselves, with all the truths and cognitions of natural things following from that." 

This modest claim advanced on behalf of the Order was calculated to pacify its adherents: as 
for Duke Carl, there was no Hmit to his creduHty. For if it was true that the Asiatics possessed 
knowledge of the secrets of the world, then all other possible deficiencies, were of no account in 
comparison. Heinrich von Ecker dealt only cursorily with Munter's other accusations. He 
referred in passing to the Jewish question. He denied, though not too vigorously, that the 
Asiatics had founded lodges of their own to provide themselves with members. But he flatly 
contradicted Munter's allegation that Jews had never been accepted in legitimate lodges. He 
himself cited the names of three Jews who had been admitted into the movement-one in 
London, one in Paris, and one in Gibraltar, where many Jews visit the lodges." 

What was of minor importance to Heinrich was of major significance to his brother. Carl 
hardly touched on the question of the Asiatic Order. He contented himself with the assertion 
that there did indeed exist higher degrees than the basic three of the Masonic movement, and 
that those who reached these higher levels were vouchsafed revelations not disclosed even to the 
best among the Masons. It was therefore quite possible that the Order of the Asiatics did in fact 
contain these higher degrees. Nevertheless, preparation in the three Masonic levels was a 
precondition for ascending to the higher degrees. Yet what were the prerequisites for the 
acceptance of members in the Masonic lodges themselves? Munter had asserted that such 
acceptance depended upon the candidate's adherence to the Christian faith, and so Jews were 
ipso facto excluded. This contention Carl van Ecker undertook to dispute, as the title of his 
work explicitly shows: Werden und konnen hraeliten zu Freymaurern aufgenommen werden? 
(Would and should IsraeUtes be accepted as Freemasons?). This was the first time that the 
problem had been aired in pubUc, and Ecker's book was the beginning of a whole series of 
publications which took up the question during the succeeding generations. Ecker's affirmative 
answer to this question was the fruit of the prevaiUng circumstances of his time and his locaUty. 

Like Heinrich, Carl refuted Munter's contention that lodges using the Enghsh rite had never 
accepted Jews. In England Jews had been and were still being granted membership. He 
mentioned the names of Jews known to him personally, which had appeared in the publications 
of the Enghsh lodges. For added support, he reprinted the authorization conferred by an 
Enghsh lodge on a Jew named David Hertz, in London, on July 24, 1787. Those lodges which 
had accepted Jews conducted themselves in accordance with the original principle of 
Freemasonry, and here Carl von Ecker quoted the paragraphs of the constitutions discussed in 
Chapter II. It was true that most of the lodges in Germany and some in France and Italy had 
deviated from this principle. It had been acknowledged by the German Freemasons that no 
lodge could legally function unless it had been authorized by the Grand Lodge of London. Yet 
they had adapted their constitutions to the conditions existing in their respective states, and 
these circumstances had been responsible for Jews being excluded from the lodges since, in 
Germany, discrimination against Jews was prevalent even among Freemasons, occasioned by 
rehgious fanaticism or hypocrisy or from fear of attacks by fanatics. The barring of Jews and 
the prejudice against them also stemmed from their inferior pohtical status, for Jews had not 
been granted citizenship in the states where they Hved. 

So far the defense rested on blaming the opponents of the Jews. Yet German Jews themselves 
were guilty to some extent. They lagged behind their brethren in England, France, and Italy. 
They did not follow the law of Moses, but observed absurd rabbinical customs. Carl found fault 

even with the enhghtened Jews. These ostentatiously paraded their culture, yet found difficulty 
in liberating themselves from their original mentahty. They forced themselves to discuss 
scientific topics, while their attention remained riveted on mortgage foreclosures and bad debts. 
Their very singsong intonation set them apart from the rest of civilized society. 

It is worthwhile to examine this argument in its various aspects. Here we have a description of 
an intense emotional revulsion in which elements of actual impressions are mixed with 
stereotyped imagination. Such portrayals emerge quite frequently in contemporaneous 
Uterature, which dealt extensively with the Jewish problem and the possibiUty of Jews being 
allowed to enter Christian society. Among those in favor of granting civil rights to Jews, 
revulsion was coupled with the rational reflection that a change could occur in the future. Carl 
von Ecker adopted this attitude, and so he was able to justify opening the doors of the lodges to 
Jews. At bottom human nature was the same. "Christians and non-Christians alike are suitable 
for this instruction [of the Freemasons] which includes, basically, what is known as the law of 
nature which is impressed on the heart of man by God:" Christians, however, must take the 
first step. Since they have oppressed the Jews for so many generations, they are now obUged to 
restore human dignity and civil rights to Jews and to remove from the latter all the blemishes, 
which had become attached to them as a result of their exclusion from society. A special 
responsibiUty devolves upon the Freemasons. "Why bar the way to Freemasonry against this 
people-the only way perhaps to enUghtenment, the way through which they will more easily 
become reconciled with the rest of the human family and through which they will mend their 
habits and refine their ways of thinking?" Hamburg Jews, who belonged to the lodge headed by 
Ecker, could then see themselves as marching steadily forward, as a result of their Masonic 
membership, toward integration in the general, human society. And so they certainly did 
regard themselves at the time. 

Carl von Ecker pointed to the anomalous situation. Precisely those lodges which acknowledged 
no other Masonic authority than that derived from the Grand Lodge of London were the ones 
to deny the principles of that very Grand Lodge in matters affecting Jews. It is no less 
paradoxical to see the representatives of the Order of the Asiatics, so utterly removed from the 
rationaUsm of Enghsh Freemasonry, justify the admission of Jews by reference to that rite. In 
actuaUty, principles, tendencies, behefs, and ulterior motives, all together in utter disorder, 
influenced Masonic attitudes toward Jews, so it should not be surprising to find in the history of 
the Asiatic lodges twisting and vacillating and a lack of consistency. 

The representatives of the Order apparently stood the test successfully. They had pubUcly 
defended the right of Jews to be admitted to their society and to all Masonic lodges. The Jewish 
participant in the leadership of the organization, Ephraim Joseph Hirschfeld, maintained his 
position in Schleswig, and we find him there fulfiUing an important part in the functioning of 
the Order. Sent in 1787 by Duke Carl, he had undertaken an extensive tour on behalf of the 
Order. He traveled to Frankfurt and from there, by way of Nuremberg and Regensburg, to 
Prague and Vienna. After his return, he settled in Schleswig, but still maintained contact with 
Hamburg. The center of the movement was now located in northern Germany: in Schleswig 
under the patronage of Carl von Hessen, and in Brunswick under the patronage of Duke 
Ferdinand. Senior officials in Carl's administration were active in the Order, and Hirschfeld 
made friends even on this level of society. There, as in Vienna, his function was to provide the 

Order with exercises in meditation culled from Cabalistic printed works and manuscripts. 
Although he had drawn upon others and had even accepted assistance from his brother when 
he was in Vienna, in Schleswig he reUed, at least during the earlier years, upon his own 
resources. To this end, he fortified himself during his Frankfurt sojourn with the necessary 
textbooks. It is doubtful whether anyone else in Schleswig was capable of reading a Hebrew 
book or of expounding the texts of the Order which had been compiled by the founders in 
Vienna and were based on Cabalistic writings. The members needed to understand the 
doctrines of their Order, and so they, and Duke Carl, their leader, were forced to depend on 
Hirschfeld. His position now seemed secure because he was indispensable. 

Nevertheless, Hirschfeld did not enjoy peace and quiet in his new home. He was obviously more 
isolated in Schleswig than he had been in Vienna. Here he was an aUen, a foreigner, probably 
the only Jew in the group. Although the Ecker brothers had defended the principle of equaUty 
in their Order, the Schleswig members were reluctant to accept its vaUdity. Some were of the 
opinion that, although Jewish members already in the Order should not be expelled, new 
appUcants should not be admitted in large numbers. According to Hirschfeld 's own account, 
the Schleswig "Sanhedrin" rejected a Jewish candidate on the grounds of his reUgion, and 
Hirschfeld undertook the defense of the principle and the struggle to have it implemented in 

This information is corroborated by another source which recounts an incident occurring in 
Hamburg. Carl van Ecker sought to obtain Masonic authorization for his Order from 
Ferdinand of Brunswick, and the latter made the granting of his authorization dependent upon 
the expulsion of Jewish members from the group. Duke Carl, who wanted to save the Jewish 
members, proposed that they be organized in a separate lodge named Melchizedek, such 
membership being intended to confer the right on Jews to visit Christian lodges. Carl thereby 
acknowledged the distinction instituted between two types of lodges by the Order of the 
Asiatics, but without raising the status of Jews to equality with Christians. The Jewish 
members of the Order, whose number had risen to twenty, rejected the proposal and left the 

Duke Carl tried to placate the Jews, but not at the expense of his connections with Christianity. 
Though he longed to learn the meanings of the secrets by having recourse to Jewish sources, he 
beUeved that such revelations would lead him to truths that were basically Christian. Heinrich 
von Ecker, too, adapted himself to the Schleswig atmosphere and made sure that he was seen 
reading Scripture with all due Christian fervor. 

Given these circumstances, it is not surprising that Hirschfeld began to feel that he was a victim 
of discrimination. Although rumors spread upon occasion that he had been or had appeared to 
be converted to Christianity, the truth is that he refrained from taking this step. Even in his 
reUgious position he remained an exception, as we shall see later. Not everyone considered this 
a fault, and several persons in Schleswig were attracted to his unique personaUty. Nevertheless, 
here as in every court society, social standing was determined by the mere fact of a man's 
belonging to a particular class or reUgion. Carl von Ecker's friendship for the Jew availed him 
nothing. The honors conferred on Ecker, the noble, were denied to Hirschfeld, the Jew. Social 
discrimination strained their relations and in the end led to an open breach between the two old 


Details and minutiae of the quarrel and the resulting Utigation do not fall within the scope of 
this discussion. In brief, Hirschfeld sued Ecker for the payment of debts owing to him, and 
Ecker, in turn, accused Hirschfeld of threatening his Hfe in the presence of Duke Carl. As the 
trial progressed, it became evident that Ecker Was exerting an increasingly strong influence on 
the Duke and the officials conducting the proceedings. Distraint was levied on Hirschfeld's 
personal effects and the manuscript in his possession, and he was placed under house arrest. 
The Order of the Asiatics, too, turned its back on the very person who had once been its central 
spiritual pillar. It was resolved to expel Hirschfeld from the Order, and a circular was sent to 
all branches explaining why this discipHnary action had been taken. The legal proceedings and 
the act of expulsion clearly reveal anti-Jewish overtones and warrant our attention as evidence 
that the social status acquired by Jews. Even in a marginal group such as the Order of the 
Asiatics, was of a doubtful nature. 

In the course of the trial both parties gave accounts of the history of their association and 
cooperative efforts. Ecker did not fail to relate how he had promoted Hirschfeld, even in 
Innsbruck, despite his Jewishness. To refute Hirschfeld's contention that he had given him 
financial assistance in Vienna and Innsbruck, and not vice versa, Ecker invited high-level 
acquaintances to submit their testimony in writing. Many of these letters reek with contempt 
for the Jew, Hirschfeld-and undoubtedly echo Ecker's call for aid in his suit as a wronged 
noble against a Jewish extortioner. One of the Innsbruck writers stated quite bluntly that in his 
locaUty no Jew would have the audacity to institute legal proceedings against a nobleman of the 
social eminence of Ecker und Eckhoffen. 

A similar tone is sounded in the notification of the Order of Hirschfeld's expulsion. He was 
accused, among other things, of having imposed a Jewish, Cabala-derived pattern on the rites 
of the Order. The authors of the circular acknowledged the value of Cabala as a source for 
Masonic meditation, but argued that the object of these intellectual exercises should have been 
to lead the Christian far beyond the Hmits attainable by a Jew. Nor was this all. I do not have 
the complete text of the circular, but the reaction to it -other than on the part of Hirschfeld- 
shows clearly that its arguments could have proved injurious to all the Jewish members of the 

What is most interesting about Hirschfeld as a person and the stand he took is, that, although 
he was most sensitive to, and would defend himself most vigorously against, any affront to his 
honor, he did not regard himself as being attacked as a Jew. Nor apparently did he feel that his 
Jewishness had played any part in the deterioration of his position. Once his doom had 
overtaken him and he was imprisoned, he turned wherever he could to prove that he was 
innocent and had not committed any crime. Yet nowhere is there any indication that he had 
been made to suffer because he was a Jew. This might have been sheer simulation, yet it is 
possible that his fervent desire to regard himself above any Jewish- Christian conflict may have 
inhibited him psychologically from identifying his lot with that of his people. This neutral 
attitude may have crystallized within Hirschfeld over the course of years. In his reply to the 
circular's accusation he denied that the Cabala was dependent on any positive reUgion, and 

argued that anyone, be he Catholic, Moslem, or Jew, who occupied himself with it would 
thereby pass beyond the confines of his specific rehgious tradition and reach "the one and only, 
true, pure, and over-all rehgion. It is also true in this instance that he was here giving Carl von 
Hessen, to whom he had addressed his reply, the grounds to believe that the Christian would 
eventually find, in the authentic wisdom of the Cabala, the truths of Christianity heretofore 
concealed from the ordinary member of that rehgion. In his distress, Hirschfeld went so far as 
to deny his own conception, which had been based on the behef that there was a single, mystic 
wisdom common to all reUgions. 

Hirschfeld 's obUvious attitude to the attacks upon him as a Jew was not shared by all the 
Jewish members of the Order. We know of the reaction of one of the more important members, 
the wealthy Berhn banker, Itzig, previously mentioned as being active. He was one of those to 
whom Hirschfeld had appealed to extricate him from his present predicament. By using his 
influence with the royal court, Itzig could have obtained a Prussian government position for 
Hirschfeld who would then have enjoyed diplomatic immunity. Instead of this wild plan, Itzig 
tried a more direct approach. He addressed a long letter to Carl von Hessen to intercede on 
behalf of the distressed Hirschfeld. He praised Hirschfeld's character and cited Moses 
Mendelssohn's encouragement of him as a young man in Berhn. Itzig also indicated that he was 
prepared to defray any costs involved in settling Hirschfeld's affair with Ecker, if financial 
considerations were in fact involved. 

Itzig 's plea did not refer to the personal instance of Hirschfeld alone. He also submitted his own 
claims to the Duke in respect to the anti-Jewish accusations which had risen above surface in 
the pubhcations of the Order deahng with the Hirschfeld affair. Itzig protested most 
vehemently against the insults hurled against "the entire Jewish people, and especially the 
Jewish brethren" of the Order." How can a few individuals have the effrontery to cast 
aspersions for the second time upon a people with whom they have no acquaintance and which 
has no acquaintance with them?" Such an attempt had in fact been made once before in the 
worthless pamphlet Werden und konnen Israeliten zu Freymaurern aufgenommen werden? 
Itzig's remarks prove that the negative portrayal of Jewish character by Carl von Ecker at the 
time in his brochure had not gone unnoticed, at least by the Jewish members of the Order. It 
also proves that the circular contained some of the very allegations disseminated by the 
pamphlet, and that both had issued from a common source-the hands of the Ecker brothers. 
The whole affair throws a lurid Hght upon the true nature of the tolerance of the Eckers and 
their Hke. This was a product of cold, intellectual calculation to be destroyed by the first, 
emotional outburst fanned by personal considerations. 

We do not know whether Itzig's protest made any impression on the Duke. Help reached 
Hirschfeld from an unexpected quarter. His antagonist, Heinrich von Ecker, suddenly died in 
August 1791, before the trial had ended. Even before that, help had been extended to Hirschfeld 
in the field of communication by the pubhcation of a book entitled Der Asiate in seiner Blosse 
Oder grundlicher Beweis dass die Ritter und Bruder Eingeweihten aus Asien aechte Rosenkreuzer 
sind (The Asiatic in his nakedness, or a thoroughgoing demonstration that the initiated Knights 
and Brethren from Asia are genuine Rosicrucians). This served as the last stage of the 
controversy over the acceptance of Jews into Masonic lodges, at least at this period of the 
history of the problem. 

The booklet was anonymous both in respect of its author and the place of pubUcation. The 
author proceeds to attack the Order and especially the Ecker brothers on the basis of new 
material which had not been available to the author of the Authentische Nachrichten. He 
adduces numerous proofs for the assertion that the Asiatics merely constitute a manifestation of 
the former Rosicrucians. He reverts to the question whether Jews are fit for membership, not in 
the Freemasons this time, but in the Asiatic brotherhood. He argues that they had been 
deceived, since they had been induced to swear allegiance to Jesus the Redeemer and his laws. 
Now the author had failed to detect the syncretistic intent of the Order, and so he hoped that 
some Jew would come forward, divest himself of the false oath he had been unwittingly tricked 
into swearing, and expose the Order's secrets in pubUc. It is almost certain that he had good 
reason to beUeve that this would happen. Taking a definite stand on the Hirschfeld -Ecker 
controversy, he argued that all the wisdom of the Asiatic Order had been derived from Marcus 
ben Binah, aUas Hirschfeld, whom in the end the very Asiatics themselves had persecuted and 
imprisoned. He called upon the Christian Freemasons to rally to the rescue of the victim, but at 
the same time indicated another means to secure his release. Pascal, Hirschfeld's brother, was 
still aUve. Let him threaten to disclose all the secrets of the Order unless his brother was freed. 

Ecker's death put an end to Hirschfeld's confinement. He proceeded to make peace with the 
Duke, and later effected reconciliation with Carl von Ecker as well. The Duke granted him an 
annuity in Heu of the debt owed him by the deceased Ecker, and still took an interest in 
Cabahstic material supplied by Hirschfeld, as well as in his advice on the times, favorable and 
unfavorable, for engaging in its study. But Hirschfeld never was restored to his former standing 
in the Order, the Duke himself stipulating that he was to keep away. In addition to the previous 
resentment against him, Hirschfeld was now suspected of having been the author of the expose, 
DerAsiate, which had subjected the Order to such vicious attack. To clear himself of the 
suspicion, he undertook to write a pamphlet which would demoHsh all the arguments otDer 
Asiate. Work on this reply became bogged down, and Hirschfeld, was called upon to explain his 
inaction. The truth is that he was probably not the author, but had only suppUed the author 
with the material in his brother's possession to prepare his defense. No wonder his stay in 
Schleswig had become uncomfortable! But he had become burdened with debt--probably 
because of the expense of the Htigation--and was unable to leave. He relied on his tested means: 
an urgent call for help went out to his former groups in BerUn and Vienna, and they hastened 
to his rescue. 

In February 1792 there appeared in Schleswig a person referred to as I. Ben Jos. He was 
introduced by Hirschfeld as a leading member of the order. Having heard of, but never having 
seen him, the Schleswig brethren found it difficult to believe that he existed. This leading 
brother paid 550 thaler to discharge Hirschfeld's debts, and now all barriers to departure were 
gone. Hirschfeld wanted to take advantage of the presence of his guest to gain prestige. 
Unfortunately the Landgrave Carl was not home at the time. So Hirschfeld introduced him to 
all the other important members, and then took him to Brunswick, hoping to introduce him to 
Duke Ferdinand. There they dined at the table of Carl von Ecker. During the meal the guest 
was identified as a Jew. Though he neither denied nor admitted the fact, all hope for an 
audience with the Duke vanished. Thereupon, Hirschfeld and the leading brother left northern 
Germany, and we find them in Strasbourg in May or thereabout. There they parted company. 

Hirschfeld returned to Germany, arriving in Karlsruhe, his birthplace, in the middle of June. 
There he waited for the promised return of the leading brother. 

Who was this obscure person? MoUtor's account gives the solution by relating that Hirschfeld 
had accompanied Thomas van Schoenfeld to Strasbourg: (where they made the acquaintance of 
the famous spirituaUst St. Martin, author otDes erreurs et de la verite). From another source we 
learn that Schoenfeld arrived in Strasbourg in March 1793, and that from then onwards he 
appeared under the name of Junius Frey. The data agree, and the facts leave no room for 
doubt. What can reasonably be deduced from them is that Hirschfeld 's appeal to the veteran 
members of the group led them to summon the aid of the arch-adventurer Thomas von 
Schoenfeld. He came to Schleswig from the city of "P.," that is, Prague, by way of Vienna, 
BerUn, and Hamburg. Certainly he did not draw the money to discharge Hirschfeld's debts 
from his own pocket. The money had been raised among the rich brethren in Vienna and 
BerUn, who had involved themselves in the issue and raUied to Hirschfeld's aid. Schoenfeld took 
the opportunity to cross into France--or else this was his original destination, and his mission to 
Schleswig was later incorporated into his itinerary. It is a fact that his brother and sister joined 
him in Paris when he arrived there in the middle of June. Hirschfeld waited for him in 
Karlsruhe. Declaring later that he had seen his bitter end in a dream. Hirschfeld claimed that 
Schoenfeld might have been engaged in a mission on behalf of the Austrian government. This 
suspicion may have been well founded; yet it is equally possible that this was a post facto 
supposition. One thing is clear: the leading brother had abandoned his spiritual, for the much 
higher stakes of the great poUtical adventure that had seized Paris. He died on the guillotine on 
April 5,1793. 

Hirschfeld's rescue was the last activity, as far as we know, of the Jewish group within the 
Order of the Asiatics. There are grounds to assume that Jews continued to leave the Order, and 
that the Order itself went into decHne. Soon after Hirschfeld's departure from Schleswig, the 
Order lost one of its patrons with the death of Duke Friedrich of Brunswick (July 1792). Carl 
von Hessen Hved on. He did not reject the doctrines of the Order but turned to other groups 
and ideologies for explanations of the Masonic secrets. He maintained some contact with his 
spiritual mentor, Hirschfeld, as for the latter, he settled in Offenbach-near Frankfurt--the 
center of the Frankist movement. From time to time he tried to interest people in his spiritual, 
conceptual system, and in the next chapter we shall meet these two remnants of the Order of 
the Asiatic Brethren in a new context. 

Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Preface 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 1 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 2 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 3 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 4 

Sayings of Jacob Frank 

Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1723-1939 

By Jacob Katz 

Translated from the Hebrew by Leonard Oschry 

Harvard University Press, Cambridge, l\/lassaschusetts, 1970 

Chapter 4 

The Frankfurt Judenloge 

The Order of the Asiatic Brethren was a broad attempt to erect some type of Masonic 
framework within the borders of which both Jews and gentiles would be included. But it was 
not the only attempt. In 1790, even before the Order had finally ceased to exist, two Christians, 
Hirschfeld and Catter, had founded the Toleranzloge in Berlin with the avowed object of 
admitting both gentiles and Jews. These two men were by no means original thinkers. Their 
conceptions were a diluted solution of humanistic principles: belief in truth, brotherhood, and 
beauty, mixed with the vestiges of certain Christian doctrines: the fall of man and the necessity 
of his moral regeneration. They even retained some of the Christian symbols current in 
Masonic usage: Jews took their oath on the Gospel of Saint John, not "on a Hebrew Old 
Testament." Nevertheless, the founders proclaimed that "Freemasonry is obhged to bring Jews 
and Christians closer together and to ehminate outworn prejudices. It is their duty to make 
Jews, if one may say so, more human and to raise them to higher levels of culture." It was 
admitted, however, that only such Jews were worthy of membership as had already approached 
more closely to Christianity and whose open adherence to that reUgion was only obstructed by 
family circumstances. In the eyes of the founders, men Hke the Itzig brothers. Professor Herz, 
and Levi, the banker, were considered to fit into such a category. It may be presumed that these 
Jews, and especially Isaac Daniel Itzig, had a hand in estabhshing the lodge. Its founding 
possibly may have been from the very beginning a reaction to their disappointment at the anti- 
Jewish mood then pervading the Asiatic Order. At all events, Itzig became busily engaged in 
searching for a patron for the new lodge. The founders had approached the Grand Lodge of 
Germany to grant them an approved constitution. Their request was refused. Instead, Itzig was 
able to procure a letter of approval from King Frederick William-whose trusted banker he 
was-- stating that the King consented "to tolerate the lodge in question and to protect it as long 
as it harbored no tendencies toward illuminatismus [an order which had gained notoriety for its 
social and political extremism] and toward Enlightenment." This royal patronage was not the 
equivalent of actual recognition, but at least it allowed the lodge to function for more than ten 
years and to earn the praise of the cultured as an organization with an exemplary humanistic 

A second attempt occurred that very year (179I-92)--this time in Hamburg. The initiative was 
taken openly by a Jew named Israel. No details can be eUcited from any other source, and the 
information on the lodge itself is meager. Israel, who had been initiated as a Mason in London, 
now wanted to bestow the benefit on his Jewish brethren of an education "by social contact 
with the Christians." His lodge was called Toleranz und Einigkeit, and among its members 
echoes of slogans of the French Revolution could be heard. He found Jews who wanted to 
belong to his lodge (we do not know whether they were former members of the Asiatic Order or 
not) and even obtained the support of gentile dignitaries. Yet he could not gain recognition 
from a Mother Lodge. In Hamburg, Berlin, and London his appUcations were refused. The 
excuse given by the London lodge for its rejection was rather ironic: authorization should not 
be granted to a Jewish lodge, since rehgious questions were beyond the scope of Freemasonry. 

Both the BerUn and Hamburg lodges represented a direct attempt to absorb Jews into the 
Masonic fraternity. There were other lodges, not founded with this specific purpose in mind, 
which accepted Jews de facto. These lodges paid no special heed to the accepted Masonic rules 
and were branded as unauthorized. Having until then suffered complete exclusion from the 
surrounding society, Jews could look upon their admission, even to these marginal associations, 
as a significant social advance. Yet if one aspired to acceptance as an equal in the surrounding 
society, he could not fail to consider his admission to a Winkelloge as a mockery rather than a 

A case history throws Hght on the prevailing state of affairs. Sigismund Geisenheimer, later to 
found the Frankfurt lodge (to be discussed soon), described in a letter (a copy in his 
handwriting is still extant) to Dr. Ludwig Baruch (Borne) how he first made his way into the 
Freemasons. He was a native of Bingen, and was subsequently employed by the House of 
Rothschild in Frankfurt as head clerk. He had read about the Freemasons, and it occurred to 
him that the lodges might serve as the most useful instrument for uniting Jews and Christians, 
or at least bringing them closer to one another. He was by nature a very practical man, as he 
demonstrated later by his founding of the Jewish lodge, and earUer by founding the 
Philanthropin Jewish school, which earned him even greater renown. In this instance, too, 
Geisenheimer immediately took steps to carry his idea into practice. First he sought to become 
a Freemason himself. To this end, he traveled to BerUn and enlisted the aid of Itzig. The latter 
recommended him to a certain group--we may venture the guess that it was the Toleranzloge-- 
and he was initiated with all due ceremony. Armed with his membership certificate, 
Geisenheimer now approached a regular Masonic lodge, but he was very poHtely refused 
admission. Slowly the reaUzation dawned on him that the first lodge had received no real 
sanction and that its membership certificate was utterly worthless, meaning nothing to genuine 
Freemasons. He considered himself cheated, and the insult smarted for many years. It may be 
assumed that the hurt impelled him to press all the more energetically in his struggle to pave 
the way for Jewish entry into the legitimate Masonic lodges. 

With the spread of the French Revolution, new prospects opened up for Jews even, apparently, 
within the framework of the Masonic movement. In France itself all restrictions against Jews 
seem to have been Ufted completely. As the conquering French armies advanced into the 
various European countries, the soldiers, and the civiUans who followed them, opened Masonic 

lodges; and these Frenchmen behaved in their new environment as they had at home. The 
changed situation is reflected in the Hves of the founders of the Frankfurt lodge. Before they 
opened this lodge, all twelve of them (eleven were Jews) had been registered as members in 
other lodges: four (among them Geisenheimer) had been members of Les Amis Indivisibles, 
and one of Anacreon, both lodges located in Paris; four, of two London lodges, Hyram and 
Emulation; one, of the French, Trois Palmes, in Darmstadt: and one, of the Trinite in 
Frankfurt itself. We know that Geisenheimer gained admission to the Paris lodge during one of 
his business trips to that city: the other members probably succeeded in entering lodges outside 
their home towns in the same way. 

Certainly membership in a distant lodge was no more than a substitute for the true fulfillment 
of their desires: they still aspired to acceptance in the lodges of their own locaUties. But the 
Frankfurt lodges were not open to Jews, even when they presented themselves with the 
certificates of authorized out-of-town lodges; otherwise they would never have undertaken to 
found a lodge of their own. We accept as reUable the remarks of Dr. Jacob Weil, one of the 
veteran members, in the speech he delivered in 1832 on the occasion of the semi-jubilee of the 
Frankfurt lodge: "Our workshop came about by the founders' knocking on other gates in their 
birthplace. These were not opened because the monopoUsts of the Ught looked upon the 
beUevers in the Old Testament as doomed to everlasting darkness." The founders of the new 
lodge could not, therefore, entertain hope of obtaining recognition from any local Masonic 
body. A district lodge known as the Zur Einigkeit had existed in Frankfurt since 1789, and it 
has been empowered by the Mother Lodge in London to open new lodges in the vicinity. But 
the members of the new lodge had to seek authorization from afar and they communicated, 
through the medium of HypoUte Cerfbeer, with the Grand Lodge of Paris. The authorization 
was formally granted on June 17, 1807. The solemn installation ceremony took place on June 
12, 1808, and the lodge thereupon assumed the name of Loge de St. John de L'aurore Naissante 
(in German, Loge zur aufgehenden Morgenrothe). Representatives of lodges from Paris, 
Toulouse, The Hague, Mayence, Metz, and Bonn-and even from a French lodge in Frankfurt 
itself -attended the ceremonies. 

The description of the installation and the texts of the speeches -most in French with a few in 
German-dehvered on that occasion were printed. From these records we can ascertain how the 
guests and hosts evaluated the event in which they had played a part. Most of the speeches were 
encomiums of Freemasonry-the soil destined for the cultivation of brotherly love, for the 
promotion of virtue, and so on. Here and there, however, the remarks are directed to the 
present and its background, as for instance the observations of the delegates from the French 
Amis Reunis of Mayence and from one of the Paris lodges. 

The first speaker described the occasion as a day of victory for reason, in that members of 
different groupings, whom prejudice and reUgious fanaticism had driven apart, were now 
united. The second praised "the great nation, which had previously possessed a fruitful land, 
but is now scattered over the various continents of the earth," yet had nevertheless succeeded in 
preserving its unity, its freedom, its mode of worship. Membership in the Freemasons, however, 
from now on obUged the sons of this nation "to double and redouble their efforts, so as to 
broaden more and more the dimensions of their moral perfection [les relations de la morale 
perfectionnee] by means of a deep feeling of brotherhood.... Now all men are equal." 

A special significance was ascribed to the event by a Christian member, Franz J. MoUtor, who 
had joined the lodge a few months after its inception. In Molitor the lodge had acquired a 
personaUty of intellectual stature, one able to view matters in their philosophical perspective. 
His remarks seem to vacillate between mourning over the decUne of the old world and rejoicing 
at the dawn of the new. The old world consisted of a unified existential totaUty: state, religion, 
and mysticism (Masonry). The advantage of the new world lay in the abolition of the notion 
that there existed "a natural, absolute division between men. All classes are beginning to look 
upon each other as brothers, and on the differences forced upon them by circumstances as 
having no substance. And so the Illumination of the EnUghtenment penetrates to all classes of 
society, and estates that diverge in the State return united in the world of the spirit." In the 
forging of this unity, MoUtor assigned an important role to the Freemasons. In the political 
events of his time--the Napoleonic heyday--he discerned the renewal of the face of the earth. 

The initiation of the lodge could have been a source of gratification to the Jewish members. 
Whether their rejoicing was complete is rather doubtful. As has been shown, the Christians 
present at the affair were either the few unconventional individuals who had joined the lodge or 
else were representatives from abroad. As for the Frankfurt long-standing lodges, the Loge zur 
Einigkeit and the Socrates zur Standhaftigkeit, they had certainly been invited, but had sent no 
delegates, stating expHcitly that they did not recognize the new lodge as legitimate. 

Permission to visit other lodges was denied to the members of L'aurore Naissante, even if they 
presented themselves as members of a different lodge. Geisenheimer and Baruch had obtained 
membership in a Mayence lodge, which was subsequently invited to attend a celebration of the 
Socrates lodge in Frankfurt. The invitation was accepted. Among the others, the two Jews were 
also appointed to represent the Mayence lodge on that occasion. The Frankfurt hosts, however, 
refused to admit the delegation to their meeting hall on the grounds that two of the 
representatives belonged to the unacceptable L'aurore Naissante. The delegates protested to the 
Grand Orient in Paris, and a great many letters were exchanged between Frankfurt and Paris. 
Nor was this an isolated instance. Jewish members of lodges authorized by the French Grand 
Orient were confronted with refusals on the part of German lodges. Complaints reached Paris 
from the Grand Lodge of Baden and from others under French patronage. The entire matter 
was brought up for discussion in the Grand Orient, which rendered as its considered and 
authoritative ruUng that lodges should not occupy themselves with poUtical or religious 
questions. A candidate's appUcation for admission should be considered on its merits, without 
reference to the person's reUgion. In the deUberations preceding the decision, the question was 
put whether a Jew could be raised to the fourth, Scottish degree, which possessed a definitely 
Christian character. The opinion was expressed that a Jew could not, and would not want to, be 
accepted into that degree--but the Grand Lodge members concurred that this deficiency should 
exert no influence in respect of the first three degrees. A proclamation issued on June 19, 1811, 
brought the views of the Grand Orient to the attention of the lodges, but avoided all mention of 
the problem of the fourth degree. It merely stated the principle that a man's adherence to a 
particular religion was not to affect his rights to membership in the Masonic movement. 

Although the course of events which led to the formation of the new lodge is self-explanatory, 
its significance becomes even more profound when viewed against the background of the 

historical events affecting the Jewish community at large. 1807, which witnessed the founding 
of the "Jewish lodge," was just one year after the old order in Frankfurt had been aboUshed, 
after an independent, royal city had become transformed into a minor principahty under the 
tutelage of Napoleon. This change marked the time for the Jews of that city to begin their 
struggle for the same rights that Jews in France and the other regions overrun by the 
Napoleonic armies had begun to enjoy. Hampered, hindered, and delayed by the hesitancy of 
Prince Dalberg and the obduracy of the city council, the struggle continued till 1811. 

The years 1806 and 1807 also saw the convening of Jewish dignitaries and of the "Sanhedrin" 
in Paris. Frankfurt Jewry participated by sending a letter of encouragement and by 
dispatching a delegation of two members, one of whom, Isaac Hildesheim (who later changed 
his name to Justus Hiller), was a founder of the new lodge. Some of the Jewish community 
viewed the latest events as harbingers of a radical change in their poUtical and social status. 
Among these no doubt were the members of the new lodge. The proceedings of the group, Uke 
all other Masonic activities, were conducted with secrecy. At their very first meeting the 
members had pledged each other to silence. The lodge had never entertained any declared 
poUtical or social objective: nevertheless, it's founding was a sign of the times, and it was so 
interpreted by the more conservative members of the Jewish community. According to 
information emanating from Geisenheimer himself, he was placed under the ban by the rabbi 
of Frankfurt, Zvi Hirsch Horowitz, who lifted it only when he became convinced of the sincerity 
of Geisenheimer's motives. Geisenheimer might have exaggerated in recounting the difficulties 
he had to surmount--no actual ban may have been pronounced against him. His account does, 
however, contain an audible echo of the opposition of the conservative elements to this bold 

The period was one of radical change. What had seemed most improbable before now became 
an accompUshed fact. Despite opposition from within and from without, the lodge became 
consoUdated within a very short time. I have a copy of the membership Ust for 1811 and the 
roster of lodges with whom the L'aurore Naissante had succeeded in estabUshing contact, either 
through mutual recognition or through the exchange of information. From these Hsts, we can 
gauge the measure of success achieved by the lodge on all fronts. In that year the lodge 
numbered eighty members, the overwhelming majority of whom resided in or near Frankfurt. 
Their proximity to the lodge permitted active participation in all its affairs. A significant part 
was played by those who had settled m Frankfurt in the last generation, Uke Geisenheimer 
himself. The old, estabUshed famiUes were also well represented: the Adlers, Speyers, Reisses, 
and Sichels. Even the richest and most powerful Frankfurt famiUes were included: the ElUsons, 
Hanaus, Goldschmidts, and Rothschilds. [Footnote: See the relevant entries in Alexander Dietz, 
Stammbuch der Frankfurt Juden (Frankfurt am Main, 1907)] 

Solomon Meir (who afterward moved to Vienna), the second of the five Rothschild brothers, 
became a member if only for a short time. [Footnote: Rothschild had been initiated on June 14, 
1809 (firvMfieschichte, p.24, and resigned on May 4, 1812 (ibid. ,p.35).] Several members were 
over forty-five years old at the time, but the majority were between twenty-five and thirty-five. 
It may confidently be asserted that the lodge possessed a particular attraction for a specific type 
among the younger generation. As for Geisenheimer, we have already stated that his motives in 
joining the Freemasons were to create some framework within which Jews and Christians 

could approach closer to one another, and perhaps even become united. Naturally not all the 
members entertained his far-reaching intentions. Such aspirations were quite typical, however, 
of intellectuals and energetic men of affairs who were eager to hasten the process which had 
begun to transform the Jewish community in the last generation or two. Of these, there were 
two or three in this lodge: Geisenheimer, Michael Hess, principal of the Philanthropin school, 
and Justus Hildesheim (Hiller), who had raised his voice in the counsels of the Paris 
"Sanhedrin" and who had been appointed Orator to the Lodge. In the address he dehvered on 
the occasion of the founding of the lodge he too emphasized the common foundation of all 
reUgions, which differed from one another as did the diverse languages with which all 
expressed the same thoughts. Another, who joined as early as in 1808, was Dr. Ludwig Baruch 
(later Borne); but he withdrew in 1811 for some time, and so his name does not appear on the 
roster of that year. Most of the members were engaged in commerce. Having received a 
practical education, they were well versed in worldly affairs. Without being committed to any 
world-shattering ideals, they sought new areas of social contact beyond, if possible, the barriers 
of the isolated Jewish community. 

In its social composition and in its spiritual goals the lodge differed from the other marginal 
associations which had, in the previous generation, sought to include both Jews and gentiles. It 
is almost obvious that, in choosing between Umiting their degrees to the first three and 
instituting the higher ones, or between humanistic aspirations and mystic or quasi-mystic 
doctrines, the lodge decided in favor of the former in each instance. During the very first stage 
of its existence, it was proposed that the Scottish rite with its high degrees be instituted, but this 
idea was summarily rejected. The members experienced no special craving either for 
unraveUng secrets or for attaining spiritual elevation. Their goals were far more modest: to 
discover some social environment offering possibiUties for associating with Christians, through 
the cultivation of brotherhood and friendship based on the belief in the brotherhood of man 
entailed in monotheism. The new lodge fulfilled this function. Precisely because it was from its 
inception a reaction to the exclusion of Jews from other lodges, it strove to assume a 
nondenominational character. Within a short period of time it succeeded, during the French 
hegemony, in achieving its aims. Of the eighty members of the lodge in 1811, twenty-five were 
Christians. The latter were accorded a distinct priority in the managing of the lodge's affairs; it 
was headed from 1809 to 1812 by a Christian, Josef Severus, and five other Christian members 
occupied high offices in the nineteen-member executive committee. 

The desire to accord the lodge a nondenominational character is especially noticeable in the 
election of honorary members, men Uving elsewhere whom the lodge chose-presumably with 
their consent-to dignify with such an appointment. Of the fifty who received this recognition, 
only five can positively be identified as Jews. All the rest were Christians, and we shall 
presently take account of their national and social origins. The Morgenrothe could justifiably 
be proud of its connections with other lodges. Seventeen maintained reciprocal relations 
(affilies) with it, that is, these lodges were prepared to conduct joint activities with it or to allow 
each other's members to attend meetings as visitors. All seventeen were located either in Paris 
or in West German capitals which had fallen under French control (such as Mayence, Cologne, 
and Mannheim). Twenty-seven other lodges corresponded with the Morgenrothe, some from as 
far away as Leipzig, Dresden, Nuremberg, Hannover, Bremen, Amsterdam, and even Berhn 
(Du BeUier). Whether the lodge was recognized as Jewish or not, it succeeded in attracting 

gentile members and in gaining access to gentile lodges. 

Impressive as this success may have been, it was only an outflanking maneuver rather than a 
direct victory. Only one of the twenty-five Christian members was a native of Frankfurt. The 
honorary members, who Hved in other areas, either possessed French names or were French 
soldiers or officials residing in Germany. In those years a circle of admirers of France and of 
Napoleon in particular, had emerged in Germany. They beUeved that the future of their 
country was bound up with the success of the new Emperor Prince Dalberg, the governor of 
Frankfurt from 1806 to 1813, is an outstanding example of this circle. They adopted new, 
French attitudes and were prepared to conduct themselves accordingly in their social relations. 
This accounts for the abiUty of the Frankfurt lodge to gain the favor of gentiles of the highest 

The new outlook did not by any means penetrate to the general citizenry. Its population was 
still locked within its traditional organizations and tied to conservative ideas. The two older 
lodges in Frankfurt also still persisted in their stubborn refusal to recognize the Jewish lodge. 
They now even invented some device specifically aimed at forbidding the acceptance of Jews. In 
1811 new ceremonial procedures were introduced in the Eclectic Covenant, which was headed 
by the two Frankfurt lodges. At the initiation ceremonies this question was now addressed to 
the candidate for membership: "Do you acknowledge that rehgion which was the first to open 
the heart of man to the desire [Wohlwollen] for human brotherhood and which we call, after its 
subUme founder, the Christian [faith]?" Until now Jews had been excluded de facto; now they 
were barred de jure. 

That year the citizens of Frankfurt had been compelled to consent to the granting of civil rights 
to Jews. They were powerless to resist the force of circumstances, the French conquest. Yet they 
made no effort to conceal their chagrin at the Jewish success, and they translated their feeUngs 
into action in areas beyond state control. One expression of this resentment was the device of 
that year excluding Jews from the Masonic lodges. The members of the older lodges even tried 
to reverse the process of events. They petitioned Prince Dalberg to grant them the exclusive 
right to maintain lodges in the city. "Only so will it be possible to remove French influence and 
to send the Jews back to the synagogue." 

How short-lived the Jewish success was became manifest with the political changes that 
followed in the wake of Napoleon's defeat. All the circles that had emerged under the rule of the 
Emperor and on which the members of the Jewish lodge had pinned their hopes vanished in an 
instant. Even though lodges were obUged to keep their affairs free of political involvement, the 
reUance of the Jewish lodge on the authority of the Grand Lodge of Paris now appeared as a 
blemish. No sooner had Napoleon suffered his flrst reverses on the battlefleld than the members 
hastened to eradicate the words "under the patronage of the Orient of France."' Once the 
French retreated from the conquered territories it was decided formally to sever relations with 
Paris. Even in the internal affairs of the lodge attitudes became adjusted to the new conditions. 
If in previous years the members had indulged in lavishing praise in speech and song upon 
human brotherhood, and even at times in mentioning Napoleon as the unite of peoples, they 
now transferred their highest approbation to the conquerors of Napoleon, the Uberators of the 
German fatherland. Expressions of patriotic pride in the German War of Liberation stole into 

the songs of the Jewish Masons. Attachment to the Grand Orient was no longer desirable. It is 
not surprising that the members cast about for some connection, however tenuous, with 
German patronage. This was not easy. They had nothing to hope for as far as the other 
Frankfurt lodges were concerned. But Ught seemed to emanate from another quarter. Since 
1812 the lodge had appointed as its head Franz Josef MoUtor, a close personal acquaintance of 
Ephraim Joseph Hirschfeld. The latter still maintained his connections with Carl von Hessen of 
Schleswig, who had been accepted as the head of all German Freemasons. Hirschfeld arranged 
for the two to meet, and MoUtor set out for Schleswig, his mission being to obtain a new 
constitution and authorization for the lodge. 

Whether Carl von Hessen knew that the lodge represented by MoUtor was for the most part 
composed of Jews later became a subject for debate. At all events, MoUtor returned from his 
journey much more richly rewarded than his fellow members could have dared to expect. First 
of all, he brought with him the constitution for a lodge of the first three degrees to be named 
after Saint John. Secondly he was given a document authorizing the formation of a lodge to be 
conducted according to the Scottish rite, to which the lodge of Saint John would be subordinate. 
In theory, the lodge now had been raised to a degree higher than that on which it was 
maintained during its French affiUation. 

For the Jews, however, there was an obvious disadvantage. The Scottish rite was distinctly 
Christian in character, and, though the fact had not been stated expUcitly, it was understood 
that only those who acknowledged Christianity could find their place in it. And even the lodge 
of the first three degrees leaned toward Christianity. During the French affiUation, candidates 
for admission took their oath, after the French custom, on the constitution of the Freemasons; 
now they were forced to swear allegiance on the Gospel of Saint John, in accordance with the 
practice obtaining in the German lodges. In addition, it was laid down that the two highest 
offices, the master of the lodge and the Orator were to be reserved for Christians. The Jewish 
members felt trapped. They were subjected to severe restrictions in their own home. Some 
members were not prepared to submit to the directive that they swear on the Gospel of Saint 
John. When MoUtor submitted the constitution to the lodge, they gave notice of their intention 
to challenge many of its paragraphs. Their appeal was brought to the notice of the Prince. Very 
possibly it was only then that he reaUzed that he had granted authorization to a lodge which, in 
the composition of its members, was basically Jewish. He was, however, prepared to 
compromise. The restrictions in regard to the Master remained in force, but he would allow a 
change in the administering of the oath: Chapter 14 of Genesis could be substituted for the 
Gospel of Saint John. 

It is not difficult to guess at the cause of this choice. In that chapter of Genesis, the name of 
Melchizedek appears. As we have seen before, this was the name given to the lodges founded by 
the Asiatic Brethren, and these lodges differed from those bearing the name of Saint John in 
that they were open to Jew and gentile aUke. Carl von Hessen himself had appUed this 
distinction during his connections with the Asiatic Order. He had allowed a Hamburg lodge 
composed of Jews to function on the condition that the members be known as Melchizedek 
Masons. In choosing the chapter mentioning Melchizedek as a substitute for the Gospel, he was 
hinting at that very condition. 

The new proposal did not placate the Jewish members. They saw themselves falling from the 
frying pan into the fire. If the oath on the Gospel was an outrage of their reUgious conscience, 
the new one branded them as Jews. They had founded their lodge to create some framework 
that would stand above reUgious difference, and now the distinctions had been set forth in all 
their stark clarity in the very rites of the lodge. An attempt was made to remove this obstacle. A 
delegation of three members was sent to negotiate with Prince Carl. MoUtor was the leader, and 
one of the three, Frank by name, was apparently Jewish. Yet this delegation succeeded only in 
obtaining concessions that were in effect a further compromise. Carl agreed that Jewish 
candidates should take their oath on a Bible with the Old and New Testaments bound together. 
The Frankfurt lodge was duly authorized to accept Jews and to raise them to the third degree. 
By contrast, the Scottish rite was to be restricted, and it was expressly stipulated that here only 
Christians could enter. The Jews were assured, however, that parallel degrees would be 
instituted for them. In addition, the document of authorization stated that the assent of the 
Prince was granted with the hope that, through the acceptance of Jews in the lodge, "it would 
be possible to show them the path to the light" --the path, naturally, to the acceptance of 
Christianity. Clearly the Prince and the Christian members of the lodge, among them Molitor 
himself, did not unreservedly acknowledge that Jews were fully fit for Masonic activities. They 
also apparently clung to the opinion that for the leading positions in the Frankfurt lodge only 
Christians could be eUgible. 

The conduct of Carl von Hessen in the affair is hardly surprising. Although he had been an 
ardent member of the Asiatic Order and had sought to insert Cabahstic elements into the 
Masonic pattern of symboUsm, he never had yielded on the preferred position of Christianity as 
compared with Judaism. Whether the nature of the request addressed to him had been clear 
from the first, or whether it only later became apparent that he was deaUng with a Jewish 
lodge, he could not now come to terms with the situation except by way of concession and 
compromise. MoUtor's attitude on the other hand lacked consistency. He had originally joined 
the Jewish lodge and subscribed to its principles-the complete equahty of Jew and gentile-on 
the assumption that within the lodge all rehgious differences would be ignored. In the address 
dehvered at the opening ceremonies in 1808, he had upheld humanistic principles. In the later 
period, however, Molitor came to view Masonry as a many-storied construction, the upper 
floors of which could only be reached by an acceptance of the symbols of the Christian rehgion. 
His position, then, had changed. In the end, he developed a philosophical historical system 
consisting of a synthesis of the Jewish Cabala and the behefs and ideas of the Catholic Church. 
Molitor's retreat from a simple, humanistic standpoint occurred between 1808 and 1815. He 
himself had stated that he had begun to lean in the direction of Christianity even before his trip 
to Schleswig. His meeting with the Landgrave Carl ("only through him did I become a 
Christian") completed his change of heart. Here is the explanation for his attitude toward the 
new Masonic constitution, which no longer maintained the complete equahty of the adherents 
of the Jewish faith with the rest of the Freemasons. 

Hirschfeld's function and position in the entire episode are somewhat mysterious, though by no 
means inexpUcable. As has been stated, he was the intermediary between Mohtor and Prince 
Carl von Hessen, and he did not cease his behind-the-scenes manipulations even afterward. He 
reported to Prince Carl on what was transpiring in the lodge and attempted to induce the 
Jewish brethren to accept what, they felt, conflicted with their rehgious principles. We know of 

this from a letter written by Hirschfeld on April 6, 1816, addressed to one of the non- Jewish 
members, and the information is corroborated by MoUtor's testimony concerning certain 
details of Hirschfeld's biography. According to this letter, Hirschfeld made an attempt to 
introduce the rites of the Asiatic Order in the Frankfurt lodge. We can therefore accept as 
reUable the information emanating from a hostile source that, while negotiations with Carl von 
Hessen were still in progress, Hirschfeld himself initiated several members in the Asiatic rite, 
and that his failure filled him with grief. We are famihar with Hirschfeld's Weltanschauung 
from his letters (in print and in manuscript). This was a Jewish-Christian syncretism based on 
the Cabalistic system of ideas, a conception which had formed the foundation for the Asiatic 
Order from its very beginning. Hirschfeld adhered loyally to this view, and when he came into 
contact with the Jewish lodge in Frankfurt he thought that he had discovered fertile soil where 
he could implant his doctrines. It is not surprising that he was deeply disappointed when the 
members of the lodge rejected his ideas and pubhcly disowned him. 

This disavowal of Hirschfeld came as the result of a pamphlet pubUshed in 1816 attacking the 
Jewish lodge while the negotiations were going on. The anonymous author, known to have been 
Dr. Johann Christian Ehrmann of Frankfurt, was thoroughly acquainted with the lodge and its 
difficulties. As far as he was concerned, the very fact that it was founded as an affiliate of the 
Grand Orient of Paris during the French conquest rendered it suspect, and he insinuated that 
the lodge had repaid, as it were, the French poUce for the courtesy extended to it. He jeered at 
the panic that had seized the Jews when Napoleon was finally overthrown, and he described 
their frantic efforts to find a German patron for themselves through Hirschfeld's intercession. 
Fully grasping the syncretistic nature of Hirschfeld's conception, he accused the latter of 
plotting by this Jewish admixture to contaminate both Freemasonry and Christianity. The 
entire argument was pervaded by a hatred of Jews and Judaism in general, and was openly 
inflammatory in nature, after the manner prevalent in anti-Jewish pubUcations in Frankfurt 
and the rest of Germany in that year. Ehrmann's specific contribution to anti-Semitic Uterature 
was to cast suspicion on the Jews as penetrating into the Masonic movement so as to convert it 
into an instrument for world domination. The title of the brochure loudly proclaimed its 
purpose: Das Judenthum in der Maurerey; eine Warnung an alle deutschen Logen (Jews in 
Freemasonry, a warning to all the German lodges). 

The members of the Morgenrothe could not afford to ignore this attack. In reply they pubhshed 
an excerpt of the minutes of the lodge meeting held on August 13, 1816, which expressed their 
vigorous protest against the allegations of this agitator. Concerning the aims of their lodge, they 
declared that it had confined itself to the three basic degrees, and had operated in conformity 
with the principles of the Masonic constitution, the purpose of which was to "foster true 
culture and humanity among men." The lodge had never occupied itself with speculations or 
alchemistic pursuits, rabbinic or otherwise. No individual by the name of Hirschfeld was a 

This declaration avoided any reference to previous hesitations about introducing the Scottish 
rite, and it denied all knowledge of Hirschfeld as if he had never had any connection with the 
lodge. True, the entire episode now belonged to the past. By the time the reply to Ehrmann was 
made pubUc, all connections with Carl von Hessen had been cut off, and there was no longer 
any need for Hirschfeld to act as intermediary. The delegation headed by MoUtor had returned 

in the middle of June, and immediately afterward elections were held for the "Grand Master of 
the Chair." Despite the stipulation that this office be reserved for Christians, a Jew, Carl 
Leopold Goldschmidt, was elected to fill it. In reaction to this choice MoUtor brought a notice 
from the Prince withdrawing his authorization and ordering the lodge to disband. The 
members refused to obey, and sought to gain time by endeavoring to establish direct contact 
with the Prince. In reahty they despaired of continuing to function under his auspices, and were 
looking about for help from other quarters. Goldschmidt succeeded in communicating with the 
Mother Lodge of London. On May 22, 1817, he was able to report to his colleagues the good 
news that he had in his possession a letter of authorization signed by August Frederick, Duke of 
Sussex, which empowered the Frankfurt brethren to operate as a Masonic lodge without any 
restriction. This recognition seemed a signal victory. The conflicts with Carl von Hessen had 
placed the very existence of the lodge in jeopardy. Now, by virtue of its connection with 
London, it could safely continue to function as fully authorized. Yet its being once more 
compelled to seek support from abroad only served to emphasize the weakness of its position. 
What the lodge really wanted to achieve, ultimately, was the recognition of the local lodges in 
Frankfurt and nearby states, and the admission of its brethren as welcome guests, perhaps even 
as full-fledged members. Yet the Zur Einigkeit formally disputed the vahdity of the London 
authorization. This lodge, as we have seen, was granted the power by the Mother Lodge of 
London to grant authorization to other lodges in the Frankfurt region. The members argued 
that by acceding to the request of the Morgenrothe, the Mother Lodge had broken its signed 
agreement and committed an illegal act. To this allegation, the Mother Lodge repHed that the 
Einigkeit itself had exceeded its authority by instituting, in contravention of the principles of 
the Mother Lodge, the statute of exclusion against Jews. Nor did the controversy end there. 
Relations between the two became progressively more strained until they were finally sundered. 
The Frankfurt Zur Einigkeit, together with the Socrates lodge which was bound to it by the 
Eclectic Covenant, proclaimed itself an independent Mother Lodge in 1823, and was recognized 
as such by the other German Mother Lodges. A circular letter renouncing connections with 
London in consequence of the authorization granted the Morgenrothe bristled with anti -Jewish 
animosity that had finally succeeded in breaking through to the ranks of the Freemasons 
themselves. The Christianity of Masonry was no longer advanced as the pretext for denying 
access to Jews. Now Judaism was branded as the disqualification. It is common knowledge, the 
circular stated, "that the essence of Judaism cannot be reconciled with Freemasonry," and it 
protested against "Jewish interference in Freemasonry" -a wording both venomous and 

The strained relations between London and the Zur Einigkeit on account of the Jewish lodge 
did not ingratiate the Jewish lodge with its non-Jewish counterparts. Even lodges that had no 
formal cause for complaint against the Grand Lodge of London resented its interference and 
refused to recognize its authorization. German lodges near and far refused to have anything to 
do with the Frankfurt Morgenrothe, and protests and warnings not only emanated from the 
district lodge of Frankfurt but were issued in the name of the three Grand Lodges of BerUn. 

Condemned to utter isolation, the Frankfurt lodge became almost totally Jewish. Once the 
Prince withdrew his patronage, MoUtor and his associates left and formed a lodge of their own. 
A few Christians still remained behind. These served as a front, symboHzing the 
nondenominational character of the lodge when the occasion arose. In 1820 the lodge 

entertained an important guest, Mirza Abdul Khan, the Persian ambassador. The reception 
committee consisted of three members: a CathoHc, a Protestant, and a Jew. The Grand Master 
of the Chair delivered an eloquent address on the function of Freemasonry, namely "to unite in 
a brotherly, purely humanistic covenant that which differences of tribe, nation, and mode of 
worship could divide but not spHt asunder." But such events and declarations could not rescue 
the lodge from isolation. Members who tried, by virtue of their belonging to this recognized 
lodge, to join in the activities of other lodges in their city or elsewhere, were met with a firm 
refusal. The Morgenrothe members were entitled to invoke the protection of the Mother Lodge 
in London, which could have repaid in kind the refusal to admit members enjoying its 
patronage. Such an attempt was made, and in 1820 the Mother Lodge sent a warning to the five 
Hamburg lodges: if they persisted in denying admission to members of the Frankfurt lodge, the 
same treatment would be meted out to their members in England. These pressure tactics, 
however, achieved no tangible results. 

The members of the Jewish lodge found some consolation in their own activities. Their strong 
cohesion conferred benefits upon them, even in areas beyond the scope of Masonic activities, 
and their dependence on their own lodge served as a basis for organized mutual aid. Already in 
1819, they had founded their Sustentation-Fond (mutual aid fund) which was open to paid-up 
members upon the additional payment of an entrance fee of 100 guilders. The purpose of the 
fund was to assist members in time of need, and to help support their widows and orphans 
when they died. In the preamble to the constitution, the reason for restricting membership in 
the Fond to lodge brethren was given: Masons have a special duty to help one another. 

Force of circumstances or free choice Hmited the lodge to intramural activities. It had 
abandoned for the time being any attempt to breach the walls of ahenation surrounding it. And 
if it did so by design, this was with the full recognition of the existing reahty. The exclusion of 
Jews permeated all public Hfe in Germany. Strugghng against the status quo offered no 
prospects of success. The student societies, known as burschenschaften, after many debates and 
much hesitation decided upon the exclusion of Jews from their ranks. All types of 
organizations, from learned societies to sports clubs and newspaper-reading circles, enacted 
their statutes of restriction. As for the Freemasons, the question of Christian principle was 
never absent from their dehberations and found its way into all their Hterary organs. Here the 
problem revolved round the very definition of the aims and essence of the entire Order. Yet 
even in that epoch, there was no complete dearth of weighty opinion which sought to base 
Freemasonry on elements independent of any positive rehgion. Obviously the members of the 
Frankfurt lodge derived encouragement from such openly expressed views, just as they drew 
support from the declaration of the London Mother Lodge that the exclusion of members from 
lodges on account of religion was an "un-Masonic act." In 1827 the Frankfurt lodge issued a 
circular-the work of the intellectuals among the members: Michael Hess, Jacob Weil, Michael 
Creizenach, and Ludwig Borne-containing an exposition of the principles followed by the lodge 
in conducting its Masonic activities. The circular protested vehemently against the "mysticism" 
that was penetrating Masonry, where mysticism was equated with Christian content. Yet again 
no perceptible results were achieved. Nor did any positive results emerge in consequence of the 
views of Christian Freemasons who tried to draw a distinction between their adherence to the 
Masonic movement and their loyalties to their own rehgion. For all practical purposes the 
principle of Christian exclusiveness was securely entrenched in the German Freemason 

movement during those years. 

Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Preface 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 1 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 2 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 3 
Jews & Freemasonry 1723-1939 Chapter 4 
Sayings of Jacob Frank 

"The other Jews call me a heretic. Well, I am. And worse, an iconoclast too: my goal is nothing less 

than the breaking of all rehgious containers (and not just Judaism) for the sake of liberating God. In 

the words of my 1 8th century namesake and predecessor, Yakov Leib Frank, 'All the faiths and 

conducts and the books that have been written till today ~ everyone who reads in them is like 

someone who has turned his head backwards and is looking at things already dead. All of it comes 

from the Gate of Death. But the wise man's eyes are ever in his head so he must look towards He- 

Who-Walks-In-Front.' Like Frank and the other radical antinomian Kabbalists who came before him, 

I worship God and not religion; I seek for His salvation and not my own or, even less-so, yours." 

~ Reb Yakov Leib HaKohain of Donmeh-West 

Jacob Frank 
The Messiah of the Illuminati 

Selected Sayings from the 

Book of the Words of the Lord Jacob Frank 


The leader, who inspired Jacob, did not yet know the true road to take because no one is allowed to 
pass through there, as it is said, Puru durachti lewadi*. "I will walk through this vineyard alone." This 
came from God alone. Had Jacob vanquished Esau, the latter would reign now. Because of this Jacob 
says, "Walk, my lord, before your servant." Jawor ne Adojny lifne awdoy. For this reason the reign of 

Jacob will begin and last forever.** 

* The Hebrew words, as pronounced in pre-Holocaust Eastern European (or Ashkenazi) fashion. 

were phonetically transliterated to the Roman (or Latin) alphabet following Polish pronunciation and 
are so taken without change from Kraushar's PoUsh text. If one would seek to reconstitute the sound 
of the original Hebrew words, it is apparent that the English pronunciation of Roman alphabet letters 

differs from the Polish version. -Editor 

* * Except that Frank has not spelled out that one must abase oneself to reach the Klippot so that one 

may cause the release of the imprisoned Divine energies and their restoration to Ain Sof so that the 

Divine stasis may be recreated-the Tikkun-to bring about Paradise on earth as well. -Editor 


Had the Patriarch Jacob not walked the path then, we would not know the road or the journey to be 

taken now. 


Though Isaac, the father of Jacob, was well-to-do, he sent his son to Laban in rags. Jacob said 

himself, "I crossed the Jordan with a staff." Ki bemakli uwarti es hajardin. He did not walk on the 

main road but on side paths. He fled from Laban in haste like someone tumbling off a mountain peak. 

However, we walk in the middle of the road, and I don't look to the right or the left. I walk with the 

strength of my God. 


When you see a dreadful place, you think that there is no God there. In Giurgiew, I saw a man sitting 
on a throne. I was frightened, but I was told, "Don't fear that there is no God here. There is only the 

one, whom you see, who reigns over the might of Ishmael." 


Why do Jews, upon entering a synagogue, begin with the words, "Oh, how goodly are the tents of 

Jacob!" Why don't they speak of either Abraham or Isaac? 


When I come to you from a certain place, you will not recognize me. Then, when you go to the 

Company, they will not recognize you. 


Jacob said, "Oh, how frightful is this place. God himself must be here." He was mistaken. There is 
nothing frightful about God. Yet, before God, before the Holy place of His Tabernacle, there is great 



When the Angel was wrestling with Jacob, he asked him, "Jacob where are you going?" Jacob 

replied, "To the field of Edom," i.e., to Poland. The Angel then said to him, "Jacob, do you know 

what one can do there?" There is this and that to be done. At that, Jacob turned pale, becoming very 

fearful. The Angel then announced, Lo jekore aud schimcho Jankow, ki im Isruel. "Your name is no 

longer Jacob but Israel. There shall come another Jacob who will perform the task in Poland." 


He, who stands before God Himself after being given the honor to approach Him, will receive 
wisdom exceeding that of Solomon seven or even eight fold. 


Notice the advice that Rebecca gave to Jacob, to put on sheep skins, was that of a woman. The advice 
was not straight-forward, and so it didn't lead to the result it sought. But we are following the truth 

wholeheartedly, and therefore God will help us. 


There will come a time that a believer may be one hundred or even two hundred miles away from me 

and yet he will still be close to me. Remember what I tell you. 

95. The Lord once said in Czestochowa, "We are chasing after illusions." 


You should have trampled over every law. A wise man should grasp that plant life must naturally 
come to its end. All of you should have listened, since you were honored to come in front of a tree of 



There is a place in the sea where there are golden fishes, but no one can fish for them, because he will 

greatly endanger himself. 


There is a tree whose branches reach over the wall surrounding it. Some one standing beyond the 
wall thinks that there are many trees inside the wall, but a person on the inside sees only one tree. In 
the same way we should seek only the one and not search for many. You see before you a simpleton 
from which you can deduce that all laws and teaching will fall away. Yet, if there were a need for a 

sage, one would be sent. That speaks for itself. 


I direct you not to touch anything on your own, even if you were to see a golden bird, because the 

moment you touch the bird it would turn into ashes. Only when I give you permission to do so, will 

you be able to touch the bird and take hold of it. When I summon one of you, that one should come; 

when I call two, two should come; and when I call none, none should approach. 


There is a bird with a special stone and this stone causes things to become invisible. Each time the 

bird leaves the tree, he leaves the stone in the tree, making it and its children invisible. There are 

three holy men who sit on a large mountain covered with a dark cloud: One on the bottom, one in the 

middle, and one on the mountain peak. They can see the stone and can even catch the bird, in spite of 

its invisibihty. He, who does catch the bird, will fly so long as he does not come to rest on the site 

where the fortune is. 


If I were to recount to you what happened in 1647, during the time of Chmielnicki, and what 
happened to him personally, many people will faint because, what could you imagine would happen 

now, if so much blood was spilled then? 


Abraham dug a well as did Isaac. They both worked to accomplish a good purpose. The chosen Jacob 

came to a well but not to the true one, because he was deceived by Laban. Now, if Jacob was not 

capable of attaining the desired end, how can you undertake the search and succeed at it? 


A king had four wives, all of whom gave birth to sons on the very same day, and at the same hour. 

When the sons were still young, their father died. The country's leaders did not know which son 

should inherit the crown. They decided that the gates to the town would be closed until the next 

morning, when the first person who appeared would be asked for advice as to which son should 

become king, or [perhaps the stranger should] become the king himself. This is what happened. A 

passing wanderer advised the town people to tie the King's corpse to a tree and ask the sons to shoot 

an arrow at it. The one whose arrow pierced the king's heart, should become king. What happened 

was that three shots came near the heart. The fourth son then said, "Not only don't I wish to have this 

or any other kingdom, but I would never think to shoot at my father, the king." The wanderer then 

told the people to give the kingdom to the fourth son, because he promised to be merciful to the 

people. Since you were shooting at the king, how can you be merciful to the Company? 


Had I found you united when I left the prison in Czestochowa, we could have spoken seventy 

languages, and yet, how I wish I could learn one. 


When whalers fish for a whale, it is their custom to tie a rope around his neck, and loosen it when he 

pulls. They begin to tighten the rope around the whale when they approach land. The same is true 

with you. I have you tied with a rope and I deliberately loosen the rope to see if you will remain 

virtuous and steadfast. I did not find it so with you. 


Pay attention, for when Jacob came to Laban, he came alone, but he returned with many people. 


Once there was a prince who dreamed three times that he was carrying a quiver of arrows with 

carvings of the sun and the moon on both sides of it. Upon awakening, he asked his father to get him 

this quiver. The king chose his best men and sent them to all the comers of the earth to find the bag. 

They returned in rags and empty handed. A second time the king designated men from his court, but 

they also returned empty handed and exhausted. Now, it so happened that a simpleton was passing 

through the town. He criticized and made fun of the noblemen who returned home empty handed. 

The man angered the king's courtiers to the point that they began to attack him, but the simpleton 

responded in kind and mauled them. Incensed, the men went to the king and said, "There is a 

simpleton who makes fun of us." The king directed the man to appear before him. Asked why he had 

made fun of them, he said, "Why shouldn't I make fun of men who are looking for something for 

which there is no path or road?" The king asked, "Do you know the place?" The simpleton answered, 

"Yes, I do. There are three bridges of brass, tin and iron. Dear King, whoever looks for the thing, 

must first cross all three bridges. King! Give me men whom I will choose for the road, and with 

them, a wagon, a horse, and a hawk." This being done, they started on their way and reached the 

bridge made of brass. The simpleton said, "Remain on this side of the bridge and stay awake all night 

no matter what you must do, even to playing cards." Hanging white towels over their heads, he said, 

"When you see the towels turn red, come to me." After he finished, the simpleton went under the 

bridge. There, he saw a man with three heads riding a horse. As they approached the river, the horse 

reared nervously. "Does this simpleton frighten you?" the creature asked the horse. "Does he scare 

you? Why, then, I will cut off his head." At that moment, the simpleton ran out from under the bridge 

and cried out, "I did not come to be cut down but to take!" A fight began. When the men saw the 

blood drenching the towels, they approached and began to fight. Horse with horse, dog with dog, bird 

with bird, they cut off the three heads of the creature. Then they went on and came to the tin bridge. 

This time the simpleton was faced with a seven headed man. Startled, the horse moved backwards. 

The simpleton said, "I did not come to be put down but to take," and a fight erupted. The friends 

came to his assistance, and fought until they cut off the seven heads of the knight. They went on to 

the iron bridge. Once again there were the same orders. A nine headed knight came to meet them on 

horseback. Blood dripped from the towels. After kilHng the knight by cutting off his nine heads, the 

victors saw a large palace. The simpleton said, "Wait for me, I will enter the palace alone." Changing 

himself into a cat, he ran into a chamber where the wife of the three headed knight was sitting. 

Grabbing the cat, she said, "My husband was killed but I'll avenge him. I will bring the sun very low 

in the sky so that it shines intensely, while I turn myself into a well and tree with many branches and 

leaves. When he comes seeking to rest, I will have my revenge on him and them." The cat, hearing 

this, quickly made his escape. Returning to his comrades, he warned them to do nothing without his 

advice. The next day, the sun began to heat up mercilessly. Coming upon the tree and the well, the 

comrades wished to rest there. "God forbid!" cried the simpleton. "Don't do it. First, though, I'll go 

there myself." He went quickly, and hit the well with a stick that turned into blood, destroying the 

woman's power. Only then he said, "Let us go into the palace for a rest. There we will find many 

nobles and ladies. There is the sun and the moon. Take it all and we will return with it all to the King." 

You should understand from this story that I am the simpleton, and you don't have to study anything. 

You need only to bear the weight of silence. You heard how the King sent many noblemen who 
returned empty handed. You should have understood that it is not given to the learned and the wise, 
but to simpletons like me, because the wise look at the sky where they see nothing. We, on the other 

hand, should look to the ground! 


Someone, who had the power to foretell the future, went to the sun to seek answers. On the way he 

met a man who asked him where he was going. The soothsayer replied, "I am going to the sun." The 

man asked him to ask the sun why his neighbor's orchard bore so much fruit, while he did not even 

have enough for his family. The soothsayer went to see everything and promised to learn the answer. 

He found a river on the way. The river called out, "Where are you going?" "To the sun," he replied. 

The river said, "All waters have fish except that I don't have any. Ask the sun about it." And the 
soothsayer promised. He continued and met a beautiful but dry tree without fruit. The tree also asked 

for an explanation. He proceeded. He met a maiden who said she had no luck and asked for an 
explanation from the sun. The soothsayer reached the sun to ask his questions and receive answers. 

Then he asked the other queries. The sun gave the following answers, "Tell the first man that he 

never received a stranger in his home, never fed anybody, paupers had no place there; in fact his dog 

died from hunger. From now on, let him receive paupers and share with them, then God will bless his 

fields, and provide him with a rich harvest. Tell the river after you cross it, 'From the beginning, no 

one has ever drowned in it. After this happens, you will be able to stock fish.' Tell the tree the 

following. On the other side of the river, a similar tree grows. One is male, and the other female. 

They are drying up from desire for each other. Put them together and they will have moisture and 

fruit.' You should say the following to the maiden: she is throwing garbage on me. Once she stops 

doing it, she will be lucky forever." 


Jacob saw the ladder but did not climb onto it, not even the first rung. Had you come to me 
completely, you would have been given something to hold and then be able to move from place to 
place. I rejected you with both hands, now with both hands I have begun to bring you close to me 

because I wish to lead you to the true God. 


This golden thread is a tree of life, but those are deeds done by strangers, which, it is obvious, are 

strange in the eyes of others. You must hold on to these strange deeds, then all the storms will not 

touch you. All that is respected and sanctified in this world will fall and be destroyed. I picked twelve 

of you, because twenty-four eyes see a great deal more. With your own eyes, you could see how she 

holds her hands and looks about. She is called the Beautiful Maiden who has no eyes.* Alumte 

schuperte deles lo ainen. But she alone has the vision. 

* The reference to a beautiful Maiden who is sightless is a Kabbalist allusion. See: Gershom 

Scholem, On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism, 141, 150, "The Kabbalists explained, the Shekhinah is 

designated in the Zohar as 'the beautiful virgin who has no eyes,'" and again, as the "Beautiful One 

without eyes ... "-Editor 


It says: "When the high priest came out of the most holy place on the holy day, the whole world was 
joyous and said: Aschre ai" rooso kol aile. 'Blessed be the eye which sees all there is to see.'" 

When we come to Esau, then the saying will be fulfilled: Mirochok Adonay mirehli. "God came to 
me." Then we will put on Esau's clothing and everyone will jump like sheep and the blind will see. 


All kinds of strange things will come about after going to Esau, but it will all happen in the open. The 
one who wears a crown will become a stranger, and the stranger will receive a crown. 

159. Maasim Zorim- Jacob does only strange deeds,* but these are all open to public view. 

* 'Strange acts' were a Sabbataian sign of the Messiah.-Editor 


What is not from my mother will not be realized so fast, but everything I say with my voice will echo 

other voices and come to pass. 


All the roads we take are those from God, but we are guided by a man in the same way as was Esau's 
walk to Edom and Edom's father. In the same way, the staff which the Angel Gabriel placed in the 

sea, must be removed from its resting place by a man. 


I'll make knights out of Israelites. They are knights because no nation pursues the maiden. Ayeles 
ahovim. Beloved Jelenica, like the Israelites, she is the one who will also lead at the end. She is 

before God, and this belongs to God. 


Did you hear of the Israelite maiden and the daughter of Edom, the Egyptian daughter? There is 
another, but no one in the world has ever heard of her, and no one knows where her place is. When 
the gate opens before us, she, to whom we go, will be lifted by us and the whole world will look on, 

not appreciating what they are seeing. 


Had you come to me completely, there would be no need to test you, since pure silver does not need 

to be tested. Because I saw you entwined with other teaching and other religions, I had to gather all of 

you in Warsaw, and there, from love towards you, I revealed that you would be polished as it is said 

in Daniel, "You will be polished like silver." 

175. Why didn't you pay attention to these words of Solomon, "Better an open chastisement than a 

love that is concealed." 


A prince seeing that he had no luck, left for far away lands in search of it. He was a very wise man 

and he particularly knew horticulture. He came to a king and asked for a position. "What are you 

seeking?" asked the king. "I want to be a gardener in the royal garden." "Good." Once hired, the 

prince worked in the garden and showed unusual skill. After a year on the job, the king asked the 

gardener what he wished for his work. "I would like one of the trees in the garden to become mine 

exclusively," he replied. The king gave it to him wholeheartedly. But the tree dried up and did not 

give fruit. He served another year. Once again, the King asked what he wanted for the service. Again, 

he asked for a tree. This one also dried up. The same thing happened with the next seven trees. The 

king gave him one tree each year, yet all the trees dried up and did not produce fruit. The king said 

nothing but wondered what was happening. He liked the gardener. When entering the garden, the 

king did not speak to anyone except the gardener because he recognized his unusual wisdom. In the 

eleventh year, the king asked: "What do you wish now for your service?" This time, the gardener 

asked for the barren trees from the first, second and third years. Then it happened that the third tree 

began to bloom and give fruit, and with it all the other trees. When this happened, the prince- gardener 

asked to be dismissed, realizing that his lucky hour had come. Now, the king had an especially 

beautiful daughter whose hand was sought by a powerful prince, but the princess did not want him. 

The father of this prince, gathered his army and began to battle the king who was the father of the 

princess and drove his army back to his capital. At this point, the gardener asked the king to make 

him commander over the scattered cavalry. Leading the army, he defeated the enemy. He was 

brought to the palace, with great honor. The princess came out to greet him and fell in love with him. 

Her father asked her to marry him so that eventually he would rule the land. When all this happened 

it became clear that the gardener was the son of a royal house as well. 


Traveling in a forest, a prince found a palace where forty maidens resided. All of them were of a 

special beauty and all liked him. At one point they said to him, "We must tell you that we have to 

leave for forty days and afterwards, we will come back to you. There are forty rooms, full of 

boundless treasures. We give you forty keys to these forty rooms. We allow you to open all the rooms 

to see what is in them, except for the fortieth room, for which there is a golden key. Although we are 

giving you the golden key, you must not open the lock until we return. Obey that injunction 

carefully." After telling him that, they left. Three days later, the prince began to open the doors and 

saw unusual treasures. When he came to the fortieth room, he thought to himself, • I have the key. 

Why not open this one? Let me see what is inside.' He opened the door. On entering, he found a 

golden horse with a golden saddle and a room full of pure gold. He was delighted and took the horse 

into the courtyard. When he mounted the horse, it began to fly and threw him to the ground. The 

Prince was blinded in one eye and everything disappeared. 

From this, you learn a lesson. When you are given a key and told not to use it, listen! 


Our fathers worked and they marked the paths on which we find ourselves. While they walked on 

them, they did not trample on those paths. But we must not be afraid to trample on them if we must 

walk on these paths, just as grapes are crushed to make wine in the vineyard. 


We toiled for our forefathers, all those people who fell while trying to reach a goal and rise with it, as 

it is said, Emes me-eretz titzmah. 'Truth will arise from the earth.' This is like the example I gave 

about the ten trees, all of which dried up. Whenever a tree brings forth a flower, other branches and 

leaves also put forth others. Moses, himself, tried to recover Joseph's funeral urn from the Nile. 


To this day there is no agreement in the world as to where, to whom, and to what place everyone 

must finally go; also, what must a person take with him, and who are those who may see it with their 

own eyes. Two wise men spoke in this fashion on the matter. One said, "I wish he would come and 

that I should see him." The second said, "Let him come, but that I not see." Why not? Because he will 

come as to an empty land without water, and water means learning. Every word is empty, coarse and 

filled with folly. But a wise man will be found undoubtedly who himself assuredly will keep watch, 

given heart by God to recognize that these things are entangled in similarity, and wisdom will only 

find its praise in folly. Because of that, there is the question: who can turn gall into honey? He who 

would be wise, let him be silent and bear it. Had you taken the straight road, even if you had come to 

the place where there is no room to turn left or right, I would come alone and take each of you 

separately by the hand to lead you forward. 


There are roses that grow on an island in the sea. The man who can reach and pick them, will live 
several thousand years. The Gods have created darkness to cover the island so that no one can reach it. 


How can a person pass through a gate that has been closed from the beginning of time? Perhaps it is 
one who has a leader who is aware of all the paths and roads. You believe that I am your enemy. No. 
My task is to bother you until you are made clean. Be careful not to follow any man, because he who 
follows a man, is the enemy of God. Even if you hear me tell you that this man is Abraham himself, 

don't follow him! 


Each thing must be clothed with justice and goodness. I myself can't do anything without Her. I see 

that she does not look upon you with loving eyes. If you were a whole person, she would look on you 

kindly. She can't push you away from her, because, as I told you a long time ago, even if you go into 

the depths of the earth, in several days you will be compelled to stand with me. 


The beginning was not hidden in D a s, since you can't enter Das until after you come to Esau. As it 
is said, "The light will come from Seir, and then glow from Ishmael." It will surely come first from 



On my first visit to Poland, only one threat was aimed at you and the whole world was not able to do 

anything bad to you. What about now! At my coming I was told, "Don't worry about anything, be of a 

brave heart, nothing will frighten you; no evil will come to you." Now, that you have fallen, I hesitate 

even to elaborate on a good dream, because if I were to do so in the presence of three, this voice 

would hasten the realization of the secret message in the dream. 


When I first came to Iwan, you should have asked from the bottom of your heart whether I came with 
mercy. Because of this, it is so twice: "He will come, he will come!" Ki bo, ki bo So if you would be 
whole and seek to have Her look upon you with favor, I will provide the opportunity twice, twice I'll 

do it. 


I may leave you for a few days. But I am afraid that the opportunity will fast appear to lead you to the 

first temptation. 


When we are worthy to come to Esau and put on his attire, everyone will have a sign on his clothing. 


They tell me, "Break the barrel but guard the wine." Schewor hovios uschmor es hajain. 


When you are worthy to come to Esau, you will be free of the abominable insults with which you are 

attacked now, and it will happen to you as in the words of the verse, "You will be called by a new 

name, given by God." Wejekuro loch schem chodosch ascher pi Adonaj ikovenu. All the world will 

look upon you as on a tall tower, because these noble-minded given names were never before heard 

by human ears. 


More than once I told you of a tree that is surrounded by a wall. 

In reality, it is one tree though to those on the outside it appears to be many. You are like those 

outside the wall. 


Now, you are the equal of all other nations. In the same way they don't know anything, you don't 

either. When the great and terrible day comes, all the nations will experience it. However, you will 

experience something more until you are worthy to approach Esau. And when D a s is shown to you, 

and you are told two words, all will know, but you will know, see and understand, and then you will 

be next to God. 


You know that the nut in any fruit is covered with a shell. Those who see the outside cannot wait to 

taste it. They fall upon it, but you will be careful. 


King Solomon said, "That one who vomits, then swallows his vomit is a dog." Kielew scheschow 

alkio. I tell you the same: All the teachings given so far are like the dog who has vomited, then 

swallowed its vomit. Nothing remains other than to follow step by step under Her wings. As She is 

beautiful and without blemish. Her children will be so as they approach Her. She is like a verdant tree 

growing on the bank of a river, the perfume of whose fruits gives off a fragrance that carries far off 

and is sweeter than manna or honey or milk; a tree with branches and leaves in abundance, so that the 

whole world would want to stay in its shadow eating of its fruits forever. 


I have told you: "You must go and trample." Why do I need your empty talk repeated over and over 

again? The world has existed for five hundred thousand years and all the while everyone prayed and 

talked. And to what end? How do the movements of the mouth help? It is all empty talk. 


Where did our forefathers get the idea to say that Jacob did not die? They saw that Abraham dug a 
well as did Isaac. But Jacob came to a well which had already been dug, found Rachel, and there he 

found life. But really, it was only an image of Rachel. 


Abraham went to Egypt deliberately so that his wife could be taken by Pharaoh. Isaac also went to 

Abimelekh intentionally so that Rebecca could be taken from him. If I were to explain these verses to 

you, you would die at the explanation, and who would rescue you? 


A witch changed into the form of a queen. All the wise men and the people could not distinguish 

which of the two was the true queen. The king was advised to send one of them away, which he did. 

Only, the true one was sent away while the witch remained in her place. Abandoned, the queen set 

out for the forest and uninhabited places. There, she sat down under a tree and cried over her cruel 

fate. A passing prince noticed her and sitting down next to her, asked her who she was. She replied, 1 

am and I am not the daughter of royalty,' and she told him the whole story. In the end, she returned to 

her rightful place. 

So to you, brothers—but not brothers, sisters—but not sisters. Whenever there comes a good thing, it is 

preceded by a bad one. 


A king had an enormous elephant which he used in every war. The elephant always left the field 

victorious. Once, the elephant, angered, ran into the forest and killed many people. Now, the king had 

a most beautiful daughter and he proclaimed throughout the country that whoever killed the elephant 

would receive his daughter's hand in marriage and half the country as well. Many knights tried their 

luck but all fell victim to the ferocity of the elephant. One young king, who was educated, handsome 

and known to be a brave knight, hearing of this, disguised himself and came to the king incognito 
saying, "I will take on the task of killing the elephant but only if I may see the exposed face of your 

daughter, and kiss her hand. And should the elephant overcome me, let there be fourteen days of 

mourning at the palace as a memorial for me." This bothered the king since it was the first such 

request from the group of knights who had come forth offering to kill the elephant. But he agreed to it 

and called his daughter to appear with her face exposed. He also gave permission for the knight to 

kiss her hand and talk to her. The princess came, the young man kissed her hand, and with royal 

restraint, he said, "Now that I have seen the beauty of your face, I gladly offer my life to kill this 

invincible elephant." The wise princess immediately recognizing that royal blood ran in his veins, 

said, "Prince! Get up! Don't go forth against the elephant because I would be overcome with grief and 

sorrow." Her father, hearing the title 'prince,' said, "If you are indeed of that rank, here is my 

daughter. I release you from the dangerous task of killing the elephant." The young man said, "Since I 

have undertaken the task, I shall keep my word. I will go and do anything because of my love for 

your daughter. If she is to be mine, by the will of God, I will surely destroy the elephant." And so it 



At the time you stood against me, had I turned to you, you would have been tom apart. However, I 

did not have the time because I could not turn my face from Her. My heart always rests in Her, 

although I had other activities every day. My wish was for you to turn your eyes and heart to Her 

place. But, truly, you were like wagons filled with heavy goods which were going up the hill. When 

the reins were slackened, the wagon rolled back down the hill. So did you fall down. 


When you are at last worthy to come to Esau, you will feel such joy as never before. But there will 
also be many tears among you. Be thankful to God that you finish your tears in eight days. Then, 

your tears will be followed by happiness. 


A man served a great lord faithfully for ten years. The nobleman, aware of the man's devotion, love 

and virtue, gave him his daughter for a wife. The same is true for this Lady. She observes and seeks 

people so they can be made whole in their actions. Just as the whole world seeks to make gold, so do 

I wish to make pure gold out of you. 


I told you that Her residence is in a very tall tower, but She never looks at people, though many pass 

Her. The one who tries, works at arranging to see her, and what does he do? He changes his clothes 

and does something strange so that everyone is startled by what he is doing. Then, She, hearing 

voices, gazes at him, and he also sees her.* So in each situation you need to employ a trick.... 

* This is an adaptation of a famous passage in the Zohar (3 Zohar 301,302 [Soncino Ed.], 99a, 99b 
[Mantua Ed.]) that compares the words of the Torah to "a beautiful and stately damsel, who is hidden 

in a secluded chamber of a palace, ..." and who reveals herself to her adepts slowly through four 
different modes of understanding and interpretation. Frank, of course, has given the imagery a rather 

different significance. -Editor 


Why did you not emulate the deeds of Abraham, your father? By himself, getting up earlier than 
everyone in his camp, he awakened the morning we all await. He saddled his own ass to carry out 

God's work, all from love. 


There are some hidden countries about which the world has no information. The world in which we 

exist, is only a thousandth part of those hidden nations. These nations have not fallen under the curse. 

Because of that, the Queen of Sheba, who was with Solomon, came to him but he could not go to her, 

because one kingdom cannot enter another, and her nation is hidden from the world.* 

* In a pre-rationalist context, the concept of incorporeal reality was accepted. Hence, 'hidden nations' 

made sense. In a rationalist context we speak of 'hidden' places, meaning difficult of access. Then 

again, there was President Franklin Roosevelt's response to the question from whence had planes 

taken off to bomb Tokyo for the first time during World War II: 'Shangri-la,' after the name of the 

mythical place in the movie where everyone lived a perfect life. (We may also take note of current 

cosmological speculation that postulates the possibility of multiple universes. )-Editor 


Had you been but willing to go together, I wanted to send you to those hidden nations, since they are 

rather at no great distance, maybe two miles, from the road of people with the idea. They have it 

within their power to see without being seen. It seems that there is darkness and clouds over there. 

You would have brought me great riches not to be found in this world. 


There is no prayer now because you do not know where and to whom you should pray. Only be 

complete in your deeds and virtues. Always believe that God will most likely provide help because 

men and livestock are the same. The only difference between the two is that cattle can hurt people, 

and you are one step above cattle in virtue. So those who wish to be close to God need be just one 

step above worldly people. 


No one in other countries can keep to the path in the same way as you who were born in Poland. But, 
while you prepared and stretched the bow, you then set your heart against it. What should I do with 



Do you know who Esau is? If I were to reveal to you who he is, you would fall down, overcome with 
great fear. Is this the Esau who is mentioned in your Scripture? Is the garment worn by Jacob the real 

one? The power of eternal Ufe is in these clothes. Had Esau and Jacob put on the garments, they 
would not have died, they would have lived forever. But this Esau is not the one from the Scriptures. 
Whoever is worthy to put on these garments, will have an eternal life. Because of this, Jacob called 
out, "Lord! Adojny!" The clothes worn by Jacob at that time were woven garments. He was cheated 
because the source of his advice was a woman, that is, his mother. It is because of this that it is said, 
"I will trample this vineyard myself." Purro durachti lewadi, "I'll go where no woman is to be found, 
because on a woman's side is found—death." * This is also not the Jacob of yore, but another Jacob, 

whom I cannot reveal to you. 

*Gershom Scholem has taken note that the Shekhinah, an embodiment of the tenth and last of the 

Sefirot, ordinarily regarded as a merciful Mother, also "[b]oth as woman and soul, has its terrible 

aspect" and, at times, "is the 'Tree of Death,' demonically cut off from the Tree of Life." On the 

Kabbalah and Its Symbolism, 106, 107. It is possible that Frank's words reflect some such Kabbalist 



I wish very much that the time comes that you leave my room —that you not stand behind me 

because you neither know nor understand the words I say to you. For when you leave me, God will 

give you the heart to understand my words. When you are worthy to come to Esau, I will reveal more 

to you. You will see with your own eyes and know and understand very well. You will be glad and 

happy with me and with yourself. 


There once was a peasant who had a fever for seventeen years. He asked me for advice as to what he 

should do. I told him in jest, "Take a few sacks of poppy seeds, and every day eat one seed, while you 

stand on one foot." He did this for a few days and he was cured. He brought me many gifts and was 

always grateful. 


I would buy two hundred eyes: Neun bruder blut. I was laughed at. However, I bought cinnabar, 

ground it into powder and whenever a sick person came to me, I gave them the powder. God made 

me lucky in what I was doing. Everybody became healthy and as a result everybody called me a 

doctor. Except that I abandoned doing that. 


You were taken from your country, your religion, your laws, so that you could come to radiance, but 
you went back to your original path since you were not able to see anything with your own eyes. You 

had heard me tell you that just as you were able to see the sun, I would show you God. You must 
follow me, step by step, even if you see me walking upside down and doing other strange things. You 

must suffer through it and listen and follow me until the gate opens, because without an open gate, 

you won't reach anything. I wanted to lead you to that gate. Then, and only then, will you come 

directly to God. All this is there to see. Don't look up at the sky but down. A man can't hold onto two 

things. You can see that when I was going to prison, I bought myself a coach and horses. From that, 

you were able to conclude that all my deeds are here, right on the earth, but you returned to your old 

ways. Why didn't you ask me the reason I was in prison? Like a father, I would show the way, how 

you must proceed to encourage the coming of the Maiden; how, at first, with humility, you must lie 

on the ground before my chamber for a few weeks so that She might take pity on you. If I were to 

reveal to you the actual manner in which She will appear, you would become very ecstatic. 


It is said: Weadonay nussan chochmo li Schloymo. 'God bestowed wisdom on Solomon.' But I am 
proclaiming the truth to you, that can't be found in your books. 


There were two Turkish neighbors. One had a daughter, the other a son. They wanted them to marry. 

As it was the custom, they wanted to send the young man's mother to see the young lady, but the son 

wished to see her himself. The father of the young lady bought a sack of flour. The young man then 

hid in the sack and was carried to her home. Through a hole he saw her and called out, "Oh! How 

nice, how beautiful you are." When they turned the table, he wanted to turn around but fell to the 

ground with the sack. 


The one who stands before God with a holy and royal seal in his hands is not known to the world. 

The one who is worthy to receive this seal will live forever and no one will equal his strength and 

power because he is the King of Kings over Kings. The hearts of all earthly kings and noblemen are 

in His hand. He has a power over the animals of the forest. He has twelve brothers, and seven 

women, and seven maidens. The Queen of Sheba is one of the seven younger. Taken with a burning 

love for the seven maidens, he gave each one of them a ring with his seal... I can't unite with this 

king. I can't reveal the reason for it, though through the Brothers and Sisters it would be possible. 

They would send me one hundred words, while I would send them only one which they need very 

badly. We must ascend from one step to the next, from one kingdom to another, until we come to 

Him who stands before God. Who can likely measure the ascent of those people who alone are 

worthy to see God? This task belongs only to God because only He is able to bring the world to 

perfection and full beauty. He will give each person a soul, and he will look from one end of the 

world to the other. Solomon sent Ben Jeho to Asmodeus but did not go alone. So I can't go by myself, 

but everything can come into my hands through you. 


You are familiar with the saying: Kei schoschanne ben nachoichim. 'Like a rose among thorns.' I can't 
touch Her because of the hawthorn blooms surrounding Her. So must you close your mouths and 

consider my words which have been like thorns to you until you reach the rose itself. 


No one taught Jacob how to treat the Maiden. But I taught you, because for a long time you have 

known that Czestochowa is called the Gate to Rome, where I remained in great hardship. You did not 

have to do anything except lie on the steps- weeping. Very likely, I would have taken pity on you. 


It is said, "I will call you by names that will be revealed by God's lips alone," while you gave yourself 

names, one to the other. 


Nephilim have been on the earth, have mattered, from the beginning. They persist here. Even though 
they may not stand out as guardian angels, God forbid, the world would not be able to maintain itself. 
One digs deeper than the next. One knows more than the other, and they tell people everything about 

the world. 


The Three who lead the world don't know about the King of all Kings. 


There is one who is in Olsztyn and he guards the great treasure. He was a Jew and sought to acquire 

the status of Edom. He was a very honest man. He was a Nephilim and he would bring you to the 

door of this Big Brother. King Solomon himself was not able to be with this Big Brother because he 

had a Jewish identity. Had he changed his religious identity as I did, he could have visited him. 


I can't go alone to the Big Brother. But the One which is before God, could reach there. Because of 

that, I said to those two, who came to me at Czechstochowa, "Wait one year and you will see with 

your own eyes that I will speak with One of whom the whole world is afraid, and I'll sit in one coach 

with him." Had you brought from there great treasures, I would buy a country and order the planting 

of grapes one night. I would plant one vineyard from silver trees and silver fruits. I would also create 

a gold vineyard consisting of two thousand trees. The height of the entire Company, men and women, 

would be like tall buildings, and you would be like towers. If one had a child it would be able to walk 

immediately. At six weeks, it could eat a whole calf. The whole world would be amazed at the 

powers you would be given there. 


When my help arrives, there will not be more than six or seven simple people in the room. I will not 

be able to keep you in my room. However, when Jews come to me, I will abandon this path as if 

nothing happened. I'll begin to seek another path where I could come to Her and see Her face. 


The deed is basic, not talk. For a long time our forefathers and their forefathers used to talk; and what 

did all their talk get them? What came out of it? Here there is the weight of silence. It is here that one 

must be quiet and raise what is necessary. This is a burden and for this we need help. Everyone can 

help, whether with a hand or finger each according to his ability. 


I tell you that Virtue means not allowing any offensive word to leave your mouth rather than not to 

hearing anything evil. Do not talk evil of anybody since you are not the One who can test the heart, 

and you cannot recognize good from bad. Because of this, talk little. 


I am telling you the truth. Listen also to this One, that is also good. From this, a good thing may come. 


A Jew once paid a pupil to wake him for prayer. When the pupil touched him, he moved around. Yet 
he never came to prayers. "Why are you paying me?" asked the pupil. "I'll tell you. I always lie on 

one side and when you prod me, I turn to the other side." 


I tell you that just as the black side has no power after midnight, it follows that as soon as the sun 
shall rise upon Abraham's morning, no power will remain in the hands of these who have the power 



You were told: Ause kol ujom. "I made the sand as the border of the sea." However, there shall come 
a time when the sea will pass this border just as you also passed your border, and then all the world 

will pass that border until all the kingdoms are reversed. 


No one can give a soul, except God, and— One other. 


The world is over five hundred thousand years old, and no creature knows of Her until now. She 

remains in one place. All powers are concentrated in Her. Without Her, one cannot proceed from one 

place to another. She trusts that one day She will be discovered. At that time, those able to see Her, 

will live like her— for eternity, in beauty like the Maiden. She has virtue and constancy. 


You, as well as the whole Company, will be told what the word Das means, and at once you will 
enter Esau, put on different clothes and be called by a new name. 


How can you look for Holy help when you surround me, and I am still in darkness? But when my 
help arrives, you can begin to have hope in God and His help, even though you may be a distance 



In no country do people fear the Judgment Day as much as in Poland because the foundation of 

everything is: Jacob and Esau. 


Egyptian wisdom stems from the air. It makes them wise because there is no wind or drizzle; the Nile 
flows and it feeds itself. The Egyptians have acquired knowledge of black magic because their skies 

are very clear and bright, and no cloud covers it. I asked many wise men, "Why is that country 

different from the others, and not created like the rest of the world?" No one could answer me. Later I 

asked the same of two learned men, one in Sofia, and one in Salonika. They replied, "You are not an 

ordinary man because this is a very wise and secret question." 


In Bucharest, there was once a rich man. He was given some herbs and he became crazy and played 
the fiddle eccentrically. After purchasing a new fiddle, he broke both into pieces and glued them 

together so one could hear them at a distance. 


I had a crystal goblet. Once it fell to the ground, but it did not break, it only bent. I liked the goblet 
very much. Someone came and broke it. I had to gather all the pieces and send them to Venice so it 

could be reconstructed and polished. 


There are seven lands in this world. In six lands there is no bread, only fruits from the ground, and 
there is a lack of wisdom. In the seventh part, where there is a double cave, there are seven kinds of 

bread and wisdom, beyond that of all other folk. 


The Big Brother* is in front of God and has the power to give stature, beauty and wealth in the world 

in which we Hve. But He does not know how to move the world so as to cause it to submit itself to 

Him. Only I was given a clue because I am a simpleton and may know better how to proceed in this 

matter effectively, in the open. Now the time is coming to approach the gate that is about to open for 

me. I don't know what to do with you because, as you well know, whoever wishes to approach the 

Maiden and to intoxicate her with love, must toil and compete for Her love for a year or even two, 

and attract Her to himself with wooing. However, you did not understand this. And, without her 

power, no man may go anywhere unless she personally leads him. Because she is all-powerful, she 

will lead all the world. 

* Big Brother is Supernal Esau. Jacob's older brother.— (CS) 


Pay attention when you are demoHshing an old structure so that it is done slowly. A building that is 

unoccupied by people, gets old from age and deteriorates and falls apart. The same goes for all things 

that are demoHshed too quickly. The world cannot accept it. Still, it is possible to lead the world 

slowly in that direction. 


There were four hundred people with Esau. Scripture considers them as one because all of them, who 
were with him, were as one. But I selected for myself only twelve for you to be with me as one. 


I did not find one among you who would know how to ask or what to ask. I have asked you questions 
about verses from the Scriptures and the Zohar. I asked because I knew the answers, but none of you 

asked me to explain their meaning. 


I rely on you to execute things I cannot do, because I do what is mine to do. However, what belongs 

to you, has to be done by you. It is impossible to do two things at the same time. So, in the case of 

Elijah the Prophet, while he was given keys to birth, rain, and conception, he was not able to do the 

three things at once, but only separately. 


The great thing is to be among the Company. My design is to have the Company in harness for me. It 

is clearly said, Isch ubesau bou. "A man came with a whole house." It says likewise in Jacob, "This is 

a Holy company," Machne Elohim se, and the place is called Machanaim. 


At the beginning, there will be limited help coming for you. Later, there will be much greater support 
for you. There will be both gall and honey. If you know about it, you will not be able to endure the 

great joy. 


It was an ancient custom in Greece to have a curtain covering the entrance to the courtroom. Inside, 

sat the judges and those about to be judged. Two guards stood near the curtain. The sleeves of their 

garments reached the floor, indicating that the fullest silence was to be observed. After you passed 

through the curtain, you were to be silent, but while you remained in the courtyard you were able to 

create a tumult. 


When the Jews appear and their blindness is revealed, you will be ashamed that you studied the 
Torah because only then will you realize who taught them. 


You were acting like a snake since you had nobody to lead you. You followed your own mind along 

some strange path. When a man proceeds in darkness and does not know where to go, he needs a 
leader to lead him. A good act is the obligation of those knowing and ready. One who is ill-prepared 

and doesn't know how to go, makes a mess of it. 


There will be great bitterness in the world; you must stay at home and not go out into the courtyard, 
so it will not affect you. You will also receive a screen to become invisible. 


Had you been filled with integrity, I could have sent you, giving you two or three words in hand. I 

would have directed that you cross rivers with the power of those words. The waters would have 

immediately parted before you. And when you came to a second body of water, you alone would 

have experienced the power of those words. The waters would have parted and you would have 

become lucky. You would then recognize that a holy power hovers before you. 


Why didn't you wait for tlie names tliat God's own mouth would have proclaimed rather than seek to 
devise these yourself? All the secret names that are respected, have to be humbled and debased. Just 

as you must be humbled before God ventures to uplift you. 


There is no doubt, of a certainty, that no weapon can harm the person who has with him the bit of 
greenery with a special quality, nor the several thousand people holding fast to him even by a thread. 

The same is true for you. Had you held on to that thread, nothing could have hurt you. Even if you 
had been several hundred miles away, but had held fast to Her with a thin thread, nothing in the world 

could have hurt you. 

500. When you come to Esau and receive Das, your eyes will open. You will see and know 
everything. You will then feel a great joy, and mourn over what you have been missing [for so long]. 


Kol, Kol, Kol Jankew. The voice, the voice of Jacob calls, "Why do you sleep? Why?" You answer, 
"We are from the House of Jacob." It is only said, "Approach the prince," who, while giving it to 

them, will say, "Go with it on a holy mission." 


Beware that when you open anything, you open it slowly, because those who are in darkness cannot 

be exposed to sudden light. It will blind them. 


You wanted to seek out God. Whoever is given to seek, may do so. There were great men, the least 

important of whom was much greater than you. Was it for them to seek, though they knew not where 

to look or what they were seeking? Why didn't they find anything? In the same way as the whole 

world knows that Kor's treasure is here in this world but no one knows where to look for it. Is it 

possible to dig up the entire world? It is only the one who knows where the hidden spot is located, 

who will find the treasure. Your heart beat faster at the thought that you could go and look for it 

yourself. But, in truth, all you had to do was to follow me because I know what to seek and where to 

look. I have told you, "I will show you God." Is it possible to appear before the real God in the 

clothes you are now wearing? It is as likely as for a pauper to appear before a king and have an 

audience with him. For this reason you must be dressed in special garments so that you can come to 

Adam's place. At that time, fear will envelop the animals of the forest, but you will hold on to the 

Maiden. Then, you will be able to come to Esau and after great effort, reach Das. 


When my help arrives, you will be enabled to take a step, as a start, and then you will come to 

Adam's level. At that point, you will make a Korban, a sacrifice— this means you will be brought to 

an unrevealed goal. 


There are all kinds of precious stones. There are stones that stimulate gratefulness in all eyes, others 
that incline the viewer to love, still others used as an enticement to women, and yet still others that 

will make another to act coldly. 


Since bitterness comes before bliss just as darkness precedes light, I made you into helpers. Because 
of this, I received you, so that each of you could take upon himself a part of the bitterness to lighten 

my load. 


Jews are held in great contempt and regarded as vile in the eyes of all nations, and the infidels are 

worse off than Jews. From the time of Adam's sin, the world keeps falling lower and lower, until it 

reaches that place that is vilest among the degraded. It must reach the meanest possible state of 

vileness before it is able to begin to rise up without an end. This is the ladder that Jacob saw, on 

which Holy angels climbed and descended. But, as of now, he has not stepped on it. However, once 

he begins to climb, he will never descend.* 

* The foregoing imagery may be said to reflect the Sabbataian concept that the Messiah, taking upon 

himself the obloquy of apostasy, must descend into the Klippot, the place of Evil, to recover the 

imprisoned Divine Sparks and restore these to Ain Sof. the unknowable Divine Essence so as to 

reestablish the Divine stasis that will bring about the Millennium of Paradise. -Editor 


You can see and not see, hear and not hear. You have feet but you don't walk, you have hands but 

you don't stretch. 


In this world, all that is in our soul must be transformed into a body, just like ours, so that everyone 

will see the thing as it really appears. 


I took hold of you so that you could be like sailors who control a ship. On the ship, there are many 
sails and each one has its name. When the ship's captain notices a cross wind, he calls upon the 
sailors for that one to catch the sail and help guide the ship. Now, I am all alone without sailors. 


All those who died, have no right to return to this world. If it were to happen that one of the dead 

came to you, he would tell you that everything has been given over into my hands. Without me, no 

one can do anything. There are many wise and learned men in this world, and I am only a simpleton, 

yet I have been given the power so that everything in the world happens through me. Only he whom I 

order to do something, can do it, and no one else. I have the power to hover or elevate, give and take, 

because Holy ways are hidden and different. 


If I should reveal to you a certain matter, a son would rise against his father, and the father would be 

against his own son. 


A woman brought about death in this world, and I want to bring about life in this world. * 

* The 'woman' may possibly be a reference to Eve and the eating of the forbidden fruit of the Tree of 
Knowledge in the Garden of Eden, while the second half of the sentence, most probably, reflects the 

role of the Sabbataian Messiah as postulated in Sabbataian theology to bring about the Lurianic 

Tikkun-the restoration to Ain Sof, the Unknowable Divine Core or Essence of those Divine elements 

or sparks that had been imprisoned in the Klippot, the netherworld, the bastion of Evil. -Editor 


The soldier is not the one who defeats his enemies, a soldier is he who can withstand bitterness and 



How can it be that the true God created a world in which one must die and where so many other 
shortcomings are found? This would be against His dignity! So it follows, that the one who created 

the world is not the true God. 


Gods, who are called holy, are in this world, though the people do not know about them. They are the 
ones who persuade the people to do wrong. The most despicable deeds are desired by them. 


Had you been filled with integrity in Czestochowa, then the Lady who is there, would have led you to 

another Lady. 


Moses' law does not begin with the letter Aleph, but with Bes. Because Aleph is Esau. This is what it 

says in the Bible: Alufe Esau. 


Though, naturally, it is not suitable that a man should live forever, there will come a time when he 

will live forever. 


There is a place in Arabia, under the Sultan's rule, that is surrounded with a wall and guarded by a 
large regiment, because a Dervish revealed to the Sultan Amuratow that through a Holy Spirit, once a 

year in that place grows a plant on which eleven to twelve flowers bloom. These flowers have the 
power, when boiled and given as a drink once each month to a young maiden, to preserve her beauty 

unchanged so that even when she is one hundred years old, she will still look as if she were fifteen. 

The woman, whom the Sultan likes, receives this drink each month from the hands of the Sultan. 
Because of this, women who are favored by him are always more beautiful than other women. 


You are like a rich field, that has been neither plowed nor seeded and shows nothing to harvest. If 
you had withstood the weight of plowing, meaning that had you been silent and plowed along, you 

would have been seeded and yielded a goodly fruit. 


When a glass vase breaks and the pieces are sent to the factory to be remade, the new vase will 
clearer and more beautiful than the original. But when an object made from clay breaks, it cannot be 



You find no footprints when following a path where no people have walked; but in the place where 
many people have walked, it is possible to recognize the path that will become a road eventually. 


There are palaces in the place where the Maiden resides. There are immeasurable treasures 

surrounding those palaces, and beyond those treasures is found a wall. Surrounding the wall, there 

lies a snake so large that he is able to hold his tail in his mouth. No one is able to enter that place. 

However, there are times when the snake releases his tail to warm himself in the sun. Whoever knows 

the time the snake does that, can enter the rooms at that moment. A gold table is inside and on it 
stands a bird tied down with a golden thread. Whoever enters the room hears the voice of the Maiden, 
"Your wish will come true if you first take the bird in your hand and don't let him sleep for three days 
and nights." Whoever carries out Her orders will receive a great treasure. But the one who is not able 

to do so, must die. 


From the beginning of the world, only I was given the exclusive task of guarding the Maiden. 


If I would explain to Jews what the words mean: "Go, go from your land, etc.," then they would all 

follow me to baptism with great joy. 


I wanted to take away your ancient roots so I could give you other roots that have a lot more flavor in 



One king's doctor could make pills that healed all diseases. This skill made the doctor very arrogant, 

so much so, that even when the king visited him, he neglected the king saying that he had no time for 

him. The king did not take offense, aware of the general good that flowed from the doctor's hands. 

Now it so happened that a new disease appeared. The doctor then prepared new pills, thinking these 

would have a better effect than the old ones. But whoever used the new pills, died. Even the prince, 

after being given the pills, was fatally affected, and died. The king, upon seeing that, ordered the 

execution of the doctor. 


I could not go by myself because I am the emissary of God. But you are sent by me. You could go 

because you were the messengers for the emissary. 


You were bitter when I used to tell you the following words in Czestochowa: El Shadday. Had you 

recognized and withstood the bitterness, sweetness almost surely would have come out of it. You 

would have told me, "You had us taste gall, now we have come to taste the sweetness." 


There will come a time when I reveal one matter to the peasants. The Jews will then hear it from the 

peasants. The peasants will not understand, but Jews will, and because of it many of them will be 



The deliverance from Egypt was not complete because the one who led them out was a man. The 
source of ransom for them should have been from the Maiden. 


All things appear in three's. I told you of the rifleman who sees a bear in three images and has to 
know which one to shoot; so Three stood before Abraham, because he was First and did not know 
why the Three had to come to him. I must look to follow them, but you do not know what to seek. 

Because of this, you should have been silent. 


Christ would have done well if he had not gone to teach among the Pharisees. 


I have told you that I planted a vineyard. Usually, when a tree or a grapevine is planted, these do not 
produce fruit immediately. Like those, you do not know anything now. 


When my help comes, I will ask on your behalf that She have mercy on you, so I could bring you 
closer to my Domain as it is said in Scriptures, "As I made haste to tear down and demolish, so I will 

be in haste to build and to graft [plantings]. 


It is necessary to cast aside all the laws in the manner of the High Priest. He bathed when he was 
about to enter the Most Holy Place, and he did so again on leaving it. The same applies here. When 
we enter this state, we must leave behind all laws and customs.* I wanted to give you D a s, so that 

you would know what you must do and what not to say. 

* These words may be said to reflect the Sabbataian theological premise that with the advent of the 
Messiah, Hfe had entered into a new Eon (Shemita) governed by a different Sefirah with different 

roles directing the ways of the world.-Editor 


I selected you so you can be Hke the heart and stomach of the whole Company. When the stomach is 

working, all the extremities are healthy and strong; otherwise the extremities become weaker. The 
same is true with you. When you are hungry, the whole Company is not satisfied; when you are full, 

the Company is satisfied as well. 


There was a merchant who was very wealthy. He had an only son, whom he trained in all wise crafts. 
At his death, he left him a testament that read, "I leave you my entire estate, but I hold you to three 

things: first, you must not disclose your secrets to your wife; second, you must not adopt a stranger as 
your son to succeed you as owner of the land; third, you must not serve a king of whose habits and 
deeds you are not sure." Then he added, "I put all my wealth in your hands; you may sell it and do 

with it whatever you wish, except for a small garden and vineyard surrounded on one side by a wall. 

No matter what happens, do not think to sell it." The old merchant died and the young man, after his 
father's death, began to live extravagantly, giving banquets for his friends. He was so profligate that 

the entire estate wasted away and nothing remained. That is, except for a wise bird that on command 

could hunt other birds. When it was called, it always returned. He traveled with the bird from country 
to country and this is how he earned a living. People noticed the extraordinary bird and told a king 

about it. The king asked the young man to sell the bird. The young man accepted the king's offer. The 
king fell in love with the bird, and made the young man a marshal with power to rule the whole 

country. Everybody liked him because he was virtuous and kind. The king gave him one of his sisters 
to be his wife. They fell in love and were married but did not have any children. So, they selected a 

poor child and adopted him as their son. The young man was reminded of his father's will, but he told 

himself: 'I was not to serve a king I did not know, and I am doing well here. I took a strange son and 

that is the second condition I ignored. I will also ignore the third condition and reveal the secret to my 

wife.' Then, he took the bird and gave it to the gardener to hide. The gardener was blind. He had a 

son. The young man ordered the gardener not to say anything about the bird until there was a great 

commotion and he heard that the young man was being led to execution. Only then should he bring 

the bird. Later, receiving a similar bird, he choked him. The king, seeing the dead bird, proclaimed, 

"Whoever denounces the killer of the bird, will have my own sister for a wife if a man, and, if a 

woman, will be married to the first favorite. Then, on purpose, the young man disclosed the secret to 

his wife as if, in a fit of anger, he had killed the bird. His wife went directly to the king, who was her 
brother, and revealed the secret to him. The young man was chained and sentenced to be executed. 

But an executioner could not be found to kill him because everyone loved him. The king then 
proclaimed, "Whoever cuts off his head will be rewarded with riches." The adopted son came to the 

king for the money, undertaking to cut off his adopted father's head. As the young man was being led 
to his execution, the king joined the crowd to witness it. At that moment, the condemned cried out, 
"Father! Father! Your testament is an honest truth." A commotion began, whereupon the son of the 
gardener arrived, carrying the live bird. When the king saw that, he immediately released the young 

man, and began to apologize, asking forgiveness for his haste. The king then asked, "Why did you cry 
out, 'Father! Father!'?" The young man told him about the testament, and how everything had taken 

place according to it. "I served you, King, not knowing you. You became angry because of the bird 

and were ready to take my life. By disclosing the secret to my wife, I almost lost my life, while my 

adopted son made an attempt on my life. Now, I shall serve you no more. I will depart, fulfilling the 

terms of my father's testament." In sorrow, the king saw him take his leave, giving him a ship and 

wealth. There was a great storm at sea. The boat went under and everything was lost. Only he 
remained alive, naked. He returned to his home town. There was the small vineyard that, having 

listened to his father, he had not sold. The garden was neglected, full of thorns and bushes. In a hut he 

found a book in which he read the following: "My son, you did not listen to my voice and direction. 

Now, take a rope and hang yourself." The son obeyed his father's wishes. However, the building was 

weak and collapsed. He fell down and saw an immeasurable treasure. Only then did he come to 

understand the real dimensions of the truth of his father's words.* 

* Frank's encapsulated tales may be said to contain a wealth of invention comparable to Voltaire's 
contemporary Babylonian romances and to reflect the dimensions and the quaUty of the illustrative 

anecdotes found in the Talmud. -Editor 


Everyone has tried to reach the place where I am going; they wanted the door opened for them as for 
the patriarchs, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon and all the pillars of the world. However, they could 
not open it. But I work and will open it with the power of my God. No one knows anything, only I, 
and then, not much. What is said about the Company, should be understood to apply to the pillars of 

the world. 


When magic is taught, one hand offers a crow, but here you get a white pigeon. 


This gate was closed from the beginning of the world. Many tried to come in, but the gate remained 
closed. I wanted to provide you with wisdom and arm you so that you would enter the gate quickly. 

But you made sure that the gate remained closed. 


Is it for nothing that kings and noblemen go to the picture of the Virgin in Czestochowa with great 

humbleness? They are wiser than you because they know that all powers are with Her, in her hand. 

As they talk of Christ being resurrected, so will She rise in the same way from the ground, almost 

from earth, and all the earth's Kings will bow before her. 


I wanted to lead you to a location that is hidden. No one talks there, they only see what was and what 

will be to the end. 


All that I told you until now is Uke a drop of water in the ocean compared to what you will see with 
your own eyes. Something new will come to this world of which none of your ancestors heard. Since 

its beginning, no one has thought about what is to become of this world. Because of that, I tell you 

that you are to keep silent about whatever you see and hear about or are told. Close your mouth! Do 

not say anything. Stay and look! When you are asked about what you saw or heard, learn to say, "I do 

not know." 


All the things a man acquires without effort, that come easily to him, are abandoned just as casually. 

However, when a man makes the effort to work with all his might to realize his desire for something 

that becomes very dear to him. What about that which is eternal? 


All learning will be corrupted, there survives only the Head of the Domain, the mysterious and 

hidden peacefulness.* 

* The Polish word Pokoj may mean either peacefulness or room. In the context, the former term 

seems preferable. -Editor 


I tell you, when the shedding of blood begins, if, God forbid, there be learning in his heart, though it 

be as insignificant as imaginable, that person will disappear from all worlds together with his home 

and his neighbor, because the place where we are to go, cannot stand laws from the side of death: we 

are proceeding to life. 


It is clearly written: Al charbecho tychie, live on your sword.' Resurrection will also come about on 

the sword. Women should also carry swords. 


When I lead you to this true faith,* if every morning, every afternoon, and every evening I were to 

see that you kiss the ground and say, "We are blessed, our ancestors are blessed, and our ancestors' 

ancestors are blessed, that we have reached the time when we went to Esau," then you would see 

what I will reveal to you. You would also see what the good things are that I would do with you. 

* Religii in the Polish original is usually translated as 'religion.' The context suggests the more 

ambiguous 'faith' as evocative of Frank's meaning since he goes on to declare that 'Esau' (i.e., 

Christianity) is a means whereby the adept is enabled to reach the true goal to which Frank himself 

will lead him or her. This is reflective of the Sabbataian theological premise that the road to the 

Klippot (i.e., the Domain of Evil, the netherworld or Hell) is through that most heinous of sins, 

apostasy, and it is the purpose of the journey to effectuate the release of the imprisoned Divine 

elements or 'sparks' or light energies ejected as a consequence of the 'bursting of the vessels,' so as to 

achieve a Tikkun, by restoring those 'Sparks' to Ain Sof to regain the Divine stasis and bring about 

the return of Paradise as it existed before Adam and Eve's removal from the Garden of Eden 

(consonant with the theosophic theses of the Lurianic Kabbalah).- In this respect, the scraps of 

Hebrew texts that Frank sprinkles through his sayings, are indicative of a Judaic source for his ideas. - 

Although Frank's ideas may be said to be reflective of 'orthodox' Sabbataianism (if one may be 

permitted the use of that adjective in connection with the formulation of heretical ideas), it is not 

entirely clear that the vision Frank holds out is altogether consistent with those theses. So, for 

example, the Sabbataian concept of the apostate messiah's descent into the Klippot to recover the 

imprisoned Divine 'sparks,' becomes in Frank's hands, a vast emphasis on abasement, about which he 

repeatedly speaks and which he demands in the form of acts by both his male and female followers. 

Notwithstanding such concerns, it is fair to say that Frank adapted and used, for his purposes, 
Sabbataian concepts that formed a part of the continuum of religious ideas in the Eighteenth Century 

Eastern European Jewish world into which he had been born. 

The foregoing comments apply in greater or lesser degree also to Sayings nos. 117, 542, 561, 1754, 
1784, 1794, 1829, 1834, 1871, 1952, 1974, 2151 and 2190. It is to be emphasized that the tenets of 

Sabbataian theology thread through Frank's words. -Editor 


People said, "A bear is drawn as if by force to honey and he refuses to budge." So they ripped off his 
ear. When he tried the honey, they pulled him by the tail to remove him. It went so far that they 

ripped off the entire tail. 


I ask you, "If you are from the seed of the Patriarchs, why do you not follow in the footsteps of your 
father Abraham?" He walked always to kings, but you do not wish to walk to kings. 


Just as everyone talks of Adam as the first, so the whole world will see and know that the world will 

begin from this location, de noviter. 


In Iwan you heard from me that I was angry with someone who walked before me. You did not 
understand this. You went ahead of me and as a result, you fell down. 


Abraham dug a well; Isaac dug a well; all have dug wells looking for something; but when I also dug, 

it was because I wished you to become lords of the world. 


When a man goes from one place to another, he should close his mouth and remain silent, keep 

everything within himself-whatever it is that he is told or sees with his own eyes. He should suffer 

through it and be quiet about it. I told you, "Keep steadfast!" So it is when you aim an arrow. The 

harder you pull the string of the bow, the further the arrow flies. The more you keep held tight within 

your soul, the further your shot travels. 


She will appear in a terrible place, filled with gall, then everything will turn into sweetness. At the 
time She is about to be discovered in my palace and in my room, I would wish you to be close to my 



I will sanctify you with clean water as it is said: Wezorakty aleichem maim tehorim. "I will bathe you 
. . .," that is, you will receive Das. But, still, much water will be needed. 


You would be much better off had you studied the wisdom of black magic. You would know a great 



Do not think I do you wrong when I am angry with you. I actually do this for your own good. I am 
telling you to be like Wawrek who knows no law nor thought and is stupid to your eyes. 


A man cannot lead another man away from a holy path. It is only a strange woman, assuming the 
image of a man, who can lead him away from a good path. A woman pulls a man's heart after her. 

Usually, when a woman bends to the will of a man pursuing her, his love for her burns all the 

stronger within him. You had an ancient commandment to make sure at night that impurities did not 

fall into your place of rest.* This means, to beware of strange women, so that you can reach the level 

of Adam. The more you seek to avoid it, the more you fall. The more I ordered you to turn away from 

Her, the more your heart was attracted to her. 

* Gershom Scholem, On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism, 154-157, gives an extended discussion of 

the Kabbalist rites that were developed in connection with its concept of the consequences of the 
misuse of male generative powers and the preservation of the purity of the marital bed so as to avoid 
the damnation attendant upon one's pollution by evil spirits. It may be noted that the inferences Frank 

proceeds to draw are sui generis. -Editor 


There was a Captain Mirowski of the Guard at Czestochowa. He was deceived by the [Bar] 

Confederation. Later, the Russians killed three officers under his command. The Captain was very 

troubled. I asked him, "Why are you so worried?" He knelt before me and said the following, "I heard 

about you from others, that you are a real man, that you know how to give good advice. Advise me 

on what to do. Should I abandon my command and flee to Warsaw, or stay with it to the end? It is 

right for a soldier to fight, but I am young and it is a curse on my years." I replied, "If you listen to 

my advice and obey, you will come out ahead." "I will listen," he said. "I will give you advice, but do 

not reveal it to anyone. Do not run away from your command. Do the opposite. Remain with it. 

However, buy a few nice watches and when you fmd yourself in a tight spot, especially when the 

enemy is in pursuit, throw a watch behind you. The men pursuing you will throw themselves at the 

watch, while you escape. You must continue doing that, throwing the watches behind you, until you 

reach the fortress." And that is how it happened. He was pursued, and the watches saved him. When 

he came back, he fell at my knees and thanked me for the advice I had given him. 


I tell you this: "Soon you will see with your own eyes that after I convert to Christianity, I will leave 
behind the terrible and despised condition of Jews who are commonly regarded as contemptible and 

who are hated especially because of that religion you shared with the others from the beginning. 
Now, it is even worse. When God raises me above death, I will sit with noblemen, and I will have an 

honorable place among them." 


Israelites are to be compared with pigeons. There is one kind of pigeon that connects only with its 

own kind. When one of them dies, the other is so bereaved that he would die himself but not connect 

with another species of pigeon. If you, brothers, would walk whole [in spirit], do not mingle with 



As Scripture says: Mene, Mene, Tekel upharsim. I wrote to you, "You had almost not been able to 
repeatedly descend lower and lower." I also descended before you because I was told, "Go down. 

You must enter Das, which is the burden of silence." 


An ox has the same understanding as a calf is born with. On the other hand, a human being should 

acquire more understanding with time. 


Devils are evil spirits that do bad things, but the evil spirits called Szedim are decent and 
goodhearted. *There are: Szedim jehudim, in the Jewish fashion, who have neither a king nor a Lord; 
then, there are Christian Szedim, and, among them, you will find kings and rulers. I cannot send you 

to them, because you are not yet baptized. 

* The Zohar, on the other hand, identifies shedim as "spirits of that 'evil power,' which are the naked 

spirits of the wicked, called demons ... " 1 Zohar 60 (Soncino Ed.), 14b (Mantua Ed.). Shedim are the 

demon children ofNa'amah "by whom the first saints were seduced." 1 Zohar 39 (Soncino Ed.), 9b 

(Mantua Ed.)— Editor 


A rabbi felt great joy on October 23 that the [sequential] Bible-reading had ended according to the 

yearly rite. A lawyer came and began to dance with joy. The rabbi asked him, "Why are you so 

happy? I read a whole year and finished it. What is your reason for merriment?" The lawyer said, 

"You are happy that you finished, and I am happy that I have not begun." 


You do not understand anything I tell you. You have not yet been given the power to understand that 

when you see only nonsense, there is great wisdom. Everything has been prepared for you to be able 

to know and understand. You say that you want to serve God. To tell you the truth, I do not serve 

God yet, but my desire and my effort to find the path to God may be called service to God. 


I am trying to raise that which the whole world has shunned. I told you the verse: Waiejce Jankiew 

mi Beerszewa, wajelech Chorono. 'Jacob came from Beersheba and went to Haran,' meaning that he 

had not yet gone, only that he wanted to go, while I want to go to Haran. 


You did not understand that it is not possible to come to the true God, until a person first joins the 

Gentiles, because the one comes before the other. It says in Scripture: Al edre Chawerecho. 'Among 

the flock of your companions!' Those are the Gentiles. Only later to other matters.* 

*Frank is here reading his text 'against the grain' to arrive at a Sabbataian conclusion.- Editor 


King Solomon said: Ma isron leodom bechol amolau ki hokol hewel. "What comes to a man from the 
fact that he works in the sun? All is like a wind." So spoke Solomon, but I tell you: Jugaiti, mocysi. 
"Try and you will find." When a man tries to obey all my bidding, he will achieve a great gain that 

neither his fathers nor his forefathers knew. 


Had you ever known a nobleman to assume power without the king's knowledge? This cannot be; 

only after the king gives him the authority, does the nobleman do as he wishes. You, on the other 

hand, took charge without my knowledge. What came out of it? All was foolishness and [a striving 

after the] wind. 


In the time of Moses, a staff was turned into a snake, and the snake back into a staff. So shall it 

happen in the future. The people who follow their shepherd and leader, are the staff which will 

support the leader. Then, they will turn into a snake, and only later back into a staff. This will happen 

when I wish it because that is in the power of my hand to do. 


I heard that Rabbi Issachar had found the great key to Esau in old books. Rabbi Mordechai was afraid 
of it, but I felt great joy, because I knew, and know how it is with you: the Sepher Thore, the law and 
the festivals, the Ark and its enclosure. It is the same here. Who is to see Esau? No one has seen him 

as of today. Whoever does see him, will live for eternity. 


At the court of King John Sobieski there was a jester named Wasilowski. The king gave him some 

beautiful fruit to bring to the Queen. On the way, he ate it all. When the king learned what happened, 

he wrote a note to the stable-man directing that the man who delivered the note was to receive a few 

lashes. The jester, having an idea of what was in the note, gave it to the king's valet and told him to 

deliver it to the stable-man in a hurry. After the valet arrived, the stable-man counted off a few lashes. 

The valet complained to the king. The whole thing became a joke and the king forgave the jester. 


Why did you not learn from the sage, the Rambam, to be silent like him for seven years? 


"In a dream I saw a large chapel and in it a small one. Matthew was saying that a man should be 

brought quickly before the alter and beheaded before I learned about it. This was done. Then 

Matthew came to me and said, 'It is too late, he is beheaded.'" The Lord then explained, "One chief 

will fall, but, then, I will be on my way." 


I told you of a tower where the Maiden is hidden. *Those, whom She sees are working very hard for 

her, receive her portrait. Through the portrait one can recognize the place where She resides. I did not 

tell you that in the spirit but on earth is the Maiden to be found and there is a tower. From that fact is 

therefore a portrait. But you did not pay attention to my words and now, you are being chastised. 

*Frank is here once more adapting the simile in the Zohar comparing the Torah and its interpretation 

to a Maiden hidden in a room in a castle or Tower who seeks to attract her adepts to a true 

understanding. 3 Zohar 301,302 (Soncino Ed.), 99a, 99b (Mantua Ed.) -Editor 


A spring of water began to run by itself near Bucharest. A lame man came to the spring, took a bath 

and left healthy. The news spread around. Whoever was sick came to this place and walked away 

healthy. However, everyone who wanted to bathe there, had to throw money into the water. One time, 

a man came, who stole all the money from the water, and caught all the diseases of the people who 

had bathed there. As a result, he returned all the money and added some of his own. 


In the old days, there was a rock in the form of a woman. Whoever embraced it, could live for several 

hundred years. There was also a stone in a form of a man and women came to it, but only one out of a 

thousand returned. Who knows what strength was in those common, unassuming idols? 


One cannot come close even to God without money. 


Solomon, being wise, wiser than all the people, mixed with different nations, taking as wives, the 

daughters of various kings, yet he could not accomplish everything. He could mingle with Gentiles 

because he was a king. Here, the whole world knows that I come from the Jews, that I was baptized 

and am poor. But I hope that this winter I will mingle with Gentiles and they will call on me. I tell 

you, "If you do not mix with Gentiles, your work is useless." 


Children, when they want to play, sit around a bowl and use their hands as if they were eating with 

spoons from the bowl. When one child makes believe that he is eating very fast and anxiously, the 

others slap his hands and stop him from overeating. It is so with you. You made believe you were 

eating, though you had nothing in your hand. Still they beat you, to stop you from grabbing. 


When my help arrives, you will see my daughter, (she will be healthy!) How much younger she will 

become and she will shine like the sun. I cannot get younger because I mixed with you. 


A king had an exceptionally beautiful daughter. Several princes fought over her. The father said, 

"What will come of so many princes dying because of her? Should I rather not ask my daughter 

whom she wishes to choose? It was then wisely decided to place her on a high mountain covered with 

a thick layer of glass. The prince who was able to climb the mountain on a horse would have her as a 

wife. No one could do that until one wise prince succeeded by employing ingenuity. He shod his 
horse with diamonds in place of nails, and climbed the mountain on the horse, cutting the glass with 

the diamonds. 


All clerics, in general, are sages of Edom. The nobility does not have this wisdom because they are 

always concerned with governing. But the clergy are always arguing about what happened, what is 

happening and what will happen in the world. The Jesuits are the wisest among all their brothers. 

However God will confuse them in their wisdom so they cannot perceive what has to come to the 



A nobleman gave the order to paint his salon with frescos of Adam and Eve, Samson tearing apart 

Iwa, Goliath, the Philistines, etc. The wall looked so real that anyone who looked at it from a 

distance, was ready to faint from fear. There, Adam seemed several miles tall, with his mouth opened 

a mile wide, but close up, the characters looked like anybody else. Though I am strong and 
courageous, when I saw that, I was overcome with fright. However, seeing that I was being laughed 

at, I realized that it was only the work of a man. 


You beheve that the Messiah will be a man; but, under no circumstances, can this be because the 

earth is a Maiden. She will be the true Messiah. She will rule all the worlds because all weapons were 

given into her hands. David and that First One were to show Her the way in the future, but did not 

finish anything. Take heed also at present to the way reUgion is abandoned, but in no way tamper 

with Her honor. 


You and I are like two trees standing opposite each other with a river flowing between them. Both 
will not give any fruits until they unite. In the same way, I cannot tell you anything until the time 

comes that we are united. 


When I ordered you to move from one location to another, I had a difficult time with you. It was very 
difficult until you heard me. I accepted you in the same way that a blacksmith uses tongs so as not to 
burn his hands, and, at the same time, to hide it from the world. Had you come to me completely, you 
would be guides and examples for the whole world. You, on the contrary, took rotten wood to make a 

bridge. Then you were crossing it and fell through. 


The world conducts itself as it sees fit to this day. It does what it wishes. Does anyone ask, "What you 

are doing?" However, it has been said about the people who follow me that while you do as you see 

fit, still, whatever you do, even in secret, becomes public knowledge.* 

*Is Frank here alluding to the statements made by his followers in Lviv and Warsaw to the CathoHc 
clergy that resulted in his heresy trial and imprisonment at Czestochowa for thirteen years?-Editor 


Until now, the world has gone on as it liked. How much has this pleased you? It is commonly said, 

"Whatever goes on-how much is deceit and how much is beyond that?" The thought is, "You act for 

yourself in secret," and afterwards, it all is unearthed and comes to light. 


While Jews are drifting, you must cut out to partly open up a beginning for the alphabet. In this way, 
since you are not acquainted with the alphabet, you must also seek it out. 


In our situation, we cannot reach our goal without baptism. Jesus can be called by the name: Ben 
Elohim-the Son of God, because he also followed this path. 


When Jacob was on his way to Haran, the setting sun found him on the road and he slept and had a 

dream. My deeds are in the open. Jacob took stones from that place, but I have taken people. I led 

you to the most beautiful object in the world, and you have returned. Now, I am telling you as was 

told to Abraham, "Go, go from my domain, from my room; it is for your own good, for your benefit.' 


When I was called to [recite a blessing for the reading of] Moses'Torah, I forbade the caller to give 
me any title, but to say only, "Let the youth Jacob come forward." 


The one chapter, I like the most, in the entire book of the Zohar says the following, "Who put Joseph 
in prison? God. Who Uberated him? God. Who made him a king? God." We do not need Kabbalist 

books to find out what to do. One has only to know that God does everything. Who leads me to 
Edom? God. Who brought me to Poland? God. Who brought me into Czestochowa? God. Who led 

me out of imprisonment? God. And so it is always, for all eternity. In this manner, all believers 

should trust in God and his help as I do. Do not depend on man. When someone comes to say he is a 

prophet, tell him, "Keep your prophecy to yourself. I do not need any." He will say that he is a wise 

and learned man. Tell him: "I do not need your wisdom nor your teaching. You did not bring me to 

baptism, and now I will follow neither you nor your teaching." 


You see for yourself, now, how bodies bend and bow down to earth. I do not pray to heaven for help 
to come, I look on earth to see what God is doing here in this world. 


I was once told of a certain ancient who found a certain written history in which it was set forth, 

"Two great and learned men had a dispute between them. Is there a God or not?' Both were 

Kabbalists who could quote enigmatic texts. They even called upon Angels to give them the true 

answer. To aid their quest they fasted, they did penance, they went into the fields, they became 

hermits. At last, the Angels returned and said, 'We cannot give you an answer, except to say that you 

should embark on a long journey, and take with you all the provisions you need, but do not take 

water, which you will find in abundance on the way. You will reach a mountain where there are rocks 

polished like stone. There you will spend the night. You are warned not to touch the clear stones.' 

And so, they went on their way. On coming to the mountain they fell asleep. In a dream they were 

told that no man should search for God, or even think about it. The more one tries, the more difficult 

the matter becomes." One can only seek the One who precedes God, and follow him. That is why, 

when I told you that I would show you God, it meant— the One who precedes God. 


I have told you, "I planted the vineyard with the true seed," as it was said, Emes me-erez tycmach, 
"Truth will grow out of earth." This is because the essence of everything is found in the depths of the 

earth. The patriarchs and everybody are found there. All my effort and work are to bring them up 
from there to this world, and so it is: truth will grow from the earth. My wish has been that you be the 

true seed. 

[Editor's Note: As otherwise noted, the transliteration of the Hebrew into the Roman/Latin alphabet 

follows the Polish pronunciation of those letters. That pronunciation, especially in the case of certain 

of the consonants, is different from the English pronunciation of those letters. Since a language was 

involved that is foreign to the Polish text, it seemed appropriate to leave the transliteration intact, 
without attempting to recreate the transliteration in a mode more appropriate to English orthography 

and/or pronunciation.] 


What were you thinking that you imagined that from the place of Ishmael [Islam] something can be 

revealed to the world! As you alone can see, heads in that other religion are covered with a turban, 

and hands hang down; in this religion [Christianity], on the other hand, the head is uncovered. This 

means that here is the head, with arms held akimbo with conceitedness; that means it is here that the 

purpose of the world will be revealed. 


You have no need for sages. What is needed here is a commitment of silence. One only has to listen, 

to be obedient and to follow me. You have heard many times that I praised Eleazar, the servant of 

Abraham, as it is stated in Solomon's proverbs, Ewed adoynow hu Eliezer, "Eleazar is the servant of 

his Lord," because he served him faithfully and completely. 


When one goes to the sun, it is necessary to talk like the sun and dress like it; and when one goes to 
the moon, one has to dress like the moon, and talk like the moon. 


It is said, Dorech kochow me-Jankow. "A star will come from Jacob." From the beginning of the 
world, this beacon kept going down. All the things that are hated and contemptible are within the 
power of this beacon, but whenever you go by this beacon, you fail to reach any goal because this 
beacon is the gate. You have been delayed because the road was difficult for you. I want to lead you 
through this gate, and when the time comes for this beacon to ascend, there will be no limits to its 

ascent, forever climbing higher and higher without end. 


I tell you, "From the beginning of the world, no one ever visited the place where I want to lead you. 
You will be with me because I and She will bring you there. Now, and for all eternity, there is no 

human being there except for me." 


Every person, who would proceed to a given objective, must be honest and virtuous in his deeds. If 
he misses even by one thousandth, he is not worth anything. And even if he reaches this goal, he must 

know the tone of the color he is seeing. Because of this I told you. Con esto gif, se vide claro befor 
essi.To this end, that you be worthy to see clearly." I gave you to understand the fact that one's body 

should be without blemish. 


One does not conquer a fortress with talk. It requires an army. In the same way we must proceed, 

persevere and be silent. 


I must lead you through the first and second gates until you become clean. 


A man with the name Kasze came to a town to give a sermon. Now, in that town there was a wealthy 

man with a beautiful daughter. Kasze wanted to marry her, but this maiden did not want him because 

he was ugly. What did he do? He went from town to town, collecting money. In one town he found a 

young man who was not educated. He made nice clothes for the young man and impressed upon him, 

"You will travel with me on the road, and I will explain that you are a very wise man. You will 

remain silent, and not say anything because the moment you open your mouth, they will recognize 

you for what you are. When learned men come to you, call on me as your student and say, 'Answer in 

my name!'" And so they went, and when they came to the town where the maiden resided, Kasze 

identified the young man as one who was very wise, and acted as his servant. The maiden saw how 

handsome the young man was, promptly fell in love and married him. After the wedding the town 

wondered why they did not hear any discourse. They went so far as to ask the wife why they heard 

nothing from her husband. She repUed, "It is because at night he speaks with angels." Her father and 

her brothers determined to Hsten at night to learn whether it was true but all they heard was nonsense 

while he was sleeping like, 'Hrycko syp-no na kamien!' They rose in fear because they realized his 

reputation was unsupportable. 

This is the way I am with you, guiding you into the weight of silence, so you are not like donkeys 

always braying. 


Pay attention when I guide and push you toward a worthwhile goal, since there was an adversary to 
draw you immediately towards himself to keep you from reaching that place. Now, that you are part 
of the Company, you need not fear the adversary because he can no longer come to you and mislead 
you. Be careful that your hearts and mouths are consistent, and you listen to what I direct. Each time 
and place that you mention my name, I will come and bless you. 


When a man goes courting a maiden whom he loves, his heart and thoughts are always with her; he 
does not pay attention to food, drink or sleep; all his energies and effort focus on her. But I did not 
experience this with you. You only seek to guard your food and drink. As you know, where there is 

greed, there is a Satan who leads you to error. 


When I was young I bought a stone resembling a finger for a pittance. Playing with it, I threw it into 

the water. It gave off light, and I took it out of the water and threw it in the mud. It glowed there as 

well. Again I looked for it and threw it into a scorching oven. It became whiter and had a fiery color, 

still not losing its rays. Later, I sold it cheaply to a merchant at the market. The trader then abandoned 

everything and ran away with the stone. 

The conclusion to be drawn is as follows. When a good stone comes into the possession of one who 
appreciates it, that person is able to become wiser, provided he does not foolishly part with it for 



Should a man without a sword but dressed in armor, be met at night, he will not be bothered but will 
be left alone. However, should the man be met with a sword at his side, his adversaries come 

straightaway at him. 


You believe that I will direct you to do many things. But I will direct only six or seven things be done. 


A strange woman always pursues a man, because she is a net into which one falls, but this young 
Maiden whom we must earn, will be our guardian, in whose shadow we can find shelter. 


I once walked with many people, holding a lantern in my hand. On the way we were accosted by a 

company of soldiers who extinguished the lantern and would take many of the people to prison. I said 

to those with me, "Stand by and watch how I fight for you." The captain came over and asked me 

who I was. I replied, "I am a decent person!" He wanted to hit me but I grabbed his silver stick and 

hit him on the back. He fell off his horse, yelling to the soldiers to go after me. However, the soldiers 

replied, "This man is honest and strong." I saved the thirty-seven people who had been following me. 


While I was swimming across the Prut River, I said to five or six lads, "Hold on to me, one here, 

another there," and so all hung on to me, and I carried them over. One held on without my 

permission, and he fell off. Only after I brought everyone to the other side, did I return and save that 

one as well. 


A fox escaped a hunter by hiding in his foxhole. Once inside he began to praise the parts of his body. 

"Dear head," he said, "how much are you worth that you have the brains to run away! You legs are 

worthy of praise for your readiness to jump; you eyes-that saw the road where to run." He only 
complained of his tail, "I don't need you at all; you even delayed my escape." Saying this, he put his 
tail out of the hole, whereupon, the hunter, seeing it, caught the tail and pulled the fox out of the hole. 


During the elections of Polish kings, noblemen are nominated and one among them will become 
King. The Russian Regent then selected that one among them and made him king.* In the same way, 

you selected other brothers to be leaders. I would put you in a circle around me so you could 

surround me and I would then be hidden among you until the time comes for you to be my subjects. 

For this reason, I put you in front of me so that you can shelter me. You, on the other hand, put me on 

display to the whole world. I tell you, no matter where I would send you, you would receive valuable 

presents that the world does not find within itself. All this is for Her honor because She is the object 

of all honor. Cyrus was likewise appointed a Messiah because all his wars were directed to one 

purpose-to win a Queen named Madana. That was an indication that there will come one who will try 

to clothe the Maiden. She is Madana oylom, the joy of the world. 

* Frank is referring to a period of no more than twenty-five years of Polish history prior to 1795. It is 
not necessary to add that his version is highly simplified but it still casts an interesting light on the 

twilight years of the Polish monarchy. -Editor 


You tell me that you want to serve God. But first, one has to know who is before God, and to try to 

reach Him. 


You have been given into my hands. I may do with you good and bad. Should I wish not to accept 

you, I have the power within my hands to keep you from everything; but if I wish you to approach me 

to be accepted, though you be at the ends of the earth, you will come to me, because everything is in 

my hands. 


I have been sent from a great and powerful place, and I would not need you. However, as the Prophet 

Samuel said, Weszome Szoel wechargeni? "How can I go if I am fearful of Saul-that he should not 

kill me?" I was told, Wejomri lech, kach eglas bokor. "Take one or two calves and tell him that you 

are going to make a sacrifice." So I received you, that I can hide myself from the eyes of the world. 

When you are good, you will be worthy to reach that good which is hidden 


Why do you not liken yourselves to sheep that stand with their heads hanging and eyes cast down? 

They stand all in one place until the shepherd leads them. You were more like goats, which jump 



When the Cossacks were in Poland, Jews sought shelter in Wallachia. Many Jews arrived at the 

Dniester River. Though the Cossacks were pursuing them, they were no longer afraid. So should you 

do. Had you tried to come to a good place, who could pursue you? It is known that one kingdom 

cannot enter another. 


On November 13th, the Lord, who was walking with one of us in the garden, met the late 
Matuszewski and said to him, "Witel, Witel, Don't be afraid. Soon you will be happy." 


I would never put anybody in the Company in charge of you so that he could punish you and make 

you confess before him. I put only Eva above you, as your sister, so you might confess before her, 

and should she punish you with two or three plagues, it is because of the circumstance of there being 

no kingdom. 


It is one thing to follow God, and another to walk along the path where I show the way. 


I was a simpleton and knew only the verse, Szema Israel Adonay Eloheinu, Adonay Echod! Hear 

Israel! "Our God-God is One!" When I was struggling with a bandit, I recited this verse, and as I said 

the word, Echad!-"One!" I cut off his head, saying to myself, "This echod cut off his head." 


Signor Santo called to Him, Ochi hu: "He is my brother," through which was expressed the thought 
that they be brothers. Were you brothers. She would give you a safe haven invisible to other people, 

and would be pleased with you as with the patriarchs, the mothers and those children of Jacob: 
Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon. Now, that you may be worthy to come to Esau and put on this garb, 

you will be treated as a child of Jacob. 


Once a king punished his own children with a switch, and he said, "When my servants see that I 
punish my children, they will fear me and serve me faithfully." 


There will come a time that you see people emerge from my home with beautiful faces and you will 

know what this means. Then, you will be ashamed. 


You must wait for the yeast to settle after it is mixed with a drink, since the liquid is not drunk, yeast 
and all. So it goes with a false teaching. After you have read it, it spreads through your body from 

head to foot. 


If the contributions for me are delayed, I will summon ftrst the woman, Ruchom, and secondly, Sei 

(from their graves), both to reappear as a great statue, dressed in strange garb. The whole town will 

see them and know that they come from the other world. I will order them to eat and drink very little, 

and when the people of the town seek to do harm to them, they will cry out in so terrible a voice that 

fear will paralyze the whole town. Franciszek W. will sit with them continuously, and from time to 

time, they will tell you many things; they also will tell you what happened to you and how you are to 

be judged. However, because you are under my rule, when help arrives for me, I will inform the 

deceased that the beginning of help has arrived. 


The Lord used to say, 'Three kings were talking about the need for peace between their three 
empires, but their efforts failed because the decision came from the mouth of God who decreed that 

terrible bloodshed would occur, such as had not happened since the beginning of the world. 

Wesachsachti am beam, mamlocho bemamlocho, wechol hamaim ishapech ledam. "I will stir nation 

against nation, kingdom against kingdom, and all the waters will turn to blood.'" I told you many 

things in Czestochowa, that you have forgotten because of the confusion among you. If I were to 

reveal one word to you, you would all know what is happening now and what will happen. Your joy 

would then know no bounds. The whole world might be overwhelmed with poverty and despair but 

you will be filled with eternal joy, and from this Krug, a Top will be come to you; that is, you will at 

least get a pot out of it. But it is not possible to reveal how to you now. 

* In the introductory A Note for the General Reader, supra. Dr. Bychowski's article, "Frank In the 
Eyes of Psychiatry," is cited for the spelling of Krug as "Krieg," and Top as "Topf." It would appear 

that while in German, the words Krieg and Krug may have separate meanings, the words have the 
same meanings in Yiddish (as Krieg), so that in Yiddish, there is a play on words that is not possible 
in the German. This may have been one of the instances where Kraushar 'edited' the text of the Book 

of the Words of the Lord. If so, he destroyed the play on words that Dr. Bychowski noted. Dr. 

Bychowski translated the Yiddish "Krieg" as "war" or "casserole." For that reason, the words of the 

last sentence in the text are translated in the foregoing Note as, "You will at least get a pot out of that 

stew," and effort has been made to reflect that play on words in the English translation of Kraushar's 

Polish text. -Editor 

The Lord was singing (in Yiddish(?)]: Lustig wollen wir sein, Konig Messias kommit herein, Licht 

wollen wir anzuden. "Now is the time for us to be merry, the King Messiah is coming, let us array 
ourselves with light." Now, had you been perfect, the time would come for me to send you to all four 
corners of the earth, you and your wives, and you would realize the verse: Jelchu weloi jeofu. "I will 
go, but I will not fly," because you would travel several hundred miles an hour without getting tired; 
and it would be the time for you to save ten thousand souls from God's anger. Then everything would 

be ready for you to leave. First, I would send you to the Jews in this country, then to the Jews of 
Prague and in other countries, to those in Poland, in Brody and in the towns of Lithuania. You would 
ask them to gather in synagogues, and there you would show them two or three lines in the Bible and 

a few lines in the Prophets. You would proclaim to them that in about four weeks everything will 

happen as I say here. I want to sit with you until it does happen. 'When you submit to the rule of the 

Lord who sent us here, you and your wives with all your wealth will be saved.' They will kneel before 

you and kiss the ground and then I would send you among the Gentiles. During that anarchy and 
bloodshed, you would gather here quickly-in one hour, and I would bless you and give you words of 

advice for your mission. There, at the place where you would gather, there would be one standing 
behind you who would tell you what to say. Instead of being a tent for me the entire Company would 

then cover you to shield you from danger. 


I have told you, "At the beginning, when I came to you in Poland, I wanted to reveal the truth to Jews 
and Gentiles." But I was told, "If you do that, everyone will then follow you and be obedient to you. 
You must let yourself be arrested, and make believe that you are a simple one and take God-fearing, 
simple people with you." Then I picked you, telling myself that you would be the chosen ones. Now, 
it is because of you that I am in great difficulties. All the powers are against us, and plot against us, 
and at times are against me. I am weak, and in every place where money is brought to me, it is being 



The patriarchs Moses and Aaron, and all the holy men will come to me in Poland, and the First and 

Second will also be there. I will pay them great respect. All the dead will sit in one place and wear 

garments from the other world. They will appear as they looked in this world, having been called up 

from their resting place. All the dead will listen. Their wish is to tell people in a dream what is to 

happen in this world. In one place, guards are stopping people from coming. Now I am trying with all 

my power to release you from the net into which you have fallen. When my help comes I'll give you 

to God because He is the one who assists those who fall. 


At one time, in my youth, young Jews from Poland came to me in Wallachia to stamp grapes. They 

had never seen grapes before. They asked me, "Where are the grapes?" I led them to the vines and 

they began to gather the grapes. Then I yelled to them, "Here comes the Turk whose vineyards these 

are." They ran away. It is the same way with you. I expected you to gather the grapes, but you 

gathered bitter thorns. 


We must take an example from the world's customs. Everybody seeks out a kingdom, because with it 

comes a king's crown. Jews only pursue Ayalta and seek God. Notice. Among the Ishmaelites 

[Moslems] you cannot reach or pursue Her, because, there, a woman is kept like a slave and locked 

up, and is without respect. However, in this country, maidens and women are respected; even the 

mightiest of noblemen, stands with his head uncovered before a lady and pays her compliments. Here 

we should pursue Her and hide under Her wings. There is the verse: Mipsoraj echze Eloha. "With my 

eyes I see God," as is the custom of the world, especially among Edom [Christians]. Though She had 

never appeared to any man, and no one knows her place. She did enter my home and come into my 

room at Czestochowa. While I spoke to Her of you, I did not find you willing to reach out to Her. 

Because of this you are unworthy, and when She reveals Herself to the world, you will be twenty 

miles away, with a cover on your face. Though your eyes be open and shining, they will not be able 

to see further than twenty miles, and you will be even further behind. 


You will see that I shall enter into a great peace* and from there, I will be shown the way, the 
direction in which to proceed. This will include a caution about everything. 

* The Polish word may mean either chamber or peace and the reader may consider which is the more 

appropriate in the context. -Editor 


On several occasions I have told you: Ish Jehudi hoio. "One man was a Jew." I said, "There was one 

who was selected from among his people," and now I am telling you, "There will come a Jehuda 
without equal in the entire Company, and I will place him before you." Whatever he may say, do it, 
and before the Jews come to me, I will gather you in one place, where no one else is present; I will 

talk to you; whatever I then say, do it. 


Jews have the custom to wear black and at midnight, to fast and mourn the destruction of the Temple. 

You did the same as they did; you fasted and sat on the ground. In that you did not learn from the 

example of King David who, when his child was still alive, fasted and wept, so the child might 

recover, but when the child died, asked, "Why should I fast?" 


Now, you are not among my elect. But when you are to become so, I will put you among my elect. 


Had you adhered to the God whom I wished to show you, you would not have fallen down. The 
people, who were held in prison in Warsaw, trusted my God. This faith saved them from your evil, 

and they departed peacefully. 


The children of Aaron, who brought strange fire to the sacrifice for God, were burned. That deed, 
which happened during their time, cannot be compared with what we pursue at present for Her. 


It is known to you that each human being is created as two persons. It was said: Ese eizer kenegdo. "I 

will make him a helper according to his wish." This means: "If you are worthy, you will be among his 

helpers; if not, you will be among his foes." Those are the two aspects of character: one is human, 

and the second is animal. For this reason Nebuchadnezzar was told, "You will lose your human 
aspect, and you will live with wild animals," meaning, that the human aspect was taken from him, 

and he was left with an animal one. 

When a man tries and works and moves on from the place from which he has departed, he is helped 

so that he is able to reach a degree of human wholeness. 

You, on the other hand, turned around and behaved like snakes and for that reason, you remained like 

animals. On what should prayer rest? Blessing can only rest on the good that is found in man. For this 

reason, the blessing that Isaac gave to Jacob was not realized because it did not have any foundation 

on which to rest, and it will only be realized at the end of days. 


One should not remember the word Schehinah, but rather the name of the Maiden, as it is proclaimed 
by Gentiles. Until now, it was said secretly, "Lady," but it should be said openly. Because of Her, the 

whole world will be increased. 


You are aware that from the beginning of the world a snake has surrounded the treasure and it is 

impossible to approach it except with a wise leader who knows the secret of approaching it. This 

snake will not do any harm unless it is stepped on its head, then it kills with its venom. 


The people called me to the community so that I could be called a brother and take from them 

brothers and sisters, and they can proclaim: Gili bas Zion, "Be happy, daughter of Zion!" I took you 

from among the people, so that you were chosen, and did not have to wait to be recognized. I took 

you, but you did not want to be taken. To this, the late Matuszewski said, "Are we the whole world? 

Let the people praise you!" The Lord, angry, exclaimed, "I say, I chose you to be the carriers of good 

news,' and you tell me, 'Let the people praise you!'" 


Moses said: Kwad pe ukwad loszon onochi, "I have difficulty in speaking." But he talked a lot. 
Likewise, I am dumb—there is no talk. Among the Gentiles I am dumb, among Jews I am dumb, and 

among believers, I am also dumb. From the day that I entered upon my task, I did not reveal one 

word to anybody; and there is nothing more difficult than to keep from talking. I have much to reveal, 

but looking at this in a different way, I have not found a man to whom I could reveal the message. 


Coming back from Salonika with Rabbi Nussen and Jakubowski, and being in Roman for the first 

time, we spent a few days there with my father. Jakubowski said to my father, "Here I have come 

from a great city and I must wonder that you, being a knowledgeable person, don't ask me what I 

learned there." To this my father replied, "I will tell you the truth. Nothing will come to me from that. 

It is like asking, 'What's happening in the sky?' Of what use is this information to me? In my eyes, it 

is all nonsense. Better that you tell me what is to happen in this world of mine." My father had been 

inquisitive in his youth and had sought out knowledge, but in the end, after our teacher Nussen had 

revealed to him certain secrets of love, nothing else meant anything to him. 


It happened that in several different towns people had a dream that, not far from them, there was a 
place where there was a man who was the Messiah. Many rabbis fasted trying to learn the town. One 

rabbi was told the name of the town. He went there and begged the Messiah to allow the rabbi to 

come and speak to him. The Messiah replied that the man had to do penance first and advised him 

how many fasts were required. The man tried but was not able to meet the requirement that had been 

set because the penance was too difficult. He sent a note to the Messiah saying that due to weakness 

he could not perform the penance. The Messiah told the man indirectly that had he been worthy to see 

the Messiah, he would be able to complete the trials, but because he was not, he could not see the 



There was a barrel maker in a town whom the town council exiled to another place. As he was 

leaving the town, the barrel maker noticed that the peasant who was to take him away, did not cross 

himself. He told the peasant, "You have to take me back to town." Upon their return, he went to the 

town elder and said, "I don't want to travel with this peasant because I am afraid he will kill me." The 

elder asked the barrel maker, "What is wrong with him?" The Jew replied, "If he does not follow his 

own religion, I believe he'll kill me." Now, you have lost my regard for you because you carry a 
sword which everyone carries. With my sword, I can't gird you. 


Isaac blessed Esau by saying: Al charbecho tychnie. "Live by your sword." If so, why has he died? 


It says in Scriptures of Moses' curse: Jakecho Adonay beszygoon ubeiworon betimhon Iwow. "God 

will punish with blindness, madness, and darkness of heart." This curse applies to you, your beliefs 

and the teachings that you have accepted thus far, because you used to say that the Compass of all 

Compasses does not look on this world as if only an ordinary Tipheres created this world and watches 
over it. Who of you has been Tipheres, and who, who saw that a compass point has no effect? Did 

you not say in your prayers, "Who will die in water, who from a sword, from fire, from hunger, etc." 
It is better for you to have asked and prayed not to be punished. 

You were mired in your superstitions and while you have progressed, you have not forgotten your 

superstitions. You said that the Messiah would be a man and other such nonsense. I, on the other 

hand, told you that I would show you God, but none of you took it to heart and followed me. Because 

of you, I suffer greatly. 


You tell me: Joducho amim kulom. "Let the Gentiles praise you." Is our trust to be placed in this? I 

told you in Iwan, "Just as when a strong knight shakes a tall young tree, all the branches shake and 

break off, so all the Gentiles will tremble ... You know that kad ant istalek minhon isztanin kegufe 

belo niszmoso. "When you walk away from them, they will remain like a body without a soul." 

And this is what it means: Jom nokom belibi. "The day of revenge is in my heart." Do you pay 
attention that God needs recognition and praise? Your talk was like the wind and means nothing, 

because you don't know anything. 


When I was thirteen, I brought poultry to Okno to slaughter for the Holiday of Shavuot. I started back 

at midnight, and after the dawn had already come up, I noticed a burning treasure. The flame of the 

fire was white. I got off the horse and with a sword in hand, I thought I would throw bread at the fire 

and take the treasure. When I came closer, I saw a big black horse. He was about to kick me. I drew 

the sword to cut off his head. The horse became frightened and turned to me. His head was like a 

burning oven and he had terrible teeth. I did not fear him and wanted to kill him. He became bigger 

and more terrible with every minute. I understood this was the devil, and I continued on my way. 

Over and over, I have warned you to have a brave heart as it is said: Acher Adonay jehalechu. "Have 

a lion's heart and fear for nothing." 


I tell you, 'Until they do not require you to wear a sword, you shall not be able to enter Edom 

[Christian society].' 


At thirteen, I was staying with my mother in the village of Faraom. There, people used to say one 
could hear the voice of a scarecrow in the mountains. I climbed a tall mountain and began to yell in a 

loud voice until I was heard throughout the village over a mile and a half away. Then I saw the 

scarecrow. He was like a little man, naked, all red, like blood. His eyes burned like torches, his hair 

was red, falling on his shoulder. While many people died from my voice, he ate people, cattle and 



Once, I saw a tall tree in a valley nestled in the mountains that was higher than all those in the forest. 
It had branches and leaves of pure gold, that were large as platters. I tried to find the tree but did not 
succeed. The boys from the village said that many in the past had made the effort to find the tree but 

that they did not succeed either, because it could only be seen from afar. Once a shepherd without 
looking for it, found a leaf made of pure gold. There is no doubt that a large treasure is in the ground 

where the tree was growing.* 

* The last sentence is a conclusion based on a pre-rationalist, deductive inference. The scientific 
method, of course, would require that a plant be placed in a container that included gold among its 

contents to see if the plant in any way ingested the gold-in order, through experiment, to check 
whether the hypothesis was indeed correct. Inductive reasoning, per se, was alien to Frank's mode of 

thought. -Editor 


Why didn't you learn from Abraham, your father? When he came to Egypt and was approaching the 

King, he asked his wife to say that she was his sister and he her brother. When one comes to a place 

of great power, one must associate himself with brothers and sisters. For this reason, when I was in 

Poland the last time, in 1756, 1 did not come close to kings and for that reason I did not need brothers 

and sisters. In 1759, when coming again and wanting to approach kings, I did as did Abraham. I 

made you as brothers and sisters, but when I came to Warsaw, you abandoned me. You did not want 

to listen to my words. I saw that I would be separated from you. Had you stood with me, I would 

have eaten at the Royal table then. 


Like Kara Mustafa who was in Chocim with Kiaja, saying that he was visiting the Pasha, and was 
amusing him so that he was laughing and Kiaja responded, "It is impossible, because the guards will 
not let in anyone to see the Pasha." Yet, in spite of it, he assured her that it was beyond question, and 

when he was asked to describe the appearance of the face of the man to whom he had spoken, she 

recognized that it was Pasha's major-domo whom he had described. In the same way, you seek and 

you pray, but you don't know who it is whom you are addressing. 


If I could discover why Abraham went to Egypt, you would run away from my home. 


What new thing was given to the world by all the wars and the bloodshed that have happened thus 
far, even the invasion of Chmiel? Everything is hidden as before. But when the wars and the 
bloodshed begin, God will appear in the world, and a new revelation will come to the world. 


A prince once went to far-off lands seeking wisdom. He had with him a few servants, a governess, 

and a treasure consisting of valuable jewels. Eventually, he spent everything he had and nothing 

remained. They went on in the wilderness with only a piece of bread they kept hidden for the prince. 

Poor and hungry, they found a stream of water; walking along its bank, they noticed a box that was 

very soiled, floating in the water. One servant said to another, "Push the box out into the stream 

because it is unpleasant to look at." The prince, upon hearing that, said, "Bring me the box!" They 

took it out of water, opened it, and in it they found another box, and in the second one, another one, 

more beautiful. In all, they found five boxes, one inside the other. In the fifth box they found keys, a 

ring and many things having the power to realize whatever a man might wish for. The prince directed 

that they reach a populated town and soon they arrived there. Take note that a royal seed 

accompUshes a successful result though servants may resent it. You read in Scriptures: Al tistaleel 

belcanlcan elo bema szejesz boo "Don't look at the dish but what's in it." Now, how could your heart 

not feel its tie to me? 


An old Turk who lived in Czerniow, went to sea. The ship was about to sink. It is a Turkish custom at 

a time like that, that one promises a korban, an offering, for the storm to cease, and so the old Turk 

promised to give my father three hundred Lew after a safe return home. As he spoke the words, the 

storm quieted down. Upon his return home, he immediately carried out his promise, and always 

respected my father. 


Polish Jews know more than you do. They knew something through me when I performed an act 

among them in 1756. 1 was afraid to expose my deeds before you because I showed them something 

in the book with the title: En Jankiew, "The Eye of Jacob, and I explained one verse alone to the rabbi 

in Busk. 


You have read what is said: Assido Thora niszkachas miisrael*."It is as a relic that Israel will be said 

to be remembered." You have been chosen for the future. 

* The Hebrew quoted by Frank may be translated as "in the future the Torah will be forgotten in 
Israel." Frank has transposed that to suggest that it is Israel rather than the Torah that will become 

obsolete. -Editor 


It says clearly: Meafsos iwem ewion. "God will resurrect me from death." 


I wanted to make you into nobles, as it is written clearly: Asisiho rosz lesarim, behol haarec. "Make 

them into lords throughout the whole world." All this will come to pass naturally because you would 

pick up treasures from all sides, and you would buy goods, and you would be noblemen. Now She is 

in poverty and disgrace. I thought that you would be able to support her but now a man must come 

from the Gentiles to raise Her from Her disgrace. But he will not be able to realize the injunction, "Be 

merry, daughter of Zion," because he would know nothing of it. Had he known that She is the 

daughter of Zion, he would not raise her, but God will do it in a manner befitting Her. 


I tell you, even though I was in a difficult situation, if the Emperor were to give me all his countries 
and treasures, I would not have led him to the same valuable place where I wanted to lead you. Had I 
shown you the place where I am going, you would dismiss all the treasures of the world, and though 

threatened with death you would not surrender that place. 


I had a neighbor in Bucharest who was a tanner. He tanned white sheep skins to black. I asked him, 
"Why don't you tan from black to white?" He replied, "That is not human work; only God can do 


1251. 1 had a grandfather whose name was Rabbi Isaac Jurier. At one time, a young lady came to 

KaHsz. When she saw my grandfather's strength, she went home and had all the Jews imprisoned so 

he could be brought before her immediately. My grandfather had to go to her. She tested his strength 

by asking him to move a piece of gold as large as a mill stone. He moved it from the place where it 

was. Then she asked if he could raise it from the ground. He asked for a heavy rope, tied it around the 

stone, then he stood on a high ground and lifted the gold with his own strength. 


No one can tell the daughter of Zion: Gili meod has Zion. "Be merry, O daughter of Zion," except the 
Lord over the other Lords who are subject to him and obedient to him. Only such a Being can tell her 
so. I wanted to make you, whom I picked from all the nations, into lords but you did not want to be so. 


I told you in Iwan, Chochom enow beroszo. "A wise man has eyes in his head." Does that mean that a 
stupid person has dust on his feet? I gave you to understand that if you wish to undertake something 

with your mind, imagine how it will turn out. 


At night on December 3rd, the Lord said, "On December 4, Wednesday, a messenger will go from me 
to Warsaw, and on Thursday, December 5th, the New Year will begin for the Orthodox [Church]." 


King David truly said, Niflo no bejad Adonay u bejad odom al ofolo. "It is better to fall into the hand 

of God than of man." There was once a prince who, the astrologers foretold when he was born, would 

die from thunder when he reached fourteen years of age. The prince was handsome, wise and trained 

in royal customs and as he approached his fourteenth birthday, the King asked his minister for advice 

to save the prince from thunder. The minister advised the King to dig a cave under a large mountain 

and to build a double ceiling one above the other so as to weaken the violence of the thunder. In this 

way the prince could be saved. And so it was done. The King sent his son with a guardian to settle in 

the cave. When Prince's fatal birthday came, all left the prince, even the guardian who loved the 

prince like himself. The Prince remained alone, upset and thought, "Dear God! God! Where will I 

hide before you? If I am destined to die, even though I would hide under the sea, your hand would 

reach me. It is better I hide not from you, and go under the open sky." Thereupon, he walked out, 

closing the cave, and offered himself to God. God was merciful with him. Thunder was heard and 

lightening struck the cave, destroying it, while the Prince remained alive outside it. This is how the 

man, who trusts in God, is blessed. 


While we were yet in the town of Iwan, I told you that there is a country where, before a king may be 

crowned, he must sit for three days and nights on an ordinary chair while above his head a sharp 

sword hangs by a thread. If the sword falls and kills him, this is a sign that he was not worthy of the 

throne, but if he lives, the kingdom belongs to him. I have told you, "A sharp sword is always 

hanging over your heads by a thread." And you were not careful. 


For a long time you were ready to follow me, as it is said: Ma szeiro leJankiew iro leJosef. "What 
happened to Jacob, also happened to Joseph. "But where do we find that Jacob was imprisoned for a 

few years like Joseph? Where do we find that Jacob was hated as greatly as the way his brothers 

hated Joseph? Surely it was a sign for us, that his brothers hated him so much. Now, you ask among 

yourselves, 'What wrong did I do you?' I did not place any burden on you heavier than you had the 

strength and mind to carry. I told you about the Baalekaben. For a long time it was clearly said 
among you that was in the old times, during the days of great men, and that those received money 
from them. I told you about El Shadday, and you could not take that path. That is the Gate to God. 

Except for that path one cannot enter. 


I told you in Iwan about a doctor who kept telling the sick, "If you don't want to die, eat this, not that; 

drink this and not that." Then, another doctor came and he lectured the sick even more, reminding 

them, "If you don't want to die like your first doctor, don't eat or drink that." I am the second doctor. 


I will send you to all the Jews with an announcement that when the war comes, they should be ready 
by learning military skills, and this requires that women and children not be lazy. No one who listens 

to my advice, will die. 


Is it possible to descend a ladder, if one does not climb up from a lower step to a higher step, as it is 
said in Jacob: Wehine Malache Elohim olim wejordym bo. "Angels climbed up the ladder, and then 
descended." I did the same. I must go from the bottom to the top, from one step to another, from one 

crown to another.* I revealed to you that God appeared to Abraham as El Szaday, that He is like a 

Sched [i.e., a demon], because he is the first gate of entry, and they are the guardians at the gate. I 
wanted to show them to you clearly so you could have power over them. They would serve you 

everywhere, wherever you might want to go - without any injury from the air: even one thousand 

miles a day. They would be under your feet, and it would be for you as it is said: Jelchu welo ieoju, 

ierocu weloi igou. "They will go, but will not fly; they will run but will not be exhausted. "-I was told 

of the fact that the arithmetic equivalent of the sum of the Hebrew letters in the name-Sabbatay Zewi- 

is Ruach Szekier "a false soul." I replied, "The word 'Moses' has the numerical equivalent of Elohim 

ahereim, 'Alien Gods.'" But I tell you, though he may have the same number, he came to heal the 
condition. We also came to heal the false soul, because those bearing it, also await improvement and 

we must unite with them. 

*The Zohar describes the Sefirot, the Divine emanations from Ain Sof, the ultimate, unknowable 
Divine Core or Essence, as 'crowns.' 5 Zohar 66 (Soncino Ed.), 70a (Mantua Ed.)- Editor 


You read that when Moses was a child and given to Pharaoh, two dishes were placed in front of him, 

one with gold, and the second with fire, and he was observed at a distance to see on which dish he 

would put his hand. In the same way I test each man to see which road he will take. I have told you 

which is the path and which is the main road, and I told you that we should take the path which 
opened recently and that no one has yet taken. How could you find it by yourself? 


Do you know the holy snake that guards the garden whose path is not known to any bird? You ask: 

Ma lenachasz began Eden? "What does the snake do in the Garden of Eden [that is Paradise]?" She is 

that, She, the snake in the Garden of Eden [that is Paradise], and he who is worthy to touch it, will 

live life eternal. 


You gave yourself names, and everyone boasted of it. But what came of it? You have to wait for the 

names decided by God. 


Baalekaben were very much like us, well educated. For some reason, they were thrown out of this 

world, and their legs were removed. They had wives from this world, and these gave birth to children. 

Now there are many of them. The same thing happened with Scheydim. Who created them? I can't 

tell you. Had this been told to you, you would see how we would walk. Scheydim also took wives 

from this world and for this reason do good for people.* 

13 The Zohar identifies shedim as 'demons,' and these have been so regarded in conventional Jewish 
thought. See, e.g., 1 Zohar 39, 60 (Soncino Ed). 9b. 14b (Mantua Ed.). Frank is suggesting that he is 

able to harness their demonic powers to benefit himself and his followers(!) -Editor 


What person can uplift another? Only God alone can do this. I did not come to do this. I wanted to 

lower you to the bottom of the depths of the abyss. From there, no person can raise himself. Only 

God can reach down and with his power lift them from the depths and place them on the heights from 

which descent is unimaginable. * 

14 Frank's words reflect the tenet of Sabbataian theology that postulates the necessity of the apostate 
messiah's descent into the netherworld to reclaim the Divine 'sparks' as to restore these to Ain Sof, the 

Divine Essence and thereby bring about a Divine stasis, the Tikkun 01am. -Editor 


I told you in Iwan that there is a curtain before the door of kings. 

First, the curtain is opened and only then, the door. All precious things are hidden in boxes. With 
your own eyes you all can see the curtain. This means the religion in which we are at present. His 

name is Ischua, his mother's name is the Lady and there is the name of the Father. They say in the 
Jewish way: Awrom lo idainu, Israel lo koronu, ato Adonai owinu. "We don't know about Abraham, 

Israel does not count. You, God, are 'our Father.'" We openly need to know their names and hide 

under their wings. * You, on the other hand, are like a crab, turning back to what was Jewish, and fall 

down. From this day on, you must go and rise to de noriter, following what God told Abraham: 

Weescho lego godol. "I will make you into a great nation." 

* Frank is here, perhaps unconsciously, using the imagery of the memorial prayer for those deceased 

that includes the words, 'the souls of the departed rest under the wings of the Shekhinah.' -Editor 


In Warsaw, that royal city, I surrounded you from all sides, like a wise man who makes a circle 

around himself so that nothing should harm him. * 

* If the hypothesis suggested earlier is correct-that Frank felt compelled to leave Warsaw after his 

return from thirteen years of imprisonment in the fortress at Czestochowa because he was haunted by 

fears of recognition by rehgious authorities who remembered that he had been sentenced to life 

imprisonment for heresy and who could thereupon cause him to be reincarcerated— then it follows 

that this Saying is a species of unconscious wish fulfillment that at the same time gives expression to 

the power and might one would expect of a messiah. -Editor 


We must go to the abyss; everyone must have the heart of a Hon to fear nothing, because I shall lead 



Jews, who undergo baptism, convert to the reUgion but do not reach Daas. And you at present have 

undergone baptism but have not come to Daas. 


People say that the world is as large as the distance from earth to heaven. From heaven to earth one 

has to walk Five hundred years. So, to circumvent all the world should take that time. But in reality it 

is not so, because all geographers testify that the whole world can be circled, traveling from end to 

end, in four or five years. However, if you remember those secret worlds that I revealed to you, that 

are covered with a curtain, it is true-one has to travel Five hundred years. * 

* In this saying. Frank has no perception of the world enjoined by a rationaUst cognizance of reaUty 
and directs his followers to think in terms of dimensions consistent with incorporeal reaUty. His 
immediate followers presumably were able to accept what Frank asked of them, most probably 

because it comported with the perception of reaUty contemporaneous with the society into which they 
had been born. It was their children who were unable to entertain that exercise of cognition because 

the world into which the children were born, was not the generation into which their parents had been 

born, and theirs had differing perceptions of reality. -Editor 


When kings do battle with each other, they do not seek to defeat the simple soldiers but rather to 

conquer the leaders. Once the leaders are defeated, the whole body of soldiers falls into the 

conqueror's hands. I received you as brothers and as elders of the Company and I guarded you more 

than the rest of the Company. While you may only guard yourselves, you made the whole Company 

your brothers. 


Egyptians used to say to Pharaoh, "Do you know that Egypt is fading away?" It is true that it still 
exists and is the best of all countries, because there is no rain, snow, nor wind. So it is stated clearly: 

Kegan Adonay keerec Micrain. "God's garden is like Egypt." 


When I first came to Poland, to you, you saw with your own eyes that all my deeds were done in the 

open. Though you were saying that you were instructed to let your progress be in secret, I told you 

the opposite, "Let it be known to the whole world." If the thing is bad, let it be quickly destroyed, if 

there be a good faith, ~ who can spoil it? When I came to Lanckoron, there songs were sung at night 

behind covered windows. I went and opened the window so the songs could be heard. Though I was 

arrested, I did not pay any attention to it. In the same way, when I returned from Wallachia to 

Kopyczyniec with Rabbi Iszyje from Lviv, I deliberately broke the March Fast (Purim) openly by 

walking out into the street where I deliberately ate jam. I also ordered a meal prepared at midday with 

the house open. Though I sat in prison for seven days, I did not care. I wanted all to be in the open. In 

Iwan, I ordered songs sung openly before everyone, and who would oppose it? When my time comes, 

everything that I do must be known to everybody. The whole world will see it, and those far away 

will hear about it. You, on the other hand, did it in secret, and what did you gain by it? 


I was once at a flour mill where I noticed a devil dressed in clothes of a German style. I saw that he 
was holding up the stone so it did not grind. I did the same with my strength. Later I saw that he was 
holding up a wheel so it did not turn in the water. I also wanted to stop this wheel, but the mill owner 
warned me not to aggravate the devil. Later I wrestled with the devil. He wanted to throw me into the 
fire. I became stronger and wanted to throw him into the fire. As long as we wrestled, we did not 
make a hole in the ground. The devil wanted to throw me under the water wheel located under the 
mill. I also wanted to throw him there. I grabbed the hat from his head and gave it to a young man to 

hold. He pulled the hat back with great force and ran away. 


There is no need for the sound of a trumpet in Turkey because nothing is created there, and no sound 

may be heard. It is only in those countries, like Poland, where there is a need to announce sounds to 

all the world, as it is said, "At midnight*, evil will come to everything that sits on earth." The first 

sound means: Thekia-he is splitting; Theruahe is breaking; Scheworim-he is breaking it into 

fragments.** So you should have waited for me-the Master-so I could make a trumpet for you that 

you could proclaim the three voices, that state clearly, 'Blessed be the people who know what Therua 

means. You would let Jews know about the spilling of blood, about the terrible day of judgement. 

You would show this-what is to happen to them~in the Bible, in the Prophets, and in the prayer 

books they have, where it is clearly set out. Great fear would overcome them, fright would capture 

them and they would recognize that your words are true. Then they would bow down before you and 

kiss the ground, and you would have saved one thousand times ten thousand of them. At this 

moment, all of them will receive baptism by blood and not with water. 

* The Polish word may mean alternatively 'midnight' or 'north.' The Zohar observes that "at the 
division of the night, the north wind bestirred itself and the Holy One. blessed be He, executed 
judgement" [on the Egyptian first-born]. 5 Zohar 204 (Soncino Ed.), 49a (Mantua Ed.) -Editor 

** It may be noted that Frank has appropriated the terms given to the modes for the blowing of the 

Shofar on the High Holy Days~the period of human penitence and Divine forgiveness of sin in the 

Judaic liturgical calendar. This would have resonances of memory for his followers, but not for their 

children.- Editor 


It was said, "God appeared to Abraham as El Szadday, but I did not tell them My name, Jehora, 
because El Szadday is more precious than my name Jehora." * 

* i.e., Jehovah. -Editor 


Moses was told, "Remove your shoes," but he was not told, "Go away from here." I let you 
understand by this that if you would come to that precious place where I wanted to lead you, no one 

could ever order you to leave it. 


Whoever would look at my deeds and the way in which I proceed, would say I follow a crooked road 

because the human mind is not able to encompass it. It would seem to me also that in another way it 

should be praiseworthy. When I understand the end result of the deed will be beautiful in the eyes of 

everybody, I proceed, step by step, and it does not matter how my deeds may appear in the doing. 


The palaces to which God is leading me are called the Holy Domain. The guard at that place is very 

powerful and terrible. He is the guard of Esau, because the more impressive the treasure, the stronger 

is its guard. You will see him with your own eyes. There, you will notice that all your laws were silly. 

There, you must be careful not to do violence to the body, soul, or dress, because you may, God 

forbid, fall into danger. There, you will understand and, in the process, perceive the stone on which 

Jacob stood to pour oil on Her head. Nothing should be said nor should you think about it, just follow 

me! We must go there through the love of the Royal Daughter, because he who endangers his Ufe, is 

the one who achieves eternal life? * 

* This subordinate clause is an odd precursor of the message Nietzsche gives to Zarathustra in Also 
Spracht Zarathustra when he eulogizes the acrobat who fell from the high rope to his death. -Editor 


While a man is able to experience joy and happiness, this feeling eventually turns to sadness. On the 

other hand, I tell you that you may now be in poverty and need but at the end, everything will change 

into happiness; you will see with your own eyes that God is guiding us. 


It says clearly, "The righteous live by their faith." This verse applies to you. When I sat in prison in 
Czestochowa and the whole world was saying that I would not leave the prison, the believers should 
have had faith that as I had entered the prison so that I could go free. They should have trusted Holy 
Mercy to cause my release. As I sit in this country, you must trust that I will leave for the rich places 
to which God leads me. In the same way, all kings wish for peace, but I say, that war will come. My 

words don't change. 


I did not want to burden my daughter in Czestochowa with the study of languages, to be taught Italian 

and French to no avail. But now that I settled here, in this country, I had to have her learn languages 

because she has to go among Gentiles, to talk with them in their language and read their writings. 


A king once kept a fortress under siege but could not take it. He announced that whoever took the 

town would receive his daughter for a wife together with half his kingdom. A country bumpkin came 

along and looked over the area. He circled round the walls, then went to the king and said, "Put eight 

hundred men whom I shall pick under my command." After he had selected the men, he addressed 

them, saying, "Don't give me any advice. Walk silently behind me step by step and don't ask 

questions." He then requested the king to continuously bombard the fortress for three days to weaken 

the defenders. Under cover of night the bumpkin went to the fortress wall with his small force, and 

they waded through the opening that carried sewage from the town. Reaching the top of the wall, they 

killed many of the defenders. The king, hearing of their exploit, attacked the fortress and took it. 


It was recorded in ancient books that many kings and others sought a stone in the image of a woman, 
but only one in a thousand ever returned from the quest. Nowadays, one does not hear much about it 
because the roads to it are overgrown with weeds; yet, thousands of people still go through the brush, 

seeking the carving. I know the place where it is located: the mountain and the country. Rabbi 

Issachar used to tell me that it was written in ancient books that he who could unite with her, would 

cause her to open her eyes and look at him with a very special feeling. 


Man was not created by a true and good God, because a true and good God wishes good for all living 

things, especially people. He wants man to be complete as is said, "Let us create man," which means, 
he should be created complete. All living things including cattle and birds, everything will go to a 
higher level than at present. For this reason, I tell you, leaders must be without religious scruples.* 

This means they must have the power to capture the living tree, Elone dechaie, that is, the tree of life. 

We must go after a tree and not after its branches because all the branches will be cut off, as it is said: 
Beram, ikier, etc. "It came about that the root started up from the ground." 

* These sentences may be said to reflect Sabbataian theology in that in a different eon (Shemita), 
initiated by the advent of the Messiah, a different Divine Emanation (Sefirah) would control the 
doings of the world, and thereby a different system of rules of conduct would apply, the older system 
of rules having been superceded in the process. It may be noted that, while the ultimate conclusion is 
unacceptable, i.e., a moral relativism-or nihilism — (that, injustice, never went so far as to encompass 
the mass murder of Twentieth Century Central European moral relativism), the reader may consider 
that the theosophic conceptualization by itself is marvelously imaginative. -Editor 


I sent the following words to you, the brothers and sisters, from Czestochowa through the daughter of 

Franciszka Wolowski, "Two winters await one summer." 


Once in my youth, on the Day of Atonement, a Jew came to me and began to excuse himself. I was 

surprised that he would seek my pardon, considering that I never had anything to do with him. The 

following year, I went to him before the Day of Atonement and beat him up so badly that they had to 

take him to the synagogue in a cart. I persuaded two elderly Jews in Bucharest to come with me to 

seek the man's pardon. I was asked, "Why did you beat him up?" and I replied, "Last year he asked 

for forgiveness from me for no reason; this year I beat him up so he will not have to ask for 

forgiveness for nothing." Everyone who heard it laughed very loudly. So do you. Did you beat me up 

that now you ask for forgiveness? 


I ask you, "Why is sea water salty?" Just as you don't know, neither does anyone in the world know 

what the good God must do in the world. 

When the doctor writes out a prescription, he sends it to the pharmacy. The pharmacist directs his 
apprentice to mix the medicine according to the prescription and to be careful not to mix in any 

substance not included in it. In the same way, you should listen to me and do as I say, because, as I 
told you, I came to heal the whole world.* I chose you as my brothers and you direct the entire 

Company to do what is true in the Holy eyes. A man, planning to build a home, must have large as 

well as small stones, so as to be able to mix both kinds. 

* These last words may be said to reflect the Lurianic Kabbalist concept of the tilckun, the restoration 

of the stasis of the Divine equilibrium by the restoration of the Divine sparks to Ain Sof, the ultimate, 

unknowable Divine Essence from whence those emanated. - Editor 


I tell you: Jacob was the best among our fathers since he changed right-handedness to left- 

handedness, and vice- versa. In the same way, once again, Jacob will change brothers and sisters from 

there to here, and from here, there. On the other hand, you did everything according to your will, 

without thought or awareness of the consequences. 


Once a Jew from Poland came to Istanbul where he collected a debt of a few hundred ducats. He then 

went to the seashore and purchased rare spices cheaply from a ship's crewman such as nutmeg, bay 

leaves, cloves and ten others with like fragrances. He put these in a sack. Then he bought a sack of 

pepper and hid the rare spices in the sack of pepper covering the top and smearing it with tar and 

asphalt. In so doing, he managed to get the tar over himself and his clothes so that he smelled from 

the foul substance. He then left with the sack for Poland in a beat-up buggy and three horses that had 

seen better days. When he came to the royal guards who collect custom duties, he kept them away 

with his smell. They asked him, "What goods do you have?" He replied, "I carry pepper." He paid 

custom duties on the pepper, bringing home the rare spices from which he made a large profit. 


Had I received baptism with water in Lviv I would have told you: Ad kan! "Until now" ... But from 
today on, it will be: Massedoyme. "The weight of silence." Put a lock on your mouth. 


In short, I tell you, the days move on and pass away. If you wish to change, listen to me. Drop, shove 
aside, all your learning and your laws, as well as all the ideas you ever had. Follow me into water and 

fire, step by step. Have the courage of a lion. Only then, will you accomplish a good thing. I don't 
walk, but run, after a special Maiden, the one who leads me. After her, I run. Until now, you believed 

that Messiah was a man, but Israelites have no Messiah who is a man. She is to be addressed as the 
First Hke the Schechina, yet sot deytoda estu eczu. Amosz /ramus in el eczu: the secret those things 
seek out, is laid bare as those things. All that will be made clear. Soon the Maiden will appear to the 

world, and before Her all earthly kings will bow and kneel. 


You ask me that your children not get sick. Tonight, the Devil was showing me your signatures. You, 
each of you, sold your children to him. If you wish me to, I will order him to come here immediately 
so he can settle up with you. I feel sorry for you because, should you see him, God forbid, you would 

faint from fear, and soil yourselves. 


There was once a king who ordered his heralds to proclaim throughout the land that whoever brought 

him something that had never before been seen in the world, would be richly rewarded. One person 

brought the king a needle. Everyone was surprised that this craftsman would dare to bring so simple a 

thing. The king thought there must be a reason why he brought this needle. Unscrewing it, he found 

in it a thinner needle. Everyone was surprised. The craftsman said, "0 King! Take this thin needle and 

unscrew it and you will fmd in it something unique." The king unscrewed it and found a needle of 

such thinness as was unbelievable. So, everyone began to admire the miracle and it was given to the 

Treasurer for safe keeping. Then, there came a glass blower. He brought a glass goblet that was as 

clear as the blue sky. The king could not stop admiring the clarity of the glass, but people present 

thought that this was nothing unusual since there was such glass in the world already. Suddenly, the 

glassmaker said, "Lord! Throw the glass to the ground with all your might and break it." The king 

replied, "It is a pity to destroy such nice glass." The master responded, "Don't spare it as I have 

another one for you as a present." The king threw the glass to the ground but it did not break. It only 

bent so that the opening came together and flattened. The craftsman left the room for a moment, fixed 

the goblet and returned it to the king who in turn ordered it to be taken to the Treasury. 


The rabbi in the town of Zolkwi, Isaac Kadaner, was excommunicated. He had to go to the 
synogogue and give a sermon openly cursing the First One (Sabbatai [Zevi]). He began the sermon 
with the following words, "Don't be happy, my enemies! Though I have fallen, I'll get up again!" I 

heard of his downfall, but of his getting up no. 


You know that Jacob's petition came in the evening,* and this entreaty is made freely. At every place 

he goes and enters, he changes what is an obligation to freedom. In the same way, you saw with your 

own eyes that at Czestochowa during the [Christian] fast, I gave you leave to eat meat, and though I 

was accused before the priest that I was not keeping the fast, I did what was right. 

* In traditional Judaism, the Patriarch Jacob is held to have instituted evening prayer.- Editor 


One winter in my youth, guests came to us. At night, everyone told one another fairy tales. When my 

turn came, someone said, "Jacob, could you tell us a story?" I answered, "Once, I was a sailor at sea 

with people who went down into the depths of the sea, to retrieve pearls and coral from the bottom." I 

was asked, "How does this happen?" I replied, "You must have a chamber made of clear glass that 

has a grappling iron made also from glass, with an iron cap. A man sits inside and they lower him to 

the bottom. Through the glass he sees where pearls and corals grow. He picks these up with grappling 

irons, then they pull him up." 

It is the same with you. On your own, you entered a deep sea.Beforehand, why didn't you look to see 

how to escape the depths? 

1506. Your ancestors said: 

KiMoschiach ben Jossef beture de Roime weoschore weoser. "The Messiah sits at the gates of Rome, 

binding and unbinding," even though it was told you that for the Jews, there is no Messiah. God 
forbid, that you must hope for a Messiah who is a man. They saw, but did not understand what they 

saw. I am the one who walks before Her and guards Her. I am the one who endures great pain 
because of my great love for Her, towards Whom my eyes are always turned. It is I who is binding 

and unbinding, as you can see with your own eyes. 


I told you repeatedly, and you questioned it, that Jehovah promised Jeremiah the Prophet that He 

would be His fortress. His iron column and His copper wall, protecting him against the kings of 

Judah. "No one will conquer you because I am with you," God said. "I will encompass you!" Now, a 

man passed by who hit Jeremiah. Jeremiah cursed the day he was born. In chapter 2:8, it says, "They 

took Jeremiah and threw him into a pit, where there was clay; Jeremiah sank in the clay." Now 
consider who it was who sent Jeremiah there and sent me to Poland? I was told, "Don't be afraid. No 

man will put his hand on you. And you saw with your own eyes that when I sat in prison in 
Kopyczyne and Lanckoron, while all the believers were bound in chains and beaten, no one raised his 
hand at me. I wanted to hide you under a tree whose branches and fruits grew in great abundance, and 

you went and hid under a bare tree without leaves. 


You ask me, "Who are the two Ladies of the Baalekaben?" Who can tell you of it? You have not, as 

of now, entered Daas, because Daas is separated from the ten Sefirot, and stands on the side, and 

from the beginning of the world no man has ever entered it. I wanted to lead you into Daas, that is, 

knowledge; there you would know about everything. Had you listened to my words in Warsaw and 

not gone to the priests to complain, I would have taken two of you to Czestochowa, to the fortress, 

and there you would have performed tasks along with me. Then, I would have taken everybody with 

me. For this reason, I marked you as brothers and sisters so you could help one another. They wanted 

to give you the power to stay awake for a few days because the Maiden was to pass through my 

room, where you would see her and then wait to see her in her place, as it was said: Wejamod 

haszemen, "The oil came to a halt." Then you would be one with me in Daas and you would know of 



While we were still in the town of Iwan I told you, "A man carried axe heads without handles through 

the forest. The forest began to speak among itself, 'See, friends! Among us pass our killers.' One tree 

said, 'If there be none of our brothers among the axes, we have nothing to fear.'" Why did I tell you 

this? For you to be aware that you should not undercut one another. 


I asked you, "What does it mean, 'to give yourself to God with your entire being?'" You would 

answer that this meant, "To wish to die for the name of God." I, on the other hand, tell you that this 

was demanded by Gods who were dominant until now, because they needed human death, but the 

real God does not want human death, he wants you to live forever. For this reason I tell you as is 

written in Scripture: Mi jaale behar Adonay? "Who shall ascend the Holy Mountain?" When we 

come to Esau, this is har Adonay, the Holy Mountain. And then to Edom, Schehu odom welewusche 

odom, webare deley odomo. "He is red, his garments are red and the ground is red." It is worthy that 

one sacrifices one's self with one's entire being there. I tell you, Al tira weal teychos. "Don't be afraid 

there and don't worry." Have a lion's heart, have faith and you will come to eternal life in that terrible 



King David said. Mi ischokeijni majim mibor Beslechem? "Who will get me water to drink from 
Bethlehem?" Three knights dared and endangering their Uves, forced their way through enemy lines, 
and brought him water. But he did not drink this water. I tell you that with it he gave us a sign for our 

times. Everyone has to sacrifice his life from love for the good God, because he who sacrifices his 

life, will achieve etemal life. 


Once, Wisdom and Happiness came together and had a dispute with each other. Wisdom boasted that 
it was of greater worth than Happiness, because when man has wisdom it helps him in every way; 

Happiness, on the other hand, claimed that when it is absent, even wisdom does not help. Happiness 

said, "Come and see what I am able to do." So they went off together through the royal palace to 

where there lay the head of a dead horse. The king passed by on his way to a review of the colors. 

Happiness had entered the head of the horse and the king began to praise the beauty of the dead head 
and ordered it sent to the goldsmith, to be framed in the most ancient silver and then hung over the 
palace gate. Every nobleman who entered the castle had then to kiss the head. One time, one of the 

king's most respected counselors said, "You took a dead head, and you ask that respect be paid to it." 
The king had him whipped because he had denigrated what was most dear to the king. At this. 

Happiness said to Wisdom, "You saw what his wisdom got him." After some time, Happiness left the 

head, and, then, whoever passed through the gate, spit at the dead head. The king was told what was 

happening, and the king then ordered the head to be thrown into the garbage. 


Milewski! You have a brother. For some years now, he has been bedridden with disease. Why don't 

you help him with a prayer and happiness? 


Everything is germinated below the surface until it breaks forth and is seen. In the same way, a 

person making lace, uses knitting needles, and though it appears that the needles make up the whole 

show, in the end, there appears very pretty, delicate lace. We act in the same way. 


We have to wear armor and helmets, and carry shields and swords. Everyone must have a sword in 
his right hand and use it in order to gain valuable booty from the enemy's hand. 


The personality of every human being has the quality of either an animal, a beast or a bird. If a person 
completes his projects, he is like a lion; if he turns out badly he is like a dog and if he reflects good, 

he is Uke a bird, which is good. A human being who does not love people and gives them bad advice, 
does not have a share in the true God. He is the work of the devil, who influences him, and instills 

hatred in his heart. 


The world has existed for more than five hundred thousand years, and you can see with your own 

eyes that everything proceeds to nothing. All people and other beings eventually disappear from the 

world. The end of man is death, just as the end to cattle is slaughter. And you were saying, Kerachem 

ow al bonim ken terachem Adonay oleynu, "In the same way that a father has mercy on his children, 

God has mercy on us." But what kind of mercy does a father have for his son, if he is spoiled by 

everything and everything has an end? I took you from the other side of the water, from the depths 

and from darkness. I chose you from all the people. I did as did Hosea who turned his people into 

another people. I wanted to transform you by contact with the Big Brother, binding water with tire. 

And, when there was change, you were supposed to follow me. I was leading you to the place where 

you were to hold on to Her. Had you held on to Her, no power could move you toward evil, and you 

would have reached eternal life. 


Your Kabbalists said that there are many worlds, as has been said, "There will come a time that God 

will give three hundred ten worlds to each believer." I, on the other hand, claim that all those worlds 

are not to be found in heaven, but, here, on earth. There are many of them, but they are concealed 

from human eyes, hidden in darkness and fog, and obscured by great disturbances. In each world, 

there is a God. I was shown two worlds, one where there are Baalekaben, and the second, where lives 

the King of Kings. I asked myself, "Why was I shown things that were not available to me?" It was 

probably so that I could unite with them. For this reason, I took you as brothers and sisters, so I could 

unite water and tire. For a long time, there was a path from here to there, and from there to here. 

There is freedom from toil, and privileges and freedom. But you did not want it. 


You heard of the heavens created by Hiram, King of Tyre, that lasted a few hundred years. Those 

heavens stood on eighteen thousand columns of silver and gold. From those heavens came voices, 

shining and thunder. When you come to see those heavens, you will tremble and be ashamed. 


Why could you not understand that I came to you not to explain and interpret verses as your ancestors 

did! Each saying from my mouth reveals that new thing that is to appear in the world. You will see 

with your own eyes that each saying shall be realized. When I tell you something, it is not my 

purpose to interpret it, but to show you that it will be true in reality. So I said, "Your garments should 

be white each time." This indicated the time, a specific moment, when you are to wear white clothes. 

If I were to tell you the meaning of the words I told you in Iwan, Pales magle ragleho, "Weigh the 

sense of your words," you would cry for two months. 


When we were still in Iwan, I gave you the example of a hen who found a pearl while searching 

through manure. The hen chirped over the pearl, saying, "What is this to me? I would rather have a 

grain I could swallow." It is the same with you. I spread pearls among you but they were hidden in 

manure. I understood that you would be unsatisfied and would ask me, "What is it?" Then I could 

explain it to you because, when someone knocks, the door is opened. But you did not bend your ears 

to my words; you interpreted them stupidly and incorrectly. 


When I was imprisoned at Czestochowa, I complained in a dream, saying, "Moses led millions of 

Israelites, and though I gathered a group of people, it is more difficult." I was answered in this 

fashion, "Jacob! What are you saying? Moses led them through the 'desert where there were large 

reptiles and snakes, so it was difficult for them to disperse, and he had no one to fear. But, here, there 

is a wilderness of people, and each one of them is a reptile with fangs." 


I ask you, "What is a daughter of Zion?" What does the word Zion mean? There is no one among you 

who can tell me. 


When you saw me without learning, why did you not recognize that I am the darkness from which 

light comes ! 


There are two things I told you that you should have followed. Bear all and walk carefully because, 

as I discovered for your benefit, I can show you God to enable you to reach eternal life. As I told you, 

each of you must be careful and weigh his steps as if the world depended on you.* 

* The last sentence reflects the Kabbalist idea propounded by Rabbi Isaac Luria that each person may 

participate by prayer, penitence and pious deed in the grand theosophic purpose of advancing the 
restoration of the Divine sparks imprisoned in the Klippot to Ain Sof so as recreate the Divine stasis 

and usher in Paradise on earth. -Editor 


The Tatars know herbs because of their ability to trap animals. They select one of them, cut off its 

head, boil it and then eat it. After using this ritual, they walk through the fields and listen to all kinds 

of herbs, which call out to them in their language. One cries, "Take me for the healing of 8t. Vitus 

Dance"; another calls, "I am helpful to those who have a rupture," a third, "I am a help for gall 

stones," a fourth, "I am good for a headache." In the same way I told you, "I will show you, but not 

teach you, because I want to lead you to a unique and precious place where you will be given all 



A man possessed very old wine that had turned to brandy. He was aware neither of its potency nor its 

value. One time, he drank a small glass of it. As a result he fell, not knowing whether he was dead or 

alive. He slept continuously for twenty-four hours. His wife also tried some of the brew and she also 

fell asleep. I came. I asked for a large portion of the wine, drank it, but did not fall asleep. I thought 

only that with my height I had reached heaven. 


I tell you, "Every person in my domain stands alone and each night, every hand writes its own 

deeds."* I, on the other hand, read all the written words. For this reason a person who is angry and 

curses or persecutes his friend, can't live in my domain with me, because I go to the place where 

everyone must be perfect and without blemish. 

* These words reflect the words of the Oo-ne-sah-ne Tokef prayer, perhaps the most solemn of the 

Day of Atonement, itself the most solemn day of the Judaic liturgical calendar, in which it is said that 
each person has written his or her fate for the coming year with God, Who will weigh and seal the 

result on that day. The prayer concludes that 'prayer, penitence and pious deeds' will avert the 
consequences of the Divine Decree. Frank adapted the concepts of the prayer to his own purposes. - 



The time shall come when a great war occurs with terrible bloodshed, although this has not happened 

yet. Then, the good God will move the hearts of all kings and will elevate one kingdom over another. 

And when one fights with another in this conflagration. He will take care of His own. 


If I could find an honest man, now would be the time to send him to Rome for twenty-four hours to 

copy a document there. I would give him a piece of clothe to wear on the way there and back. He 

would have pleasure and it would be a great favor for me. Then, after six weeks, the world would 

hear what is about to happen. But what can I do? By myself, I can't move from this place of mine 

because I have many things to do, while you have become connected by marriage with those who are 

leaders among the people. 


There was an old man among you called Jaskier. He came to me, asking to take for a wife the woman 

who eventually married Polowski. I told him, "You want her but I don't know whether she wants 

you." He replied, "I already gave her a deposit. .. " So I asked her, but she did not want him. He said, 

"And where is my deposit?" I issued a decision, "What was done, was done, and the deposit is lost 

forever." It is the same thing with you. I gave you a deposit, I told you that I would show you the 

good God and you would come to eternal life. Hahu dyber welo ikomeno: "How come you agreed, 

then did not keep your word?" 


Grain does not begin to grow until it rots in the ground. Then it begins to spout. It is the same with 

me. I put things before you about which no one had heard so much as an echo. From a distance, I 

examined what became of them. I saw that I had planted for nothing. No one asked or paid attention 

to them. 


You must believe that no king will come to the kingdom unless he passes through the place where all 

kings are crowned; if he does not come through that place, though he collects all the armies of the 

world, he will not come to the kingdom. Just as what happened with King Leszczynskj,* For that 

reason, even if everyone had allowed him to continue to reign, he would still have had to flee the 

country. In the same way, I wanted to guide you to that very place. 

* Who ended in France as the Duke of Lorraine. -Editor 


You well know that God's beneficence rests on him who is a knight or wealthy or wise. And what 
have you? Neither wisdom, nor knighthood, nor riches. Of course, my soul has counsel, but provide 

me with help! 


There were two brothers, one wise, the other stupid. The stupid one was once invited to dinner by his 
wealthy brother. He said to him, "You should be thankful that I am an idiot because your wisdom is 
the more obvious by comparison." You provided that for me. I have the benefit of the contrast with 



When I first came to Warsaw, I traveled with Dembowski on a sleigh pulled by three horses, one 

horse in front of another. Then I carved out a road so we could quickly come to an important place. If 

you had waited only four days, and had not gone to accuse me, I would have entered that place. But 

you acted as quickly as flowing water, and because of it, the road to that place was cut away. 


There are birds in the sky that hear what people in this world are saying. They convey the information 
to a secret world. When I established you in Iwan, they let it be known in the secret world, where 

there was great joy because of it. 


God has golden hair and nails of pure gold. That is how I saw him in a dream. I also saw the royal 
daughter of the Baalekaben. She is known as Rose. In fact she is as pretty as a rose. Her mother, the 

queen, is called Rachel. 


The Lord once said to Debowski, "Had you been perfect, it would be no effort for you to bring me a 

carriage and golden horses, and two or three golden horses for yourself. Each trot of these horses 

would cover three or four miles. Everybody would have fallen before you. You would also have been 

able to bring a thousand cavalrymen made of pure gold. If they gave their last breath, soldiers from 

this world would have fallen before them. If we had wanted it to happen, we could have travelled 

with them to Istanbul in one day. Then, the whole world would have admired that great miracle." 


Observe! Jews say: noflo Tyferes roszenu, "A crown came down on our head." They flatter 
themselves in their rehgious rites, because they were directed to add to their regular Jewish garment 

what is called a tales,* known as a crown. 

This is what is meant by the saying: Weatoroschem beroszom."A crown on his head." But this is 

false. I did not want it to be the way it is put in your laws, that Esau means a Talis and Tephilin. You 

stay with the Maiden who will crown you with a royal crown and that will fulfill the saying: 

Weatoroschem beroszom. "A crown on your head." Your talk had crowned people who were 

unworthy and, therefore, you became Her enemies. Now the good God has taken it away from you. I 

tell you, "With a gold key, it is possible to open all closed gates." It is the same with me. You can see 

the attendant carrying keys in the court. The gate won't open for us until we take back the golden key. 

There are two places: the Big Brother and Bayle kabin, that are Ore miklet, that is, two places of 

refuge where one can hide from death, destitution and murder. You are like thieves and must flee 


* The ritual shawl used by Jews during prayer. -Editor 


Had I been baptized in Warsaw, I would go to church without a covering as it was said of David: 

Wajehi, Dowid bo ad horosz, "David came to the head." Nowadays, there is no head to which we can 

strive. Now, when you turned back and I noticed that you had given up brotherly love, I began to 

cover my head in church ... 


There was a prince who committed a crime against the king, his father. The king disowned him and 
left him with nothing to his name. As a result, he was forced to join bandits who robbed travelers on 
the highway. Then the prince became very sad and, leaving the thieves, went on a trip during which 
he found a closed cave. He worked hard until he opened it. The cave proved empty. Exhausted, he lay 
down in it and fell asleep. In a dream he was told to wait forty days. During that time, he went to the 
forest and gathered fruits, which is how he sustained himself. After forty days, the gates to a second 
cave opened where there was great treasure. Once again he was told in a dream to wait and he would 
feel great joy. Obeying that last advice, he discovered still another cave where he came to know the 

utmost solace. 


I go to Esau and I must proceed with a strong and courageous heart because a strong and terrible 
guard stands near him. He will give his life for his Lord, so I also have to strengthen myself against 

him to be able to offer my life for my Lord. I prepare myself to give him a present, as is said: 
Achapro ponow bamincho. "I will seek his presence with a present." If he does not step aside of his 
own volition, I must employ force, as it is said: Wajeowek isz imo. "A man wrestled with him." As 

Cyrus offered his life for Mandan, so, too, it was with Cupid from love for Leonida.(?) Had you 
listened to my words and tried, you would have seen Her. I saw that you had a courageous heart open 

to new ideas, different from those you were used to; so I assumed that for this holy purpose, you 

would find more courage. But you did not come to Esau at all. Had you come to Esau and stirred him, 

but still indulged in those false activities for which you acquired a liking, then, God keep us from it, 

you would have turned to ashes. Now, it is only that Jaikow we Esow amurim beparsze, "Jacob and 

Esau talk to each other in this chapter." But you will be far away. 


On Saturday, the Lord walked with a limp saying: Ani hoilech szefi, "I walk either alone or with 

difficulty." Everything is done for you. 

1745. a. 

Gibore koach oise dworaj. "Strong knights execute His purpose." This refers to the Szedim [demons] 

because they were strong knights who wanted to do good for you. And the one who lives in the 

Olsztyn cave, though he is of royal heritage and is a king, has wanted for the past few hundred years 

to connect with us. He would do much good for us, but he would gain more if he would join us in this 

world. Until now, they have been in prison underneath the world. Now, all of them are angry at you 

because you did not accept the good that was offered to you. Not otherwise than a great and holy 

mercy is near you. 

1745. b. 

I have told you again and again, "Some things are apparent while others are hidden." So it was with 

you. I talk with you as if we are in the same world, but I don't reach you. And you don't know me at 

all. You are with me in my room, but it is as though you were never in my room. I talk to you, but 

you do not hear a word, because if you had heard any word of mine, you would understand what is to 

happen in the world. Had you been with me in my rooms, you would see with your own eyes. I 

wanted one or two of you to sit with me in Czestochowa while I was imprisoned, so that we could 

serve together from the bottom of our hearts. If I had talked with you when you were with me in 

those invisible rooms, you would have seen and learned about everything. Instead, as with all the 

other people, I saw that you have eyes but don't see; you have ears and don't hear. 


There was once a king who did good, loved truth, judged fairly, and gave alms to all passing 

wayfarers in need of help. His palace was free with food and drink. When he saw a naked person, he 

clothed him and in that way, he educated his children to follow the true road so they would find favor 

with God. Now, one time there came to him a Turkish trader who was a wise, rich and good man. 

The Turk had an audience with the king at which he presented the king with a gift, a statue made of 

clay in the shape of a beautiful woman. The Turk said, "0 King! My Lord! Receive this gift from your 

servant because it is worthy of you. " Here the Ishmaelite described the history of the statue. "I was," 

he related, "the only son of a father who was a very rich man, with unusual skills." The man's father 

had read in an Arabic book that there was a town on an island in the sea that was more beautiful than 

any in all the world. There was no end to riches there, with the city walls made of pure gold. This 

town had unusual palaces of indescribable size and beauty. It was surrounded with three walls, of 

silver, gold, and precious stones. All the roofs and walls were also made of gold and precious stones. 

Unfortunately, clouds and darkness covered all this unusual beauty, and the marvelous and wonderful 

decorations could not be seen for the simple reason that the town was ruled by a bad king who was 

concerned only with his own pleasure. When a king is godless, so are his people and the people 

conducted themselves as at Sodom and Gomorrah. For this reason, God sent angels to warn them and 

rouse them from their evil ways, but they would not listen. Angered, God turned all the people into 

the black stones and he covered the town and palaces with darkness and clouds so that no one ever 

sees them. "Whoever wants to see this town," it was said in that Arabic book, "should approach an 

old gray man, who was one of those persons who devoted themselves to God. He knows the planets, 

and knows the time and moment when a man can go there and see that town." His father after reading 

this, undertook to realize that goal. He came to the wise, old man and asked to be taken to the town. 

The old man obliged him. When they came there, the old man showed him the town and its riches. 

They came to the royal palace, where the rooms were decorated with jewels, crystals, and precious 

stones. There were portraits inlaid with still more precious stones and in the middle stood a golden 

table set on golden pillars. All that was pure gold like the purest sky. "On this table," the trader 

continued, "there stood the statue you see here, my King. My father was surprised that on such a 

valuable table should stand a statue made from clay. The old man explained that this statue was more 

valuable than all the surrounding riches for the following reason. Once a wise king ruled here, 

surrounded by magicians, all well versed in astrology. They created this statue. It had the ability to 

discern the truth. When two litigants stood before the king seeking justice, and one of them lied, the 

statue laughed and looked angry. The old man said to my father, 'Take it, my child, because it is 

better and more worth while than all the rest.' My father listened to the old man and took the statue; I, 

on the other hand, hearing of your virtues, my King, would present it to you as a gift." 

In the same way, I saw that you who are believers were seeking God and wished to find the truth. 
Therefore, I came to bring you to the Maiden, so through Her you could see and experience 

everything and come to know God himself. 


When my help arrives, then I will kiss the people. It will be difficult for me because I must know 

whom to kiss. I only trust my God and with his help I will know the difference between Sar and 

Seirem. Your eyes can see that here they walk around, covering their faces with coloring, coloring 

them with colors so they won't be recognized. Therefore, I must know whom to kiss. I tell you about 

my work which is to follow the help about to come to me. Let me tell you, to be able to kiss them all 

is dearer than all the treasures in the world. 


It is something difficult and arduous when one is entrusted with a key and then forbidden to use it to 
open doors. This is the story I told you about a prince in a palace with forty rooms who was entrusted 

with a key and told to open only one door. 


There was once a young king who married a young and beautiful wife. Two great noblemen came to 

him and agreed to serve at his court. They looked to evil ways and sought to satisfy their lust with the 

young Queen. To this end, they served her constantly, and when she went traveling one was her 

coachman and the other her attendant. The king had a summer residence with a garden in the forest 

that was about six miles from the capital. The two courtiers persuaded the queen to go there for a 

ride. When they arrived the courtiers persuaded the servants to leave, then led the queen into the 

forest where they could satisfy their lust at last. Now, the queen had her four year old child with her. 

When evening came, they declared their love for her. Cunningly, the queen replied that for some time 

now she also had had a tenderness in her heart for them that she had repressed, and she told them, 

"Wait until I put my child to sleep." They agreed to wait. The queen, leaving the child and using side 

roads, ran to the hut of peasants where she dressed as one. The noblemen, realizing that their plan had 

been thwarted, took the child in pique and abandoned him, crying, at a crossroads. A prince, hunting 

in the forest, saw the child and took him to the king. The king was very happy and said to the prince, 

"This child will be your brother because I see from his face that he is from royal lineage." The king 

took the child to the Treasury and showed him books beautifully bound m gold and rare stones, but 

the child did not touch them. He showed him other unusual treasures but here too, the child looked on 

with indifference. Then he took the child to the arsenal. There, the child asked for a weapon. He 
selected a sword and attached it to his side. The king was happy and said of his son, "You can see he 

is of royal lineage because he has a passion for arms. " 

So it is with you. Even if there be provided a royal seed and the lineage of David, this does not pry 

out each book and law, without anyone having a weapon. 


Your ancestors asked, "Why does the Thora begin with the letter Beis, not with the letter Aleph?" 
The answer was that Aleph related to Esau and for this reason they are Aluphe Esow, the "Lords of 

Esau." Now, where is your common sense? Had we not gone to Esau, then, God forbid, all hope 
would pass from us, because there the treasure is sealed away and there is a strong guard. We have to 
take this treasure with the law of our hands, because working with the lips does not do anything. 
What did your ancestors achieve by constantly talking about laws? What about all those who filled 
the world with Thora? What did the world gain by it? Here, one has to act so that the whole world 
will see the result. We will go and take riches that are sealed away through deceit, ruse or 'light- 
fingered' hands. Now, Jacob, our father, and all the patriarchs dug wells. Jacob came to a well and 
then served Laban for seven years. His intentions were good. Though Laban cheated him for the next 
seven years, Jacob's thoughts were good. Had Jacob then taken the true Rachel without waiting, 
everything would have become a reality. In spite of it all, he did everything with deeds, not with 
words, and going to Esau, he also acted and did not talk. Also, when wrestling with that Isz in the 
night, he was likewise acting through deeds and not with words. 


A prince was led into the Treasury of his father, the king. There, he noticed an ugly, dirty box. 

Everyone, upon seeing this box, spat and asked how such a shabby box was allowed to remain in so 

magnificent a Treasury? But the Prince thought otherwise. He concluded that the box had been there 

a long time, and had decayed and become shabby. The prince said to his attendants, "Give me the 

keys to the box. It sits here in the Treasury for no reason." The attendants could not find the keys 

because these were held for safe keeping by the queen. When the queen learned the prince was 

insisting on receiving the keys, she said to him, "Take them, because the treasure in the box was 

made for you." 

It is the same with us. Our revelation is hidden and this hidden treasure existed for over five hundred 
thousand years before the creation of the world. During that time, it became moldy and forgotten. 

You people may be tired by the search for the keys but can you doubt my deeds which are against all 
the sons of men? With the help of the one who leads me, I'll find the place where the key will be 

returned to me. We also have to walk on paths that are frightfully hideous and full of disgrace 
because one does not find what one is seeking all at once.* So it is necessary to travel those paths. 

30 These words are a reflection of the Sabbataian theology that premised the need to do evil acts to 

be able to enter the Klippot to rescue the imprisoned Divine sparks so as to restore these to Ain Sof, 

the Divine Unknowable Essence, and by this Tikkun, to re-establish the Divine stasis (that purpose 

having been first postulated by the Kabbalist Isaac Luria in the Sixteenth Century C.E.). -Editor 


There is one snake through which one can find Ufe. The same was true for the tin snake made by 
Moses. Those show ignorance, who saw it and lived to ask. Ma lenachaszbegan Eden? "What does a 

snake do in the Garden of Eden?" 

1756. a. 

I told you a story about a Marshal of the Court who gave a queen a substance that caused a gall 

bladder attack. He did it so that he could later give her medicine to get well. It is the same with you. 

When great bitterness existed among you, I wanted to send Matuszewski to the Big Brother and 

Franciszek and Michal Wolowski to the Bayle Kabin knowing that I am able to cause bitterness 

among you. All I wanted to do was to make goodness an everlasting medicine. 

1756. b. 

I ask you, "Are you talking about the two religions, Islam and Christianity, as if they were Ore miklet 

'a place of escape'? And does it have to be a refuge?" Is your answer that whoever escaped there, 

could not die? If so, why do Turkish Moslems as well as Christians die? In truth, I tell you, "These 

are not real places of refuge. There are other Ore Miklet, to which I wanted to escape from those who 

pursue me, which means the priests and their confederates, and even you who are also pursuing me." 

1759. a. 

It is said: Weholachti iwrim bederech lo jodou. "I will lead the blind on a road that is not known." 

When I lead a man to a place of great treasure, he does not know how to enter. I cover his eyes with a 

handkerchief, and in this way he will not know the place to which I lead him that is where the 
treasure lies. Only later are his eyes opened and he comes to understand the treasure. I have already 

told you about Abulkazarz. 

1759. b. 

When I tell you a story, I expose you to the triple curtain of revelation.* When I see you trying to 

understand my words and seeking to know what is behind the curtains, that is good. Otherwise, the 

revelation remains sealed and guarded among my treasures. But, then, you don't pursue your efforts 

to take off the first curtain covering my words. When you say that my words are empty and without 

significance, that is not true. You say it because it is you who are empty: my words are not. You don't 

understand anything about it and when you turn away at the outer shell, how can you expect to reach 

the fruit? 

* These words reflect the traditional Kabbalist four modes of interpretation of the Biblical text, that 

finds its most eloquent expression in the imagery of the 'beautiful and stately damsel' in the hidden 

castle who reveals her face for an instant to her lover, the adept who would 'understand and obey her' 

and seek to penetrate into the hidden mysteries of the Torah. 3 Zohar 301.302 (Soncino Ed). 99a. 99b 

(Mantua Ed.) -Editor 


I tell you Debowski, "When D a a s comes close, I will not allow any man into my room, except for 

you and two others whom I will take into my domain to be close to my side. When I leave my rooms, 

I'll tell you what you are to do openly before everybody, or secretly. But be careful, God forbid, not 

to question because there will be another place to go where man can talk back. For this reason you 

must guard your souls so, God help us, you do not fall. What I am able to execute, I will do and then I 

will let you know what you are to do; only remember to do your part!" 


Moszcheni achrecho wenoruco, beerec eijo we ojef bli mojim."Take me in tow, and I'll follow you 

into the jungle in a country, where the land is not cultivated." Wezocharti loch chesed neuraich etc. 

lechtech achrai bamidbor. "I well remember your earlier years, when you walked behind me into the 

jungle." I am talking about the jungle of nations. It is like a desert without water, without learning, 

without God. When one goes to another place, everything is new there. Your ancestors did not think 

that way. What did they do? What did they take hold of! What kind of power had they in their hands? 

All their beliefs have passed and died. This is not the way with us, those who go to D a a s, because 

all converts go the same way. And that is: Daas hakodosz szel Edom, "Holy is the Daas of Edom." 

When I come into D a a s, we will be on the other side, where all the good of the world is hidden and 

all the divine powers are located. Then, you and the entire world will find wonder and grandeur. 


I tell you that the cat I had in Czestochowa was wiser than any of you are, because there was a mirror 
over my bed and when the cat looked into the mirror and saw its image, it went behind the mirror to 
see if there was a second cat there. You, on the other hand, did not want to come closer and look at 

the other side. You were saying that I took your faith away, so you can remain dry, but, in reality, you 
have not had any faith. For this reason, what I "took away" was so as to be able to give you a better 

and more valuable belief than you had before. 


It is said: Wajece Jakow myberszawo, wajelech Chorono. "Jacob came from Beersheba and went to 
Haran." This means he wanted to go but did not because he had fear, as it is said: Wajero Jakow, 

"Jacob had fear." But I go and I am not afraid of anything. Then it is said about Jacob: waifga 

bamokom, "He found a place." That was a place where he dreamed: wehine Malache Elohim olim 

wejordin bo. "And here the angels of God ascended and descended." Similarly, there was a king who 

conquered another king. He took the second king, who was his captive, to prison and settled him in 

his rooms with great honor. The prisoner went to the Treasury and saw a great many valuable things. 

In the comer, he noticed an unimpressive and even ugly-looking chest. No man wanted to know what 

was in it. The imprisoned king asked, "What is in it?" He was told that a royal ancestor had forbidden 

anyone to open it. However, the imprisoned king opened it and found indescribable treasure there. In 

the same way, people do not recognize the hidden good that has in it strength and wealth without an 

end, assistance for health, and wisdom without fear. All this is to be found there. Had you been of 

royal lineage, you would walk without fear, but you are not. At the end, the believers will hold on to 

a thin thread, and the unbelievers to a thick rope. Little children talk like that. 


Adam, commonly thought of as the first man, was not in fact the first, because the world was created 

more than five hundred thousand years ago. So why is he called the first Adam? Because this man 

came about from one that came out from a woman. Before him there were people, men as well as 

women who lived eight to nine thousand years, and the first Adam did not live even a thousand years. 

And it is because his years were shortened, that he is called Riszon, "The First." But he was not 

Odom kadmen, "the first of all Adams." 


The world, Tewel, was not created by the "Good God" alone. In the same way, Adam was not created 
by God, because if Adam and the world had been created by the "Living God," the world would exist 
forever and Adam would be eternal. Because they are not solely the work of the Good God, each man 

must die, and the world must change. 


There was once a king with a large army. In its ranks was a simple soldier who liked the king very 

much. When he happened to stand guard in the middle room, he was as happy as if he had been given 

the entire royal domain. He would go to the sergeant and look over the assignment list. He would 

pay, from his own pocket, whoever was assigned to the royal 'middle room' so that he could take his 

place as the guard and be able to look upon the king. The king observed that the same soldier was 
constantly standing guard in his rooms and he wondered about it. "What does this mean?" he thought 
to himself. "Don't I have any other soldiers besides this one who always stands guard with me?" The 
king then asked the captain on duty, "Why does this same man stand guard every day in my room? Is 

it possible that I don't have more of an army?" The captain took fright and glancing over the guard- 
list, persuaded himself that the soldier was not on it at all. He showed the king the list and said, "My 
king, this soldier is not listed today and I don't understand where he came from. I'll go to him myself 

and ask him what it means. The king answered, "Don't ask him anything. Tell him to appear before 

me." The captain went to fetch the soldier, who stood before the king in great fear. The king asked, 
"Why are you constantly standing guard before my door? Each time there is a guard on duty you are 

there. Don't I have any more soldiers? Tell me the truth at once!" The soldier said, "If I tell you the 
truth, the other soldiers will fall on me; if I don't, I'll be much more guilty and get the death sentence. 
But I must tell you the truth, and maybe you'll be merciful. The truth is this. I like you very much, my 

king, and from the salary I take from your Treasury, I pay my friends so I can stand guard in their 
place. I don't want to eat or drink but only to look into your face and I am satiated. When it happens 

that I don't stand guard one day, I have the feeling I am dying." The king thought to himself, "This 
soldier should be a general, but where would I place so simple a soldier who is so devoted to me? For 

this reason let him remain a simple soldier who will never advance." The king said, "My servant! 

Continue as you have done thus far. I'll give you extra pay every month so you will not be hungry and 

suffer and also I will give you a present." And this soldier remained in the middle room. 

My Company is the same way. There is one who advances quickly, while another serves from his 
whole heart and never advances. Where would I place a simple soldier, dedicated to me like him? 


Until now, you have not served God at all, doing as your parents did before you and working your 

mouths for nothing. From now on, as my support arrives, I'll multiply your power and your life, but 

you will not sit empty handed. You will serve God and sacrifice yourself for our homeland. When a 

great war breaks out in the world, you will hear a new revelation that will come to the world. 


First of all, I have to clothe you in vestments and then your heart, soul, and wisdom will be renewed; 

you will understand and see with your own eyes the Head: Dowid bo ad harosz bikesz laawod 

awoudo zoro. "David came to the head and wanted to stand guard at the feet of God," but he did not 

accomplish it. We will do it. You will come and see this Head. 


It says in your books: temoses roszo ro— "Evil destroys evil." What you did in 1757 in Kamienc 
Podolski, when you had a hangman burn the Talmud in the middle of the town, was only an 

indication that the present time is approaching it. 


I ask where does it say: Wajar Jakow es haagolos watchi ruach Jakow. "When Jacob saw the wagons, 

his soul awoke." What kind of awakening? Though Jacob went humbly with his children to Egypt, all 

this is only an indication and description of what was about to happen. That is, Agolos are Wegen, 

'the road.' This simply means Wegen, 'the road' on which we will travel. When you see it, then, 

watchi ruach Jakow, "the awakening of Jacob's soul," will happen. Your soul will be roused and then 

the people in my house will be happy. 


I can't come to life because I can't come to my place. Now, I am troubled for you and you also are 



A king had a lion in his land that caused much damage to people. The king directed that a 
proclamation be made, "Whoever killed the lion will be rewarded with great riches." Many wanted to 

try but hesitated because of fear of the hungry animal. But there was one knight who put on armor 
and killed the lion. He thought to himself, "What should I do so the king will believe that I killed the 
lion? I could carry the lion on my back but that is not feasible because the lion is too heavy." So what 

did the knight do? He cut out a piece of the lion's tongue and put it in his bag. Then he went home 
and stayed there for four weeks. In the meantime, many people, passing by on the road, saw the dead 

lion. One of them, cut away an ear and took it to the king, boasting that he killed the lion. The king 

punched him in the mouth with such force that he fell to the ground, and the king said, "You are 
lying, you did not kill the lion." He left in shame. Others did the same. One brought the head, another 

the tail, others brought other parts of the lion, but all walked away, ashamed of themselves because 
they were not the ones who killed the lion. In the end, the true knight came and presented the tongue. 

The king hit him in the mouth as the others, but he stood his ground. The king said, "If you are so 

brave, you must be the one who killed the lion. " And the king fulfilled his promise, rewarding the 

knight with treasures. 


I am telling you that from the time the world was created, no man saw Esau. Even Isaac and Jacob 

did not see him, because Esau, the son of Isaac, was only a curtain to the door leading to a royal 

peace.* Who will come close to Esau? Whoever sees him, will live forever. What has been written of 

Jacob: Ki soriso im Elohim weanoszim watuchol. "You have wrestled with God and people, and have 

prevailed," applies to our times, because now, we must go in silence to prevail. Though you go with 

me, you will not see or know what is happening because, should you see who is coming at me and 

not letting me go, and should you see him as he walks with a sword and water, with me in the middle, 

you would not be able to endure the sight! God forbid, you would run away, lost, crying out that I am 

killed; but I have hope that though I may go to the lowest abyss, I won't fear anything.** 

*The Polish word may also mean 'room.' -Editor 

** This is an allusion to the Sabbataian theological premise that the Messiah must descend to the 
Klippot to rescue the fallen Divine sparks preparatory to restoring these to Ain Sof -Editor 


The wisdom of alchemy arrived with the Szed [demons].* He who drinks from this golden water, will 

come to life and strength.** The Good God will look at that man and give him a soul, so that he will 

be able to look from one end of the world to the other and he will live forever. Until now, there has 

been no man who has had a soul. 

*Reliance upon alchemy and the incorporeal reality of which demons were a part, may be said to 

have doomed Frank's ideas to intellectual obsolescence in an increasingly rationalist context once his 

charismatic personality left the scene. His successors would appear to have had some awareness of 

the problem in that they attempted to maintain the fiction of his continuing corporeal existence by the 

closed-curtain-carriage, church visits and the changes in focus in the writings of his successors. - 


** The comment about 'golden water' may relate to the 'golden drops' the Frankists at Offenbach 
compounded for the Company in Warsaw and the Frankists elsewhere as a magical medicine in order 

to raise money to carry on the lifestyle at Offenbach. -Editor 


Now I am like a woman at the moment of birth, feeling great pain. And I am weighed down by heavy 

plagues. I was shown a large table, a mile long, and on it was written all the sufferings, the 

difficulties, the pains, the fears and the entire length of the terrible road that must be traveled. This 

road was shown to all the great ancestors, even to the First One, but none of them was willing to walk 

the road. I was called upon and told, "We see that you are a knight, and that you have a strong and 

brave heart." I was read everything there was to hear, even that which says, "Friends will become 

your enemies," yet I took it freely upon myself, because had I not gone of my own free will, they 

would have told me, "If you don't go of your own free will, you will be led to Poland in chains." 


We are in a foreign land until we are able to enter our own lands. 


You want God to reveal himself at the present time. But, before anything else, it is necessary to clear 

the path which we are to travel. 


In the same way that the rays of sun illuminate the moon and the stars, people who are with me will 

shine. When you see that brightness shining in people, confess. Pay attention that you are good so 
that all the brightness of this power can be drawn to people. 


How could you expect to bring life to this world with your speeches? Indeed, there is a need to raise a 
special object so life could enter. Of Jacob it is said: wajigal hoewen meal pi habeer. "And the stone 

was moved from the mouth of the well, etc." What follows afterwards when that stone was rolled 
back? I tell you that I am also from that country, Raychu. I will try to move that stone from the top of 

the well. 


Those who are called devils, wear black cloth and do bad things to human beings, but those who are 

called Szedim, walk around in white cloth and do good to human beings. A large number of well 

known noblemen pursue them, but without a recommendation, this meeting will not take place. This 

can only be accomplished by a knowledgeable man, who is honest and in all respects proper. 


Once, there was a group of people on the road during a great heat wave that was difficult to bear. 

They were met by someone who said, "Not far away, you'll find a large tree with an abundance of 

branches, under which is a stream with fresh water, and bunches of sweet fruit covering it. There are 

other large trees but none so like the first one. There you'll find rest and food for your soul." They all 

proceeded to the place, where they and their cattle, stopped for a few days in the shadow of the tree, 

eating the fruits and drinking the water. Before leaving the place, the people said, "Dear tree! How 

should we bless you? You possess all you need. You don't miss anything. Still we will bless you that 

you grow forever and the tributaries to your stream never go dry; for all people to take shelter in your 


It is the same with me. When my help arrives, and the people are in great poverty, hunger and thirst, I 
will try to feed everyone, and to hide them in my shadow, as it is said: 

Umozon dekule beh, "There is food for everyone there." 


The light of the sun, the moon and stars, with their rays, will first reach the [Frankist] believers. Only 

later will it brighten the whole world. 


From the first moment, you should not have separated yourself from my side not even so much as by 
a step; on the other hand, at Iwan, when I sent you to Lviv and Hungary, you left with great joy. 


You were returning to a land where the citizens' heads covered, but all goodness, beauty and 

decoration are hidden in Poland. 


When Jews enter the D a a s of Edom, their six year old children will be trained from childhood in 

martial arts. That is how they will occupy themselves. My soul desires that I have about ten million 

chosen from among Jews and at least one million from the Gentiles. Whether I need them or not, this 

is the way it will happen, as it is said: wejisroel oose chail, "Israelites will gather in an army." 


One known as Ari wrote that he would like to fix the world.* But what did he fix and what did he 
construct? My construction for the children of humankind will be such that it will reach eternity. 

* This may refer to Rabbi Isaac Luria, the Sixteenth Century Jewish mystic who lived in Safed (or 
Svat) in the Holy Land, who developed the theosophic concepts of a Divine Contraction leading to an 
overflowing of the Divine energies (or points of light) that resulted in the breaking of the vessels that 

were to contain them in that pleroma created by the Divine Contraction in the first instance; and 

finally the resolution-the Tikkun-the restoration of the Divine equilibrium by the drawing back of the 

lost Divine energies to Itself- Ain Sof. In the Lurianic configuration of ideas, the Tikkun would also 

bring about the coming (and/or restoration) of Paradise on earth. It was from this Lurianic Kabbalist 

theosophy that the theological justification for the Sabbataian heresy was derived. -Editor 


During the Solemn Night, my father would sing, nun bau dein Tempel Sziro. [Now build your 

Temple Shiraw.] I used to ask him, "What does 'Tempel Sziro' mean?" My father replied, "I will 

build a large balcony for you to sit on and the whole world will raise its eyes to you." 


How on earth would you want the Good God to reveal himself to the world? When a bad person 

comes among you, no one can stand him. What about now, when the whole world is in serfdom and 

groaning under shameful laws! How can God appear? No! Not truly! God will not be among the 

peasants. All must gather in one group: the Greeks, the Lutherans, the Calvinists. All must see 

themselves as Catholics. Not before but afterwards, all the kingdoms will separately go topsy-turvy 

because everyone must undergo baptism. 


All the good of the world is hidden in Poland. I tell you that 999 parts of the good in the world are in 

it, and one thousandth in the rest of the world. If I were given all of Offenbach, loaded with the most 

precious stones, I would not take it in place of Poland. 


I tell you clearly: my God is in Esau.* 

* This is a reflection of the tenets of apostate messianism. -Editor 


I ask you, was Elijah the Prophet really in the body of a man just like other people? Before he left the 
world, he sat in a chariot of fire and the horses were also of fire. If so, why did he not burn? 


I ask you, did Nebuchadnezer really commit so many bad deeds, killing so many people? If so, why, 
before that, did God speak to him as Nebuchadnezer, my servant? ! 


So many Jews pray and petition from the bottom of their hearts! What comes of it? At the end they 

must be baptized. What do all those prayers avail them? 


In the same way that the night is always darkest before dawn, he who wants to reach the light must 
frrst taste darkness, and the more he tastes darkness, the more he will receive light, which is as it has 
been said: Wajawdel hoor min hachoszoch, "And the light was separated from the darkness." Had the 
believers known of the great benefit I provided to them, by which the nation opens its doors to them, 

they would be even happier than they are. 


On the 21st day of May, 1787, the Lord said, "I have yet another place to which I would send you, 

but I am worried. Who knows how it would appear to you; you might not be able to accept it because 

of great fear; on the other hand, it may be that the messenger would not want to return from there 



It says in your books: We loi ilchas Amim. "The nations will gather to him." How? Of course, not 
with words from the Thory [Torah]. I tell you, there will come a time when I dress in clothes such as 
no man has ever seen; then you will be beloved in the eyes of those who see you; the simple folk will 

stop working and gather to see you; each one will wish that you take their children into service; even 
the militia will wonder about it and begin to like you; royal children will wish to talk to you, then 
kings themselves will, because there will always be: Tomid jigdal Adonoy. "Your praise. Oh God, 

shall grow eternally!" And this will be: waise Jakow mi beerszowa, wajelech Chorono, "Jacob went 

out from Beersheba and journeyed to Haran." 


I tell you, the town of Brody will be the first to enter baptism. 


Everything is covered with thorns. Everything is held together with a false emptiness. For this reason, 

one must come so he can empty the place of everything. Through the hands of Jesus, the Messiah, 

everything will be cleansed, because all must enter that religion. 


When war erupts in the world, you will know and understand why I came to this world. 


Don't say that only Jews must be saved. God forbid! All the world must be cleansed. 

1880. Every man should repeat the words of Ruth: baaszer telchi elech, Amech ami, Elohaich 

Elochai. "Whither you go, there will I go, your people are my people, your God is my God." Dein 

Volk ist mein Volk [your people is my people], which means: so wie du folgst, so will ich Dir auch 

folgen [as you obey, so will I also obey you]. 


I would like to send you to Ore miklet, where you can rescue yourself from death and come to life, 
wealth, and wisdom. That is: im szlosz ele lo jaase lo, "Unless I give him these three things, that is, 

wisdom, knighthood and wealth." You can indeed say, "I strive, first of all, to reach wealth, then 

wisdom and strength," at which point we gain admittance to the soul from the Living God, so we can 

look from one end of the world to the other. But with empty words no man can reach anything. 


Jacob said: Ki bemakli owarti es hajarden. "With a stave, I crossed the Jordan, now I have two 

companies." [Whereas] I don't even have a stick. But when the time comes that I climb my steps, you 

will see companies without end. Those two companies are Esau and Edom. 


Before long, the whole world will be saying that I was with you, but that you were not with me. 


The first candle I shall light among the nations will be from among your children. I, on the other side, 

will hide behind you. 


I was telling you about a merchant who went crazy and made himself out to be a hen. Another person 

also had to make himself out to be a hen to bring him out of his madness. In the same way, I had to 

become involved with your empty foolishness, so I can bring you out of it. 


I told you in Czestochowa that I would remove one suit of clothes from me, and this would be heard 

in the whole world. Then, again, I would put on a coat, and that would be heard in the whole world. 

The first suit that I take off will pass through your hands, but the second suit, the one I'll put on ... 

Oho! Oho! (Here "the Lord with his holy finger" pointed to the sky.) 


When you come to Warsaw with the good news for the Company, many will cry from great joy, and 

their voices will be heard in the royal palace. 


Though I am now only a dry and blackened tree, from that low estate it will bloom with leaves and 
give forth good fruits which all will sample until they are full. 


The man whose coming I am expecting, is the Lord of a given nation. Wiser than Solomon, he can 

command the winds and the stars. He has no equal in the world. He is older than I am by twenty 

years. He is the one who separated me in my youth from Jews, directing me not to resist anything, 

saying, "When you take a wife, a certain matter will become apparent to you, don't resist it." After I 

was married. Rabbi Mordechai told me about belief.* He told me that I would go to Poland. Now, 

there are two islands in the sea, one close by the other. On one, live giants, cannibals who eat people 

like figs; on the other, live blacks, big-like three of us. These two peoples fight continuously. Next to 

them are forests and wild beasts they do not fear; further on, there are mountains filled with the purest 

gold. None of our ships can come close. However, my sage, through his wisdom, came fifteen 

thousand miles on a ship and entered there, leaving without incident, and this is why he has such 


* The Polish word may also refer to believing in the Christian faith, i.e., being a Christian.- Editor 

Every man having these two things: virtue and constancy, should achieve great success. 

I told you in the past at Brno that God can only be served by men, and men are made only by God. 


When I was on the shore at Larsa, before I went to Poland, I found pumpkins as large as melons, but 

sweeter than honey. I bought fifty of them and cooked them with fat meat. Their taste was 

exceptionally good. I also found very large pomegranates that I had never seen before. Some were 

sweet, others sour. I bought many of them and mixed the sour with the sweet, squeezing the juice out 

of them. It was better than a good wine. 


There are deep caves in great forests on mountains that are hidden from human eyes because they are 

underground. On the other side, there is a new world filled with people and animals as in this world. 

Those who control the world, have hidden the other world from the eyes of humans to prevent them 

from joining with the other world, and in that way, learning wisdom from it, so to keep them from 

life and other good things. 


I tell you that our fathers were the losers in a certain matter. Jacob and Esau likewise did not 

accomplish anything. Jacob had to lead his own children to Egypt and put them in the hands of 

Pharaoh. When one brings them, another has to come and rescue them. 


Hosom bemalke chodo, wehocho bechol malkio dealmo. "There, it was a question with one king, 
here it is a problem with all the kings of the world." I ask you, why did you yearn with your heart and 

mind for a land with only one king? 


The world will be unlocked with three things, Hamelech, the king— everyone will exclaim the word, 

"king." The second word is: joiszew, "sits." Everyone will see this with their own eyes and will say, 

"Here, he sits." After a while it will happen that: El nisso rom weniso, "God is sitting on a huge 

chair,"— and this will last for eternity. 


Something will come into the world. All the kings and the greatest noblemen will see it with their 

own eyes. I don't know whether you will be able to understand and recognize it. But everyone, 

according to his own inner awareness, will understand it. 


Two noblemen made a bet that one weaker would pick up more than one stronger. How is it done? 

You take a seven-year-old lad and get him used to carrying a calf on his back. The young lad will 

continue to grow and every day carry the calf which will also grow as he does and become a bull. 

When the other nobleman came, the first showed him a fifteen-year-old boy Hfting a bull. The other 

told one of his knights to Uft the bull which he was unable to do since he was not used to it. 

It is the same is with you. I was telling you that Jacob said to Laban: Aszer owadti imoch, "When I 

worked with you." I point this out to you because I wanted you to work with me as I do. Had you 

gotten used to it, it would have been easier for you to tolerate maso dumo, the "weight of silence.'"^ 

* A possible explanation for the importance that Frank gave to the weight of silence may be Frank's 
unfortunate experience at the hands of the church inquisitors caused by his followers' enthusiastic 

encomiums about him to the CathoUc clergy in 1759. The Church had not taken kindly to the notion, 

however sincere the Frankists' conversion, that it was ultimately from the instruction of one to whom 
the converts looked for guidance who was not a member of the Church hierarchy. The clergy had 

been willing, once, to accept that only Frank himself but not his followers, was guilty of theological 

irregularities. A next time would have damned both, and as the cause, Frank could look forward to 

the severest punishment, not limited to incarceration. -Editor 


In the same way that a chick has to break out of an egg without any help, I must speak of my name to 

the world without help. 


If you could see with your own eyes what happens in the imperial entourage, your children would run 
a thousand miles. But God, taking pity on you, hides it from you. 

1973. There is a good stone. When one wears it, one has an insatiable desire for women. I wore the 

stone with great strength. 


A man does not cUmb a mountain until he first starts at the bottom. Because of this, we must first go 
down and be degraded in the most abject degree. Only then, we can begin to ascend without end. I 

saw the ladder that Jacob saw. It had the form of a V. On some of its rungs one went down, on others, 

one went up. 


When you do not meet danger, you will not reach anything. 


Balaam said to Balak, "Come, I'll advise you as to what these people have to do to your people," but 

he did not tell him what those people had to do. Only your ancient people explained it: that he 
sacrifice to them his daughter and wives. The basis for this was not known, but I was told of it. I ask, 
"What happened that they did it that way then?" And what will become of what we do, when we put 

ourselves with them? 


When the Omnipotent might moves, every power that has existed until now, will become corrupted 
and break into pieces, at which time all the wise men will recognize that a new power is about to 

appear to the world. 


Abraham beseeched God: Ulai timce szom asoro. "Perhaps ten will be found there." And I tell you, 
"If there be nine of you, then I will join you as the tenth, only listen to all my ways." 


How difficult it is that I am below, while my enemy can throw everything down onto me from above. 
But when I start rising, I will not fear anything and I will be safe. 


When you see that I am disturbing many treasures, and I give presents to influential people, I advise 
you not to grumble, as is said: Achapro ponow bamincho. "With a present, I'll ask His pardon." They 
will permit me what I need. Don't grumble about any of my activities, just put a lock on your mouth, 

stand by and watch! 


You alone, can understand in your own minds that when I want to go out into the world, I, who 

almost grew up among you, will have to leave you at the side. So don't you go looking into my 

activities. Not now, when it is a matter concerning the whole world! I must start great wars so that no 

one will pay attention to my activities ! 


Every one of you will yield to my power, and you will see the power with your own eyes. 


Bezalel and Solomon made a candlestick and placed it inside a room. I want to create one thing 

which will burn over the entire world, except that I have no one to help me. Nimrod had a garb 

which, when he wore it, caused all the animals to come to him, and he did with them as he wished. In 

the same way, you will receive a garb at the sight of which all the craftsmen will leave their work and 

the entire town will follow you. Why was David known as 'a beloved man' Isz Chamudos? It was 
because he moved with sureness. But you did not want to follow me. Abraham and Sarah were very 

poor, but when they went to another place, they became rich. 


"In what did you trust and what did you expect?" I was told, "Be hopeful of this or that, because 
when a man has hope and looks to a goal, he eventually reaches it." I expect to reach the thing for 

which I strive. 


Observe! When cloth is to be made, if the weaver does not pass the shuttlecock across the warp, no 
cloth is made. You did not want to go from crown to crown, from place to place, as was said to 
Abraham: lech lecho. "Go, go for your well-being and joy." How can you be with me? You are 

looking at the sky, while I look at the ground. 


Observe! The whole Jewish nation came under the tree of death, because every day you fell on your 
knees with your face down, though I never fell. For this reason everything has to be burned. Kol biur 

chomec,* therefore, those would sink down from their place. 

* The reference to burning 'chumetz' refers to the ritual burning of bread crumbs just before the 

commencement of the Passover holiday when the home is cleansed of all leavened bread as the 

Hebrew Bible enjoins and unleavened bread is eaten for the succeeding week. Here Frank uses the 

reference for his own purposes. -Editor 


Notice! Every gardener, seeing dry branches, cuts them away, so good fruit will grow on the tree. But 

you did not want to abandon your inward delusions. I am telling you, "There will be something new 

on the earth that has not appeared since the day the world was created." Many will faint and though it 

be for your good, still you will become weak and not be able to stand on your own two feet. 


There is a certain reptile found in the mountains. The hut and the reptile itself are made from silver; 
there is one tree from which it eats fruits. It appears to the world for an hour and a half; from 10:30 to 

12:00. The sages of various nations know of it but don't know where it is found. King Solomon 

pursued it but did not reach it. There is a way, though. Give it one thing it likes, and it goes after this 

and releases one drop, like a seed, and the man who is searching for it, can catch it in a container, but 

he has to take the drop away at once because with it, he can become rich and know what was and 

what is to be. 


I ask you the meaning of what is said: Wajowoi Jakow szolom, "Jacob became whole." You interpret 
this word szolom as meaning "whole" *~he came as a complete body. I ask you, "If indeed he limped 

on one foot, then what kind of perfection was it?" He referred to contemporary times. When I send 
you to Warsaw, then you will see with your own eyes that I am whole, that is, complete and perfect in 

body and riches. 

* Shalom is most generally translated from the Hebrew as 'peace' or 'wellbeing' or 'welfare.' The 
concept of 'wholeness' is perhaps related to the idea of 'wellbeing' in that if one is conceived of being 
'whole,' one is in a state of wellbeing. Frank is using the term 'against the grain' to make the point that 

the prior revelation is incomplete, i.e., not 'whole.' -Editor 


When I free myself from all this distress, I will need a great deal of strength to restrain myself from 

suddenly going out to the world with all my riches, because the world will not be able to bear it. 

When I send you to signal my going out into the world, even the little I have now, will be a wonder to 



Jacob said to Laban: Lomo rimisoni? "Why have you cheated me?" But he knew that Laban was a 

cheat. Jacob also told him: Ano achwe dile beramoes. "I am a brother in the deception." That past is 

just a prologue to the present. When my words are realized, the whole world will ask, "Why did you 

deceive me?" Because of that, from this time forth I will not reveal myself. 


Is it possible that the Good God will open the gates for us to enter? From the day the world was 
created, the gates were not opened for anyone, because no one ever stood at the gates and no one is 

familiar with His sanctuary. He knows that I am the holy leader who was given the strength and 
wisdom as to be able to go from place to place, from sea to sea, until we reach the gate, that is: szaar 
le Adonoy, "the Gate of God." The good God looks at my toil and gives me help from a distance, as 

is meant by the words: jogaity umocosi, "I sought and found." In this way, every man has to seek and 
must listen and follow me, step by step, without the slightest hesitation. 


Our ancestors foresaw all the difficulties and the poverty to come, but they did not know about the 

good to follow. Now, on the other hand, this sovereign of poverty and nakedness that controls all 

pain, hardship and worry is squeezing me with all its strength. Had you seen with your own eyes how 

weak I am, and how greatly this sovereign is pressing me, you would run away, but I am sure that, 

when this is revealed, he must give up his efforts. I will make my escape from all the pain and 
plagues. I will eat and drink heartily, and be healthy and strong. This change will be able to be seen 
like an opened nut. For you, the change will be hidden, because if you saw the beautiful road being 
opened to me, you would want to shorten your travail so that you could approach it sooner. But I am 
not like that. I will act as if I had not seen this beautiful future and I will walk around it at a distance 
until the time comes when my words are realized. Only then, will I approach it. You would not want 
to have to circle it frustrated, asking, "Is it not near us?" But, for me, it is not going to be like that! 

My thoughts are not your thoughts. 


There will come a time when you will not recognize me, and, even if you should recognize me, you 

will not be recognized. Everyone who then approaches the sight of the Living God, will cease to 

speak, will only nod his head and say two words, "My God! God!" 


I am the one who revealed everything for you in Iwan, but all my words were hidden in parables. 

Therefore, you did not understand any of it. 


I will not get well completely until my name is revealed to the world and, then, it will be a new name 
szinuj haszem. Later, when more of the world is exposed to my words, I will have strength and 



There will come a time when two mountains come together. That will result in two great lights but 

you will neither know about it nor see it. 


It is better to see with one's eyes than hear with words. This means, "Let us not open our mouths to 

say what is in our hearts." 


I tell you, "It is not among Jews, but rather among Gentiles that there is a great good." I am hopeful 

that I will get all this great good into my hands. 


In a certain place, the people were ordered to walk with lanterns in their hands. People walked with 
lanterns but without candles in them. They were asked why. They repUed, "We do as ordered." They 
were then told to walk with candles in the lanterns, and they walked with candles but these remained 

unUt. They were finally told to carry lighted candles in the lanterns. It is the same between us. 

Candles without fife can't burn and a fife without flames dies out, but when one takes candles and hot 

coals, blows with his mouth, then a flame is created and the candle is lit. Had you followed me, you 

would not be like unlit candles. Coals and sparks would be among you. I blew on you so you would 

burn, as is said: Wajipach beapow niszmas chaim, "From His mouth, he blew a living soul into his 



You have been told about two wise revelations that came to the world. Didn't I tell you several times 

in the rain: Es werden kommen zwei and werden machen ein Larm and die Geschrei. [These two will 

come and cause an alarm and a lament.] This will affect almost the entire world. 


Whoever has not seen Iwa, let him go and search over his house. But I will tell you that whoever is 
not inside as well as outside will not receive this wisdom: Kamain ponim leponim, "water reflects the 

image of the face." 


This present king of Poland has an older brother who almost endangered his own life so that his 

younger brother, the present reigning monarch, could come to the throne. While he sat on the throne, 

his older brother stood afar, not wanting to approach the king, even though the king called his older 

brother to him. The older brother replied, "Before I might speak to you, but, now, I can't approach 

you as in the past." It is the same between I and you. 


You will soon see the daughters of kings with their wealth and royal attire as they wish that I order 

them to serve me. 


It is not necessary that the Messiah come from Jewish ancestry: Ki hu zera habo mimokom acher. 
"Because he is a seed which comes from another place." But, for you, it was fitting that he be from a 

Jewish seed because everything was revealed to you. 


The first matchmaking with Gentiles will be the beginning of entry into D a a s, as is said: Wejeosu 
kulom agudo achas, "One act connects everything." Jacob held on to Esau's foot. We, on the other 

hand, will try for his body to unite with our body. 


Is it possible to approach the king, before one meets with a courtier? Or to some nobleman, before 

one meets a servant? 


There is a certain hill near the Rhine River where grapevines grow from which the best wine is made. 

This is the mountain of Asmodeus. 


You say that a cross has four ends, but you don't know what this means. It means, Edom, Ishmael, 

Esau and Jowon, with everything fitting one into the other. 


This is what Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Simeon, said about his aches, calling out: Bou achai, wereai! 

"Come here, my brothers and friends." I ask you, "What came out of it, and what does the world gain 

from it?" To this I say, "I'm the one who takes upon himself all plagues, all pains and patiently 

endures them." It is known to you that just as a wheat seed will not grow unless it rots completely, 

and in the same way as one, who wants to drink the drops of gold-water, must first have all his 

human strength weakened and then removed from him, and have the old idea put aside before the 

new one, so that the gold-water should multiply and give him new strength and life, so I must take 

upon myself all pains and plagues. And though I do not have any strength now, I must continue to 

suffer. I will not sink under all the plagues that bother me, because, in the end, God will renew my 

years and make me younger. I will become an eagle and be strong and perpetually healthy. In this 

same way, all the people whom we wish to make human beings have to be degraded and then raised 

high, as it is said: Ucoraftim ubechantim, "You will be refined [like precious metal]* and tested [for 

purity]." When I leave my country and my birthplace, the world will see the change in my name and 

body, because with the help of God I shall be strong and healthy. 

* The word in the Polish text reads lutrowac that would appear to be a misprint for lutowac. The 

latter is translated in Stanislawski's Wielki Slownik PolskoAngielski as the verb: "to solder." The 

English word chosen reflects the sense of the preceding, transliterated Hebrew. -Editor 


It was said of the First (Sabbatai) that he used to say: Szemen turak szemecho, "When one pours oil 

from one container to another, etc." But this is false, because Gentiles did not love him at all. When 

my name is revealed and I appear with this name to the world, then you will see with your own eyes 

how I shall be beloved by all Gentiles and how they will all kneel before me. 


There will come a time, I foresee, that when you come to Warsaw, you will hear from the Gentiles 
that you must hold on to these words, "The Good God wants you." 


You used to say: Hoowos hen hen hamerkowo, "Our Patriarchs are a throne." Now, I asked you, 

"Who has seen a chair with three legs." To which, the elders rejoined, "David was indeed the fourth 

leg." To that, the Lord said sadly, "How can this be, when David came several generations after 


2135. 1 tell you according to custom, when you have a request to make of a great lord or the king, that 

it must be written out in a memorial or petition that is first submitted. Only then, are you able to 

converse with the nobleman. This is the way it is done everywhere. First, a voice must be heard, then 

this voice reaches another one, until the request comes to fruition. One must be prepared to hear the 

calls that come from other worlds because every world will hear these voices. 


The word for the North [Wind]: teni! "Give," has been known for a long time. When one does come 
to the North [Wind] to say, "Give!," he will give it up immediately. But, what does he surrender? You 

will find out about that when God shines on your eyes.* 

* The Zohar observes of the North Wind, "Then, at the division of the night" [i.e., midnight], "the 

north wind bestirred itself and the Holy One, blessed be He, executed judgment" [on the Egyptian 

first-born]. 5 Zohar 204 (Soncino Ed.), 149a (Mantua Ed.)-Editor 


I was telling you, for example, about a bird that was pursued by a hunter and was saved by hiding 

under a royal portrait. That pointed out the fact that should you follow me step by step, I would show 

you under which likeness to seek shelter, but you did not want to follow me. 


In the same way that the royal house of David was descended from Boaz and Ruth, now, the kingdom 
of Russia is, as Daniel used to say: Wehacfir hoyzim, "the bird Teiru." 


I ask you what is meant by the words: Chadesz jomenu kekedem, "Renew our days." The elders 

would reply to this: Ke im moos moastonu, "You have abhored us." An angry Lord would say, 

"Indeed, it says at the beginning: Hasziwenu Adonay elecho wenoszuwo, 'Return us, God, to You, 

and we shall be turned.'" Only then, will the renewal of our days occur. Blessed be he who believes in 



I hold you by me so that you can see with your own eyes that there is a true God, a great and 

powerful ruler, unimaginable and even all knowing, and you should all recognize that those who 

would be before me are his seed. But, as for you, you will be far away. 


It says in your teachings that when the high priest was entering the Temple, he used to enter in a 

different body. But this is not true. It is only at the present time, when I enter this precious place ... 

then I change my body into another form. Before I enter, though I am now very feeble, I will become 

even weaker. After that, I'll splash myself with water and I will enter as a high priest who had 

previously entered and left the bath. I would prepare you for this, so you could enter together with 

me; you would accept the form of which I told you in Iwan. I would not be recognized among you 

because we would all be in one form. And I have to be crowned on a throne, although I would seat 

one of you on it while I would be my own ambassador, spending a half a year traveling alone. Then, I 

would return and leave in a different direction. In this way, I would be my own ambassador. Now, I 

don't know what to do, since everything depends on me, and I don't have a helper. I had thought that 

you would be my helpers. 


Those Bayle kabin are angry at me because I did not send you to them when there was a big 'to-do' 

among them; they know that I also have a 'big thing going'; had those two come together, then 

something great would have come out of it. For a long time they have gathered treasures for me that I 

need. Their king wanted me to take his daughter for a wife, but because I did not send you to them, 

they are upset with me and oppress me even on the road. When I went to Frankfurt, they added pain 

to my leg, so much so that I could not walk, and I had to be carried. They say, "Because we are 

constricted, you should be as we are." 


On October 22, 1789, the Lord said these good words, "I push you away from me but only for a 
while. Listen only to what I tell you through my faithful. Be obedient, don't let rain, snow, or dreams 

stop you. Be quick like Abraham, as is said: Wajaszkem Awrohom baboker, 'Abraham arose in the 
morning to do the will of God.' Let that be the way with you." 


Minhag oker halocho. "Habit comes before order." Jews run until the beginning of the Day of 

Atonement, and what are the words: Adoin oilom, "Lord of the world." It would be that I arrived only 

when they said: Hamelech, "the King." Then, Jews on other holidays before that one, begin with 

these words: Isgadal weiskadasz szeme rabo,* "Let it be that Your Great Name is exalted and 

blessed." It is the same here. It will be Isgadal, "exalted" from the beginning. On the Sabbath, 

everyone will be dressed in a white shirt and a beautiful dress. There will come a day that will begin a 

continual Sabbath. 

* These words are the beginning of the 'Kaddish' prayer, the sanctification of God's name, variations 

of which are repeated throughout the Judaic prayer service. It is given to those who are bereaved to 

recite as a memorial to their deceased during the initial eleven months of mourning, on the 

anniversary of death and on liturgical days of general mourning. -Editor 


I ask of you, "What is new?" And you tell me news from the newspapers. My question is to learn 

what is happening among you. I ask because I give you examples and you don't understand them. 

Had I heard something that is true from you, I would then tell you much because I would know that 

God is with you. I by myself can't help you with anything. Why don't you by yourselves understand 

what is present? You don't see or hear that voice crying in the wilderness, "Here you are not worthy, 

but there you will be!" 


There was a time when Esther did not want to entertain Mordechai or other Israelites, for she knew 

that her help would not come from them. She did not invite them so no one could depend on her. 

From the bottom of their hearts, they were to call upon God, in Whose hand is the power. Still, this 

was not enough for her. She invited the King and Haman to dinner at her home, and, then, everyone 

became frightened. In this way, she finished her whole task. Then, she gave everyone a sign. I do the 

same in our time. 


A year has already passed since I was given a pen to sign my name. Though sign I must, I don't want 

to sign until ordered to do so. 

2151. Through you, I can see how to manage the Jews who are all of a stubborn nature. Whoever 
dares to open his mouth against baptism or to say anything bad about it, women as well as men, I will 
march to the street comers and squares under threat of the whip. When you see their poverty, you will 

cry, but it is for their own good, because their nature will be changed then, and they will become 



A town was built wherever Adam, the first man, walked, but wherever I walk everything will be 
destroyed, because I only came to despoil everything. Later, whatever I rebuild, will remain standing 

for centuries. 


I tell you, "Only Esau and Edom comprise the Good of all worlds." I see that the time is close. For 

this reason, I tell you that my help will come from Edom. 


When a king has devoted servants, he will visit them and be happy with them, but when he has none, 

where can he go? 


When a man loses something, he searches and tries to find it in the same place he lost it. For example, 

had I lost something in Fokszanach, would I go to Frankfurt to look for it? No, I would look for it in 

the place I lost it. I tell you, "Soon, two or three of you will see something." Let God help us, so that 

you will remain aUve after crying from great joy. But don't think that this will be all! I tell you that 

what you are going to see, will be Hke half a poppy seed as compared to a great mountain. 


It is said among you: Kemaim ponim leponim hoadom leodom."In the same way you can see yourself 

in water, so a man's heart can see the whole man." And what is it like in the case of a man who is 
whole and loves his Lord with a whole heart! Such a person should not be feared, neither above nor 

below, because this person is loved by Him! 


At present all my extremities are paralyzed, but once I reach the objective I am pursuing, then all my 
parts will be available to me. Ears will hear, eyes will see, and I will raise my hands. 


Balaam, who told of his vision, has lived until now and is a real person. Had you been worthy, you 
could speak with him face to face. In the same way, the Three who lead the world, are also to be 

found in human bodies, here, in this world. 


Matuszewski had a dream in which two believers held a piece of white cloth and were twisting it. 

From it, they squeezed sweet, white honey. This honey he then distributed among the believers. 

Later, they took another piece of white cloth and twisted it. Again, honey came out of it, and, then, 

the cloth turned into real gold. The Lord, on hearing it, interpreted the dream as follows: "In Iwan I 

told you: bechol eis jihiju begodecho lewenim, "Your clothes should always be clean." At the same 

time, I said: Meaz joco mosok. "Sweetness comes from that which is strong." Your dream was 

similar. As it says in your book: Ulwusze kyslag chiwer, "His attire is white as snow," and it also 

says: halben chataenu, etc., kaszleg jalbinu, "Make our sins white." Now, I will tell it to you in this 

way: Wehi skadasztem weihisem kedoiszim, "Become blessed and you will be holy." 


Water flows to the sea but does not fill it, and it returns again to the places from whence it came. This 
has been true for all of the centuries. One century passes while another comes, but thus far, there has 

been no man who could stop the water's flow. I did stop it a little in Brno, but was immediately 
closely watched. Here, I could not stop it. If you were together with me, you could help me to stop it, 

like water which runs quickly into ditches that are dug so it could be absorbed there by itself. It 
would happen in the same way. (Our Lord did not let us come before him from the 22nd to the 26th 

of April.) 


It is said among you: Wehojo or halewono keor hachamo. "The light of the moon will be as the light 
of the sun." This is so because there will come a time when the sun will recognize its Lord and the 

moon its Lady, and for this reason they will glow better. 


What of the fact that you know about El Szadai! It is a fact that on each of the doors of Jewish homes, 

it is written: Szadai.* This means that those doors are the first gate to enter. But, then, why do they 

die, anyway? Abraham also knew El Szadai, and why did he die? 

* Frank is here referring to a mezuzah, the container placed on the doorframes of and in observant 

Jewish homes pursuant to the Biblical injunction set forth in Deuteronomy 11:20. to write God's word 

'to love the Lord' upon the doorposts of one's house and upon one's gates. "Shaddai,' that is. 

'Almighty.' one of the names describing God, is written on one side of the paper (inserted in a 

mezzuzah) on which are written other Biblical verses. -Editor 


I made of you a garden covered with vines. So then, why is a garden made? So that guests and lords 

can be invited to it. If you were a good garden, then there would come to you, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 

Moses, David, Solomon. At the same time our mothers and innocent maidens would come to the 

women. But, now, all this will be delayed until God in his mercy brings it about. 


I ask you, "What does it mean? Wadonoy hiko kol bechor beerec Micraim, . God put all the first born 

to death in Egypt.'" What kind of pride did God take because he killed first-born simple folk: the 

peasants and servants? All that is an omen for the present, as is said: kimeceiso meerec Micraim 

erenu nifloos, "At the end, it will be as during the days of the Exodus from Egypt." I will show you 

magic, meaning that I will put all the first born to death. 


I ask you: What was the penance of Acheawa? The old ones answered, "He moved away from sin and 

returned to God." The Lord was asking, "If his sins were forgiven, why did he die anyway?" It is 
said: Naise odom, "Let us make a man." Even devils contributed a part to it, and they are of the three 
who rule the world. It was said about them: Szlosze hemo niflo mimeni wearboho lo jodaitim, "Three 

are hidden from me, and I don't know the fourth one." 


Judah, after his father's death, separated from his brothers and went to another religion, with his 

family. Only some of his brothers remained Israelites; even the seed of David, in most cases, moved 

to another reUgion and took wives from other nations and even now they remain a royal seed and rule 

among nations, as it is said: loi josur szewet mijehudo. "The sceptor will not be separated from 

Judah." In the same way, the ten generations that went with the Semiramii into slavery, mixed 

themselves with other nations. 


The entire world will fall into great poverty such as has not been seen since the creation of the world. 

One will hate the other; neighbour will swallow his neighbour. Only later, will God show himself to 

the world and a great love will appear among the people. Everyone will then be healed from his 

disease, and it will be recognized and known that there is no other God-besides Him. 


There will come a time when all the believers will stand near a small body of water, only a foot wide. 
He, who is firm in his faith, will be able to go over the water, but he who has something (hidden) in 

his heart, will not be able to cross it. 


Moses did not die but went to another religion and God permitted it. The Israelites in the desert did 

not want to walk that road, and when they came to More, "bitterness," they became aware of that 

freedom and it was in that place where there was no obligation. No man knows where Moses is 

buried, not even the anointed leader of Israel. The Israelites were given those laws of Moses as a 

burden and these are murderous to the common folk, but Toras Adonay temino, "Divine teachings are 

wonderful." No human being, nor any being, had the good fortune to hear those teachings. We hope 

that we will hear them. 


There was a Persian king who had a handsome and wise son. He gave him a very pretty princess for a 

wife, and during his lifetime, gave him the throne. The wife became pregnant, and when the time 

came for delivery, the king went with her to the island known by the name . Happiness.' When she 

began to have labor pains, the king went to seek women to help her. On this island there lived a 

midwife who was experienced in delivering babies, but the king did not know her so he was forced to 

seek someone else. She was the wife of a miller who often visited the shore in search of herbs. The 

king took the midwife to the queen who was safely delivered of a baby boy. The queen became very 

weak after giving birth and the woman took away the baby who was crying, so the queen could rest. 

The midwife then made diapers for the baby and put a tattoo of a rose on his arm. After that, she 

ordered the soldier to watch the child while she hurried to the queen. 

The reason the king could not find the most experienced midwife on the island was as follows: The 

wife of the emperor of Babylonia had not provided a male heir, only one daughter. The nobles of 

Babylonia decided to kill the wife so the emperor could take another woman from their nation who 

could provide him with sons. Suddenly the empress became pregnant, and when the time came to 

give birth, afraid that there would be another girl who would mean death for her, she traveled to the 

island named . Happiness.' The birth came at the same time the Persian empress was about to deliver 

her baby, and this was the reason why the king of Persia, unable to find the most experienced 
midwife, was forced to accept the miller's wife in her stead. The Babylonian nobles, hearing that the 
empress had escaped to the island, came after her. When they heard that she had given birth to a son, 
they still wanted to kill her and also her son. The Empress, realizing their intentions, ordered the old 
woman to hide the child in a cave, while she sent a confidant to the Emperor with the news about the 

birth of a son and the attempt on the lives of herself and her child by the nobles. The old woman, 

following the order of the Empress, put the sign of an eagle on the arm of the child and hid him in a 

cave. When the Emperor arrived on the island and ordered the child to be shown to him, no one could 

find the entrance to the cave. At the same time they noticed a soldier guarding the child of the Persian 

Queen with the sign of a rose on his arm. Thinking that this was the child of the Empress, they 

brought it to the Emperor who decreed the child be given the name of Ottodor. 

When the miller's wife returned to find the soldier missing with the baby, she began a search for the 
child. Hearing a baby crying in a cave, she went there and took the imperial child, giving him to the 

Persian Queen who gave the baby the name Floryan. 

And in this fashion, the children were mixed up, one here, one there. When Ottodor grew older at the 
Imperial Court, he did not want to listen to the Emperor. To teach him discipline, the Emperor 

decided to make him a simple soldier. If he carried out orders, he would be promoted from level to 
level until he was worthy to take over the throne. And so it happened. Ottodor steadily advanced until 

he reached the rank of general and was respected in the army. At this point the Empress asked the 

Emperor to make her son the commander of the Army. In the meantime, Ottodor fell in love with the 

Emperor's daughter, and wanted to take her for his wife. 

The Emperor grew frightened when he learned that a brother wanted to take his sister for a wife, so 
he gave him large sums of money and sent him on a trip to far-away lands for a period of three years 

to learn courtly manners in other courts. 

Now, there came a time when kings began to conduct tournaments among themselves. The winner of 
a tournament was immediately listed in the chronicle, and the king who was the winner, was listed 

among the knights. 

Among those who came was the Persian King who wanted to prove his manhood. He came up 

against the brother of the Babylonian Emperor and killed him in the fight. Then, the Queen of Persia 

died and the King went into deep mourning over her demise. Overcome with grief, he went to foreign 

lands to seek to forget his sorrow. He reached the city where the Emperor of Babylonia lived. The 

people recognized him as the killer of the Emperor's brother, so they seized him and he was 

imprisoned. The imprisoned King's [true] son, Floryan, was sitting on the Babylonian throne in place 

of his grieving father who was away on a trip. Having been made aware that the Persian King was in 

prison, he dressed up in woman's clothes. In this way he could get to the king and free him, because 

he knew this king to be his true father. 

Dressed in a white gown, he sat down in the shadow of a tree while considering ways to save his 

father, when he was encountered by Ottodor who asked him, thinking that it was a woman to whom 

he was speaking, "Why are you so sad?" "Because of my father," replied the woman dressed in white, 

"who is sitting in slavery in the emperor's prison." Ottodor replied to this, "I am the Emperor's son 

and I'll seek a way to free your father." 

Ottodor became enchanted by the disguised Floryan, and not waiting for the three years of travel to 
end, returned to his father' court. "Why did you hurry to come back, " the Emperor asked Ottodor, 

"after I ordered you not to return to the court for three years?" "I found an especially beautiful 
maiden," said Ottodor, "who has enslaved my heart. I ask you, father, to give her to me for a wife." 
The emperor thought to himself that it was better to agree to this than to give him his own sister, so 

he said, "Good! Do as you want." 

Then Floryan and Ottodor began to discuss ways of releasing the Persian King from prison. 

The castle in which the prisoner was kept, stood across from the palace of the widow whose husband 

he had killed. The widow seeing the prisoner all the time, fell in love with him, and letting him out of 

prison, invited him to parties, going so far as to sleep with him. She became pregnant by him, giving 

birth to a little girl. The Persian King then disguised her in boys' clothing, and the child appeared as 

the son of the killed knight. 

Suddenly, Ottodor stood before the prison gate with a drawn sword, demanding the release of the 
prisoner from the guards. The frightened guards obeyed the order and the Persian King escaped to his 


In the meantime, the daughter of the widow and the Persian king grew. Floryan liked her very much 

because she was especially beautiful, but Ottodor thinking always that Floryan was a maiden, 

demanded to marry him. Then Floryan revealed to Ottodor that he was a man and asked him not to 

expose his secret before anyone. Ottodor, again turned his love toward his sister, and the Emperor 

seeing this, became angry and put him in prison. Floryan decided to save him. He put on two sets of 

clothing and went to the prison, dressed Ottodor in some of the clothing and surprising the guards, 

helped Ottodor to escape. They then went off to the Persian King. 

The Babylonian Emperor sent knights in pursuit including a strong Tatar. Ottodor killed him. When 

the daughter of the widow found out about it, she followed Floryan and finding him in an inn, 

persuaded the owner to drug him to sleep with a drink. When that happened, she took a spear in her 

hand, and approached quietly, wanting to kill the sleeping person. Then the spear fell out of her hand, 

and when her maid went to pick it up, the candle which she was holding in her other hand, touched 

the curtain and caught fire. Floryan woke up, and seeing the spear in the hand of a woman, realized 

that he was about to die and he fell on his knees, asking for mercy. The woman promised that she 

would spare his life on condition that he marry her. Florian swore to it but requested that she return to 

her mother and wait there for him. Following upon that, both princes made their way to the Persian 

King. The day came when the news arrived that the Babylonian Emperor wanted to marry off his 

daughter to a prince and that the date for the wedding had been arranged. Ottodor was greatly 
saddened by this, but Floryan collected armies and attacked the Babylonian Emperor. The Empress 

seeing this, revealed to the Emperor that Floryan, not Ottodor, was his true son which he could 
confirm by the eagle on Floryan's arm. "Because Ottodor is the son of the Persian King, the daughter 

of your brother is worthy to take Floryan." This is what actually happened. Ottodor married the 
Emperor's daughter, and Floryan the daughter of the Emperor's brother; while the King married the 

widow, and in this way, war was avoided. 

It is the same here. In every way, everything must come to its appointed end.* 

("This story," declares the Book of the Words of the Lord, "the Lord directed Jan Wolowski, before 

his departure, to tell to all the people of the Company staying in Offenbach, and to each person 

individually, in order to remember it.") Nota beni. The manuscript, from which the foregoing sayings 

were reprinted, differs in length, correctness of wording and numbering, from the manuscript in the 

possession of the literary collector Przezdziecki. Sayings that were used in the text, were also copied 

from a full manuscript that was generously made available to me [the author].** 

* The foregoing story, lengthy and somewhat confusing in the telling, suggests that at the end of his 

life, Frank had lost the tinge of nastiness that had colored so many of his actions and his sayings, 

wanting finally only to leave to his followers the vision of a peaceable community!- Editor 

** The foregoing Sayings (beginning with no. 1 103) appeared at the end of volume II of the Polish 

text. The Polish text also includes four Appendices. As noted earlier, one is a list of names of the 508 

Frankists converted at Lviv in 1759, the other three are the original German texts of travel documents 

quoted at length in this translation. Those documents are available in the original Polish text and are 

of antiquarian interest only. There appears no reason to include these in an English translation of the 

Polish original. -Editor 

Jacob Frank's Saying 


Jacob Frank's Saying 

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Jacob Frank's Saying 

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Jacob Frank's Saying 

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Jacob Frank's Saying 

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Jacob Frank's Saying 

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The Rothschilds Take Japan 

By Clifford Shack 

Like the American & French Revolutions, World Wars I & II were orchestrated by elite Freemasons within the 
lUuminati Lodges on both sides of the Atlantic. Of the four original lodges of the Illuminati, one was formed by 
Jacob Frank, the Sabbatean and claimant to the Messianic throne of Shabbatai Tzvi. Belonging to this particularly 
influential lodge at the heart of Freemasonry are members of the Rothschild banking family. 

The Rothschilds have been linked to the political players of World War II. Their influence over the Allied powers 
have been explored through their connections to Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill . Their influence 
over the neutral powers have been explored through their connections to the Vatican. Their influence over the Axis 
powers has been explored through their connections to Hitler & Stalin . 

But what about the Japan? How did the Japanese manage to become embroiled in World War II? Surely their 
participation warranted a close connection to the Rothschilds and the Illuminati? 

How did the family Rothschild and their secret brethren establish hegemony over the Japanese? 

The answer is quite simple. 

In the nineteenth century, after Freemasonry had established sufficient inroads within Japan, it was determined that 
the time had come to overthrow the shogunate and bring Japan under the control of Freemasonry. The Rothschild's 
would send Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry sailing into Yokohama. 

According to history. President Millard Fillmore sent Perry to Japan. Not some supra-national secret power. That 
is as it should be. The Rothschilds, Shabbatai Tzvi, Jacob Frank, Freemasonry and the Illuminati are a bit much for 
the consumption of school children. Too much for students of any age for that matter. 

Where is the Rothschild connection to the Perry expedition? 


Commodore Perry was the father-in-law of August Belmont- the Rothschild's agent in America. August Belmont, 
was the illegitimate son of Baron Karl Meyer Rothschild of the Rothschild branch in Naples, Italy. 

August Belmont married Caroline Perry on November 7th, 1849. 

By mid- January 1852 the Commodore was ordered to "proceed to Washington and report to the Secretary of the 
Navy without delay." He had, as August Belmont wrote his [foster] father, "a very honorable and respectable 
command over the greatest fleet which was ever appointed in peace times to an American commodore. Namely, he 
is going with 6 battleships to East India, China, and Japan, and, in addition to being the commander of the fleet, 
also has a diplomatic mission" - to open Japan to Western trade. 

The Belmont family, The Hague, about 1854. (Left to right) Isabel Perry, August Belmont, Perry Belmont, 
Caroline Belmont, Fredericka Belmont, Jane Perry, August Belmont,Jr., Matthew Calbraith Perry. 

All^ll-I l*^'Ull..llle 

August Belmont 

Belmont's father-in-law, Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853 

In 1853 United States Commodore Matthew Perry and his entourage met with Japan's royal commissioner in 
Yokohama, Japan. With a fleet of American gunships docked in the harbor. Perry presented the Japanese with a 
trade and friendship treaty. He returned the next year with an even more impressive fleet to assure the signing of 
the treaty. 

Commodore Perry with his translator speaking to a Japanese official 

^TTjI tsci** 


- ■ f of * 


Above is the American view of the first landing by the East India Squadron. 

Above is the Japanese view of the first landing by the East India Squadron. 

Commodore Perry's monument, Kurihama, Japan [1977] 

Japanese Freemasonry 

The Overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate 


The Rothschilds,Churchill and "The Final 


A view of the Rothschild's involvement in World War II and 

the founding of Israel 

By Clifford Shack 

According to accepted history, Adolf Hitler masterminded the Holocaust. Sorry, although this story 
was presented with much authority... it is just not true. Adolf Hitler was a frontman for the House of 
Rothschild. So too was his adversary Winston Churchill. So too was Josef Stalin (Sorry but Stalin's 
Rothschild affiliations will not be covered here) 

The historic irony is that when all the facts are known, it is more likely that Winston Churchill had 
more of a hand in masterminding the Holocaust than Hitler. This should sound outrageous. . .by 
design. A great deal of effort went into hiding the fact that World War II was a phony war engineered 
by the Global elitists, among them men like Churchill. 

Winston Churchill once said: 

"In war-time, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies." 

To a war planner like Churchill, war-time begins many years before the actual physical war occurs. It 
begins as a thought in the mind of a man. Then the thought is discreetly shared with like-minded 
men. From there it gains momentum and is committed to implementation. Then the plan is 
meticulously devised and worked out over years by skillful and experienced planners, detail by detail. 
At every step, the truth is carefully attended by a "bodyguard of lies". 

It is well known among those who have seriously studied the subject of war, that wars, being very 
expensive, have had to been financed by a special group of bankers called "International bankers". 
The greatest among these bankers is the House of Rothschild, which has been quietly exerting its 
financial and political power over world events from well behind the scenes for over two hundred 
years. The influence and importance of this awesome multinational banking dynasty cannot be 
overstated. Up until 1914, even accepted history admits that it was easily the biggest bank in the 
world. However, after 1914, the fallacy of its dwindling influence and importance has been 
perpetuated to distance it from the carnage that was to occur in the world with the onset of the World 

To begin to penetrate "the bodyguard of lies", surrounding the Rothschild-Churchill connection and 
their role as Holocaust planners, we must turn to Churchill's remarkable tie to the London branch of 
the House of Rothschild. 

Of the two politicians of the post-Disraeli era to whom the Rothschilds were probably closest, one 
was a relative through marriage, Rosebery. The other was Randolph Churchill- the father of Winston 
Churchill. To say that Randolph had a close relationship to Nathaniel Rothschild, the head of the 
London house, is really somewhat of an understatement. So too would the word intimate. It was said 
that Randolph Churchill had an "excessive intimacy" with the Rothschilds, specifically with "Natty". 
Lady Salisbury, the wife of the Tory Prime Minister, Lord Robert Cecil , "launched out against 
Randolph who communicated everything to Natty Rothschild". According to the official Rothschild 
biographer, Niall Ferguson: "The evidence of an excessively close relationship seems compelUng, 
especially in view of the precariousness of Churchill's personal finances. As is now well known- 
though his earher biographers suppressed the fact- he died owing the London house "the astonishing 
sum of '66,902," 

It was observed that" [Randolph] Churchill and Natty Rothschild seem[ed] to conduct the business of 
the empire in great measure together..." Although Rothschild was a banker, it should be noted that for 
the first time, a Rothschild was engaged in politics as a vocation for its own sake... Nevertheless, he 
did spend most of the working day at his offices at New Court; and as a banker his primary concern 
was with foreign policy. 

The motive of haute finance was gain; to attain it, it was necessary to keep in with the governments 
whose end was power and conquest. There was no government on earth that satisfied the Rothschilds 
appetite for gain more than Britain. As could be seen by the relationship between Randolph Churchill 
and Natty Rothschild, the interests of Britain and Rothschild were so intertwined that they could be 
considered inseparable. As Rothschildian foreign poUcy was interconnected with British foreign 
policy, both would rely on a strong Royal Navy. 

Foreign poHcy and naval poHcy were most intimately connected. As one statesman of the times 
summed it up: "The smaller our naval power, the more difficult our foreign policy. If our naval power 
dropped to such a point that we were in an inferior position in home waters, our foreign policy would 
be impossible... We should have to give way on every diplomatic question, and no self-respecting 
Empire could hold together... the weaker our Navy is, the more difficult foreign policy becomes; the 
stronger our Navy is, the easier foreign policy becomes. That is really the intimate connection 
between the two. 

No naval issue would affect Britain's foreign policy more than the crucial debate whether or not the 
Royal Navy Fleet should be converted from coal propulsion to oil. The outcome of this technical 
decision among British policy makers would have astonishing and far-reaching effects. 

The advantages of oil were clear... The benefits would be faster speed and greater efficiency and 
maneuverability. The problem was that oil (at that time) didn't grow in Britain, and the majority of 
the admirals, therefore, felt more secure depending on native Welsh coal, and insisted on continuing 
to do so. 

This reluctance was unacceptable to the House of Rothschild, and schemes were underway to 
surmount these feelings, as oil was already known to be the future energy of the world. 

Oil was not only superior to coal, but the French branch of the Rothschilds were, together with the 
Rockefellers, supreme rulers of the oil business having entered into a world cartel with Standard Oil, 
now Exxon. Oil revenues would be an important source to the financial power base of these global 
elitists as they pursued their dreams of world conquest. Britain would be manipulated to give up its 
native fuel supply and rely on an energy source half way around the world. Squeamish admirals be 

The British people themselves would be another obstacle. They were reluctant to pay for any new 
military spending, wishing to keep the national budget focused on domestic issues. The idea of 
bringing the Royal Navy into the industrial age would have to take a back seat. It was a classic guns 
or butter debate. "Is Britain going to surrender her maritime supremacy to provide old-age pensions?" 
the Daily Express declaimed. 

The people of Britain would have their modern navy and they would pay for it as well. Rothschild- 
manipulated international events would make sure of that. 

Natty Rothschild was a keen proponent of increases in the strength of the Royal Navy. "The 
strengthening of the Navy is always popular amongst all classes," he assured his French relatives in 
1908 - a year he spoke publicly in favor of building eight dreadnought battleships at a large meeting 
at the Guildhall. 

There is no doubt that the Rothschilds had their own economic interests in the rearmament. In 1888 
the London house issued shares worth •225,000 for the Naval Construction and Armaments 
Company. Natty had grasped early on the importance of increased naval construction. He remained 
an enthusiast for naval construction even when it was obvious that the costs were likely to lead to 
higher taxes. [If late-nineteenth-century imperialism had its "military-industrial complex" the 
Rothschilds were unquestionably part of it. ] 

The modernization of the British Royal Navy would be accomplished by the classic problem-reaction- 
solution ploy. In classic balance of power style, Germany would commence a naval build up. The 
British people would think nothing of this, as peace existed between the two countries. The whole 
scene would change when a German warship threatened British interests. An international crisis 
naturally develops. The people are guided to think that there really is an international problem. To 
calm their fears they are sold on the idea of modernizing the Royal Navy rather than funding all sorts 
of domestic issues. 

This is precisely what happened. The late nineteenth century saw the beginning of a German naval 
build-up. Then, on July 1,191 1, in the middle of the guns and butter debate. Kaiser Wilhelm, a 
Rothschild frontman, sent a gunboat called the Panther steaming into the harbor at Agadir, on the 
Atlantic coast of Morocco. This was a direct challenge to British global positions. By sheer 
coincidence, immediately after the Agadir crisis, Rothschild protg Winston Churchill was 
appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. 

As First Lord of the Admiralty, Churchill vowed to do everything he could to prepare Britain 
militarily for the "inescapable day of reckoning". His charge was to ensure that the Royal Navy, the 

symbol and very embodiment of Britain's imperial power, was to meet the German "challenge" on the 
high seas. According to Daniel Yergin's Pulitzer prize winning book, The Prize: The Epic Quest for 
Oil, Money and Power: "One of the most important and contentious questions he faced was 
seemingly technical in nature, but would in fact have vast implications for the twentieth century. The 
issue was whether to convert the British Navy to oil for its power source, in place of coal, which was 
the traditional fuel. Many thought that such a conversion was pure folly, for it meant that the Navy 
could no longer rely on safe, secure Welsh coal, but rather would have to depend on distant and 
insecure oil supplies from Persia, as Iran was then known. 

Churchill said, "To commit the Navy irrevocably to oil was indeed 'to take arms against a sea of 
troubles,' " 

But the strategic benefits- greater speed and more efficient use of manpower- were so obvious to him 
that he did not dally. He decided that Britain would have to base its "naval supremacy upon oil" and, 
thereupon, committed himself, with all his driving energy and enthusiasm, to achieving that 
objective. There was no choice-in Churchill's words, "Mastery itself was the prize of the venture." 

It was this very "sea of troubles" that would occupy Churchill throughout his long political career. Of 
course he was to have the support of the British government and the Rothschilds with their vast and 
furtive financial and political connections. 

The "sea of troubles" that faced Churchill, was the seemingly impossible task of securing permanent 
and safe oil supplies. This "sea", like the world of oil itself, could be divided into three. The 
"upstream" comprises exploration and production. The "midstream" are the tankers and pipelines and 
transportation routes that carry crude oil to refineries. The "downstream" includes refining, 
marketing, and distribution. 

The first task was to secure the "upstream". On June 17, 1914, Churchill introduced a bill proposing 
that the British government invest in an oil company. With a vote of 254 to 18, the British 
government acquired 51 per cent of Anglo-Persian. Anglo-Persian, however, was not to be Britain's 
sole supplier of oil as Churchill stated to Parliament in 1913, "On no one quality, on no one process, 
on no one country, on no one route and on no one field must we be dependent. Safety and certainty in 
oil lie in variety, and variety alone." By the summer of 1914, the British Navy was fully committed to 
oil and the British government had assumed the role of Anglo-Persian's majority stockholder. Oil, for 
the first time, but certainly not the last, had become an instrument of national policy, a strategic 
commodity second to none. 

To meet the necessity of securing foreign sources of oil, puppet regimes would be established in 
countries like Persia, later to be named Iran. To meet Churchill's call for variety, the oil of 
Mesopotamia would be secured as well, although not as easily as Persia. To achieve this aim, the 
Ottoman Empire would first have to be dismantled. Before that could happen it would have to be 
conquered. This task would be accomplished by the keepers of the Concert of Europe-the House of 
Rothschild. The global eUtist device that achieved this objective was World War I. During World 
War I, Churchill was in charge of the Dardanelle campaign aimed at taking Constantinople, the 
capital of the Ottoman Empire. For a variety of reasons, history views his campaign as a failure. In 

reality, however it was a crowning success for the war planners. For not only did the Dardanelle 
campaign spell the beginning for the end of the Ottoman empire, but the feigned bungling of the 
operation set in motion a series of orchestrated events that would empower the Turks to execute the 
Armenian genocide. Eliminating the Armenian presence in the Baku oil region eliminated the ethnic 
conflict between the region's Moslem majority which actually interrupted the oil production in 1905, 
when the oil fields were set ablaze. 

With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the huge oil fields of Mesopotamia came under British 
control. To the victor belong the spoils. Mesopotamia would be divided into a newly designed 
integrated region whose chief function would be a safe and secure energy supply system. This system 
would be comprised of new states, carefully designed in a balance of power fashion to insure steady 
flow of the precious oil beneath the ground. Designed by the global elite, these new states were 
named Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait. Puppet-kings would be installed, and they would be 
manipulated by British agents such as T.E.Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia), and St. John Philby. 

With the "upstream" "troubles" managed and in place in the new Middle East, the "sea of troubles" 
surrounding the "midstream" would have to be addressed... 

Although Winston Churchill had stressed to Parliament," on no one route... must we be dependent", it 
was obvious that the Suez Canal was clearly the only practical tanker route from the Middle East oil 
fields to Europe. Of course, there was the route around the cape of Africa, but that was a dismally 
long, arduous and expensive alternate route. Not to mention the fact that the longer the route, the 
greater the threat for potential attack during wartime. The short Suez Canal route would be much 
simpler and of course cheaper to protect. Securing the Suez Canal region from threat would be the 
next focus of the global elitists. Churchill would not take a back seat. 

A quiet yet urgent concern with the Suez Canal region was the fact that the Suez Canal company was 
granted a concession scheduled to run out in 1968, at which time the 100 year-old lease would run 
out and the Canal 's ownership would revert back into Egyptian control. Egypt would have the power 
of life and death over Britain and the rest of Europe should that occur without security measures put 
into place to prevent that catastrophe. The Rothschilds had been quietly working on this particular 
dilemma since the canal was acquired by Britain (with their money). 

Baron Edmond de Rothschild, the oil expert within the French branch of the Rothschilds had 
spearheaded the effort to establish a puppet colony friendly to Western European interests. It was 
intended to play a vital role in a security system for the soon-to-emerge Middle East slated to replace 
the failing Ottoman Empire. The Rothschild's progress would be careful, slow and calculated. Too 
slow, however, for the one person who would come to threaten the entire operation. 

Theodor Hertzl forced his way onto the world stage. He was the Paris correspondent for the Vienna 
newspaper Neue Freie Presse. He covered the sensational Dreyfus affair, where a French Jew named 
Alfred Dreyfus was falsely accused of selUng military secrets to the Germans. The furor of anti- 
Semitism that the case sparked compelled Hertzl to formulate a solution to the Jewish homeland 
problem. He reasoned that if the Jews could be reunited in a land that they could call their own, then 
they would not have to be subjected to the sort of treatment that they have been forced to endure 

throughout the ages. 

Hertzl's famous pohtical pamphlet, "The Jewish State", originally took the form of a letter directed to 
the Rothschilds. His intention was to appeal to the noble sensibilities of the most powerful family the 
Jewish people have ever produced during their Diaspora. Although Albert Rothschild of the Vienna 
branch refused to meet with Hertzl, he did gain audiences with Baron Edmond de Rothschild and 
Lord Natty of the Paris and London houses, respectively. The impact of these meetings would have a 
devastating impact on the destiny of the Jews of Europe. To gain a more thorough understanding of 
the Hertzlian threat to Rothschild plans for a safe and secure Suez oil corridor, cHck here . 

At the time of Hertzl's death, Rothschild's protg, Winston Churchill, was on a swift and 
deliberate career path preparing him for his role in the Rothschildian response to the prospect of 
massive unrestricted Jewish immigration into Palestine. By 1905, he became Undersecretary to the 
Colonial Office. The Colonial Secretary, Lord Elgin, had shown Churchill all documents and let him 
join all policy discussions. In 1906, while at the Colonial Office, Churchill was one of the first 
political figures to recognize the principle of a Jewish homeland. Indeed, at a time of division 
between Jewish groups on whether to settle in Palestine or East Africa, Churchill saw that "Jerusalem 
must be the ultimate goal. When it will be achieved it is vain to prophesy: but that it will some day be 
achieved is one of the few certainties of the future." That is what he wrote in 1908, to one of his 
Manchester constituents, but the phrase was deleted in the final draft of his letter. 

On February 14, 1910, Churchill, the "young man in a hurry", was appointed home secretary. He was 
merely thirty-five. Among his responsibilities were national security, England's police force, law and 
order, and immigration. 

In 1911, after the Agadir incident he would become First Lord of the Admiralty, where he would 
commit the Royal Navy to oil. Ten years later diplomats from Whitehall would quietly divide up the 
Middle East in a muffled version of their nineteenth-century scramble for African possessions. 
France would get Syria and Lebanon; Persia (Iran) would come under "British protection"; and 
Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Palestine came within Britain's sphere of influence, providing the Empire 
with a direct overland route between imperial troops in Egypt and the oil rich Persian Gulf region. 

With the oil regions secured, the next task was insuring that it would remain that way. Under the 
guise of a Jewish homeland, the British would establish a military-oriented security state loyal to the 
West. This colony would be the keystone of the entire Middle East security system. The very survival 
of this colony, however, was potentially threatened by the uncontrolled influx of massive European 
Jewish immigration into the region. Such ethnic calamity would threaten the entire Middle East 
energy supply. Only by eliminating the reservoir of potential immigrants could the integrity of the 
colony be preserved. Once a pre-determined immigration quota was satisfied, strict laws would be 
put into place sealing any further admission into the small land. Once these laws were in place, a 
great operation would be put into motion to exterminate the remaining potential immigrants. This 
operation would be known as the Holocaust. 

Late in 1920, Churchill told Lloyd George that he wanted to move to another cabinet post. On 
February 14, 1921, Churchill was appointed Colonial Secretary. When he took over the Colonial 

Office, the Balfour declaration was part of his legacy. The declaration, promulgated in 1917 when 
Arthur Balfour was foreign secretary, was actually formulated by the Rothschilds for the Rothschilds. 
The text was prepared by Leo Amery, assistant secretary to the War Cabinet. Amery worked under 
the Rothschild frontman. Lord Milner, who was a member of the inner War Cabinet. The declaration 
was addressed to Natty Rothschild's son, Walter. It proclaimed that the British government favored 
"the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to 
facilitate the achievement of that object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which 
may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine." 

Winston Churchill's commitment to the Rothschild-sponsored Jewish state in Palestine was 
"absolute". He understood the security role it would play in the emerging oil region. As Colonial 
secretary he was in a position to oversee the most important aspect to the project- immigration. The 
problem would be more complicated than controlling the pace and numbers of people entering the 
colony. Quality immigrants would be a crucial concern, hence strict discrimination, would be a 
guiding force in the immigration process. 

On May 31, 1921, Churchill reported to the cabinet of Arab complaints and the "current accounts of 
the inferior quality of recent Jewish immigrants." More than anything else it was the "quality" issue 
surrounding Jewish immigration into Palestine that would determine the necessity of the Holocaust. 
Those concerned with the success of the colonization process could stem the tides, but they couldn't 
change the masses of negative human material confronting them. 

Within the Jewish community, the two groups which gave the Rothschilds most concern, according 
to Ferguson, were nouveaux riches -Jewish bankers and businessmen who had made their fortune 
more recently than the Rothschilds-and, perhaps more important, Ostjuden: the much more numerous 
Jews of Eastern Europe (principally though not exclusively from the Russian empire), 2.5 million of 
whom migrated westwards after the pogroms sparked off by the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 
and the new discriminatory laws introduced the following year. The new poor were at least as great a 
source of embarrassment as the nouveaux riches. Forwarding a letter on the subject of German anti- 
Semitism, Natty told Disraeli in 1880 regarding the causes of Jewish persecution: 

"There are also a great many other reasons. . .among them the constant influx of Polish Russian and 
Roumanian Jews who arrive in a state of starvation and are socialists until they become rich." 

According to this revealing statement we can see that poor Jews, rich Jews, and all the Jews in 
between were a source of concern to the Rothschilds. As socialism would be the tool by which the 
super rich would control the masses, Jews active in independent socialism, would be obstacles to this 
scheme. In short, the elimination of the European Jewish community was necessary for a variety of 

During the debate of the Alien Act of 1905, Natty Rothschild argued that such legislation "would 
certainly affect deserving and hard-working men, whose impecunious position on their arrival would 
be no criterion of their incapacity to attain independence." His son Walter echoed this view." Great 
Britain," he argued, "should be the refuge for the oppressed and unjustly ill-treated people of other 
nations so long as they were decent and hard-working." 

The Rothschilds could not lend their sympathy to those immigrants who were not "deserving, decent 
or hard-working". The undeserving, indecent, and lazy people would be obstacles to all future 
Rothschild schemes. Whether it was the establishment of a Jewish military colony in Palestine, or the 
United States of Europe, there was no room for masses of miserably poor, unproductive "useless 
eaters", with strange customs and behavior designed to separate, not assimilate. The elimination of 
the Jews of Europe was essential to the success of the New World Order. The Rothschildian 
operation known today as the Holocaust, would be carried out from the top down with utter stealth, 
employing all of the experience, agencies and connections at the disposal of the vast banking empire. 
Employing the talents and efforts of frontmen like Churchill, Hitler, Pacelli (Pius XII), Roosevelt and 
Stalin, these feigned axis-allied-neutral camps, would all be invisibly linked together by a super- 
secret Rothschildian supranational intelligence network. This network, the best kept secret of the 
twentieth century, virtually orchestrated World War II from start to finish. Not the least of the aims of 
this Jewish intelligence web was, ironically, the destruction of the European Jewish masses, thus 
insuring the success of the state of Israel and its role within the security system of the Middle East oil 


Hertzl's Series of Meetings With The Rothschilds 

On July 18,1896, Theodor Hertzl met with Baron Edmond de Rothschild. Hertzl assumed that 
Edmond would be most favorable to his plan as he was already financing a number of Jewish 
settlements in Ottoman-controlled Palestine. Hertzl was received, not in the Baron's home, but 
in his office on the rue Laffitte, where so many humble pleaders for Rothschild's benevolence 
had been received before. 

As he was waiting in the anteroom, one of the Baron's aides assured Hertzl that Rothschild "is 
a human being like ourselves." The information did not amaze Hertzl, but the servility it 
reflected merely increased his annoyance. The Baron came in soon after. He impressed Hertzl 
as an "aging youth, his movements quick and yet shy...with a long nose and an ugly, large 
mouth. He wore a red necktie and a white waistcoat that flapped about his thin body." Two 
aides were present. It seemed to Hertzl that Rothschild wanted them there for his protection 
"in case I turned out to be an anarchist." Rothschild himself later admitted that he had asked 
his aides to stay as witnesses so that Hertzl would not be able to spread Ues about their 

"To what extent are you famiUar with my plan?" Hertzl began. The Baron lost himself in a 
disjointed refutation of Hertzl's program which he knew only through hearsay. His two aides 
nodded emphatically at his every word. 

After flve minutes Hertzl interrupted Rothschild, who was not used to such bluntness. "You 
don't know what it is all about. Let me explain it to you first. A colony is a small state; a state is 
a big colony. You want a small state; I want to build a big colony." 

Once more, as so many times in the past, he unfolded his plan for consoUdating the Turkish 
national debt in return for a Jewish vassal state in Palestine. He told Rothschild he did not have 
to make up his mind immediately. He asked only for Rothschild's conditional agreement. Only 
in the case of success would Rothschild be asked to place himself at the head of the movement, 
at which time he, Hertzl, would voluntarily withdraw. If it proved impossible to conclude a 
transaction with the Turks, there would be no movement and no need for his leadership and 

Rothschild Hstened attentively, at times with surprise. Occasionally Hertzl thought he even 
detected admiration in the Baron's eyes. But he was wrong. Rothschild quickly made clear that 
he wanted nothing to do with the project. His reasoning was simple; it echoed an astute world 
wise banker's practical concerns, not a naive poUticians vision. "It would be impossible to 
control the influx of the masses into Palestine," he said. "The first to arrive would be a hundred 
fifty thousand schnorrers (beggars). They would have to be fed, presumably by me. I don't feel 
up to that-but perhaps you do!" he added sarcastically. 

A battle of words ensued for about two hours. But Rothschild was not convinced of the 

feasibility of Hertzl's plan of action. Twice he repeated a proverb: II ne faut pas avoir les yeux 
plus gros que le ventre (It does not do to have eyes bigger than one's stomach). When 
Rothschild said that there would be no curbing of the masses, one aide said darkly, "Yes, just 
what happened at Chodinko," referring to a plain outside Moscow where a frightened mass of 
Jewish refugees from a czarist pogrom had recently suffered great hardship. 

If Rothschild considered Hertzl a megalomaniac, Hertzl for his part considered Rothschild a 
narrow-minded coward. Rothschild's efforts were of no use at all; in twelve years only a few 
hundred famiUes had been resettled. But in Eastern Europe millions were waiting to be helped. 

"You were the keystone of the entire combination," Hertzl said bitterly as he turned to leave. 
"If you refuse, everything I have fashioned so far will collapse. I shall then be obhged to do it in 
a different way. I shall start a mass agitation. "And," he threatened, "that way it will be even 
harder to keep the masses under control. I was going to turn the direction of the entire project 
over to you... You think it would be a disaster to operate with such great masses. Consider 
whether the misfortune would not be greater if your refusal forces me to set the masses in 
motion by uncontrollable agitation." 

As necessity is the mother of invention, was it possible that these very words, uttered by Hertzl, 
gave birth to the necessity of the Holocaust in the mind of Baron Edmond de Rothschild on that 
innocent Paris summer day? Did the plan continue to unfold amidst the ensuing incessant 
correspondence that occurred between the Rothschild cousins on a daily basis? 

Hertzl, for his part, had made a fatal assumption that the Baron was involved in colonizing 
Palestine for philanthropic reasons. Had he seen through this cover story, he would have 
reaUzed, that by directly threatening to overrun the Jewish colony, he was threatening the 
security device for the world's emerging energy supply. The supply slated to fuel the impending 
New World Order. Hertzl had placed the Jewish masses in utter peril. 

The Rothschilds would not have to wait long to determine if Hertzl would remain true to his 

Before he left Paris, Hertzl addressed a meeting of Jewish students. The hall was filled to 
overflowing with the sons and daughters of poor Jewish refugees who had escaped to France 
from persecution in Eastern Europe. Hertzl gave a rousing speech, urging them to organize 
their ranks, concluding with the words, Je ne vous dis pas encore, marchons-je dis seulement, la 
jeunesse, debout!" ( I am not as yet saying to you. Forward march- 1 say only. Youth, to your 

By the turn of the century, Jewish immigration would be a matter of national concern in 
England, as masses of poor Eastern European Jewish refugees were choking London's East 
End. It was during this time, in 1900, that young Winston Churchill was elected to ParUament. 
Churchill would learn valuable lessons in deaUng with Jewish immigration through sleight of 
hand poHtics from his Rothschild mentors. 

On the one hand the Rothschilds understood the necessity of legislation to restrict the flow of 
their Eastern European co-rehgionists. As early as 1891,in response to a letter received by the 
anti-immigration campaigner Arnold White, Natty Rothschild wrote: "I share with you the 
opinion that an influx of persons of foreign birth, Ukely to become a public charge by reason of 
physical incapacity or mental disease, is most undesirable and should be discharged. I have no 
reason to beUeve that such persons come here in number sufficient to justify legislation." But 
the poor Eastern European Jews or Ostjuden kept coming. 

The matter of Jewish immigration would be handled in a most subtle and delicate way. A 
stratagem was needed to pass the proper legislation while at the same time, protecting the 
Rothschild name. 

In the 1900 election. Natty Rothschild's agent in the East End endorsed two candidates (Sir 
WiUiam Eden Evans-Gordon in Stepney and David Hope Kyd in Whitechapel) who proved to 
be proponents of immigration control. While Natty put on a show opposing "exclusion", these 
agents of his agent worked on getting the AHens Act of 1905 passed despite Rothschild's feigned 
opposition. Churchill would follow the lead of his mentor in outwardly opposing the bill, as a 
member of ParUament he would vote against it. This classic lesson in poUtical stratagem would 
be a valuable lesson to Churchill. It would have particular value when Churchill would later be 
confronted with the threat of the masses of Jewish immigration into Palestine. 

The AUens Act was the result of a delicate and hotly debated process. A Royal Inquiry 
Commission was set up to examine the issue. Theodor Hertzl addressed this commission on July 
7, 1902. Two days prior, he met with Natty Rothschild, who had hoped to influence Hertzl's 
position. The meeting was described as follows: 

"Rothschild received him in his office at New Court. He was a sturdy-looking man of sixty-two, 
of medium height, with a bald head and large warm eyes, and very hard of hearing. A man of 
fabulous wealth, even richer than his Paris cousin, whom he disliked, he was the first Jewish 
peer to enter the House of Lords without first converting to the Church of England. He and his 
father had helped DisraeU acquire the Suez Canal for England; he was a director of the Bank of 
England and played an important role in pubUc Ufe. 

Rothschild began by teUing Hertzl that he was an Englishman and planned to remain one. 
Zionism was wrong; the great powers would never permit the Zionists to have Palestine. He 
very much "wished" that Hertzl would tell the commission certain things and not tells the 
commission certain other things. Hertzl tried to break in, but the old man was so hard of 
hearing he did not notice. Hertzl lost his patience and began to shout so loudly that Rothschild, 
astounded, held his tongue. Nothing Uke this had happened in years. 

Hertzl cried: "I shall tell the commission what I think is proper! That has always been my 
custom and I shall stick to it this time too. And it is not true that the powers are against our 
going to Palestine. I have made Germany and Russia favorably disposed toward our cause. 
England, I think, would have no objections. And I am persona grata with the Sultan." 

"Certainly," said Lord Rothschild, "the Sultan treats you nicely because you are Dr. Hertzl of 
the Neue Freie Presse." 

"That is not true!" Hertzl shouted. "The Neue Freie Presse does not enter into this at all! Its 
publishers are mortal enemies of my Jewish plan. They have not printed the word 'Zionism' in 
their newspaper to this day. I never spoke to the Sultan about the Neue Freie Presse." 

The conversation continued for a while in this tone, leading the two men nowhere at all. Hertzl 
said that "charity has become a machine for suppressing cries of distress." Rothschild gasped. 
Then they went to an adjoining room for lunch, where they were joined by Rothschild's 
younger brothers, Alfred and Leopold. Leopold quarreled with Hertzl, but then invited him to 
his next garden party; Alfred was superciUous. Colonization was a fine thing, he said, but God 
Almighty, why in Palestine? "Palestine sounds too Jewish!" 

After lunch the atmosphere improved somewhat. The old man was beginning to Uke his visitor. 

"Would you Uke to hear my scheme now?" Hertzl asked. 

"Yes," repHed Rothschild. Hertzl moved his chair close to his better ear and cried, "I want to 
ask the British government for a colonization charter!" 

"Don't say charter.' The word has a bad sound right now." 

"Call it whatever you Uke. I want to found a Jewish colony in a British possession." 

"Take Uganda," Rothschild Ughtly suggested. 

"No, I can only use this...." He did not want the others to overhear him and so wrote on a slip 
of paper: "Sinai Peninsula, Egyptian Palestine, Cyprus." He added, aloud, "Are you for this?" 

Rothschild thought it over for a while. Then, smiUng, he said, "Very much so!" 

Hertzl had sensed a victory for which he had been waiting seven years. His hopes would soon be 
dashed, two days after Hertzl's appearance before the Royal Inquiry Commission on 
Immigration. Rothschild made it quite clear to Hertzl, although he was warming to his plans, 
he favored only a small experiment, 25,000 settlers at the most. Echoing his Paris cousin, "there 
was no money for more." 

"I must do it on a large scale or not at all," Hertzl said. 

They argued the point for a while, and no agreement was reached. Rothschild did promise that 
he would speak to the Colonial Secretary regarding the matter. 

Hertzl's appearance, earUer in the week, before the Royal Inquiry Commission, drew an 

unusually large crowd. Rothschild greeted Hertzl as an old friend and introduced him to the 
other commissioners. In his prepared statement Hertzl announced that the flight of Eastern 
European Jews to the West was the inevitable result of persecution; yet their course could be 
diverted, to a legally recognized national Jewish home, where Jews would no longer be 
regarded as aUens. He was subjected to a thorough cross-examination. Major Evans-Gordon 
[Rothschild's agent's agent], a Conservative member of ParUament, who favored restrictions, 
tried to draw Hertzl out to support his cause, but Hertzl did not yield. He was opposed to legal 
restrictions of any kind. At the same time, he urged, the problem must be assaulted at the roots 
by recognizing the Jews as a people Hke all others, with a right to call one corner of the globe 
their own. The Jews needed a country not charity. Hertzl's use of the EngUsh language was 
halting, but his seriousness impressed the commission. The pubhcity following his appearance 
enhanced the sympathetic mood toward the Zionist aspirations in England. 

PubUc sympathy, however, would not help Hertzl's cause as long as the Rothschilds' opposed 
his idea of massive unrestricted Jewish immigration disregarding flnancial status, skill levels, 
or work capacity. Hertzl's notions did not reflect those of a seasoned and pragmatic colonizer. 
As far as the Rothschilds were concerned, restrictions had to be in place. Immigration would 
have to be Umited to human material considered assets; those who were judged to be mentally, 
physically, and/or flnancially flt. On this subject there could be no compromise. There was too 
much at stake in the emerging Middle East. In the collective mind of the Rothschild cousins, 
Hertzl, together with his insane notions of colonization, had to be eUminated. His Zionist 
organization would eventually be infiltrated and commandeered by Rothschild agents. This 
would insure the safety of Rothschild plans for the fledgUng colony designed to protect the oil 
interests in the Middle East. 

By July 3, 1904, exactly two years later, Hertzl would be dead at the age of forty-four. Was this 
stroke of Rothschildian luck attained by Providence... or poison? Whatever the case, Hertzl's 
timely death allowed for the classic infiltration of his organization by agents friendly to the 
Rothschild agents. 


Was Hitler a Rothschild? 

By Clifford Shack 

■wli^ ■ 




1 JSTrJ.^' ^ ' 

■ •.' ifiipir Mil 


Baron Salomon Mayer von Rothschild 

The year was 1836. Baron Salomon Mayer Rothschild was then the powerful head of the Vienna 
branch of the famous banking family. 

That said... 

Consider the following information taken from the official Rothschild biography, "The House of 
Rothschild: Money's Prophets 1798-1848", written by Niall Ferguson: 

"According to [Salomon Rothschild's clerk] Moritz Goldschmidt's son Hermann, whose memoir is 
one of the few detailed first-hand descriptions we have, Salomon was even more lacking in social 

" their house in Dbling on Sundays he flirted with the prettier girls present 'in a manner which 
was not always proper or polite. This included cracking crude jokes if any women present were 
pregnant.'" [Page 200] 

"He had a lecherous passion for 'very young girls,' his 'adventures' with whom had to be hushed up by 
police." [Page 442] 

During the 1930's the Vienna police aided the Austrian Chancellor, Dolfuss, in his investigation into 
the origins of Adolph Hitler. Hitler, who was of course a native Austrian let his intentions known that 
he would be annexing Austria. Dolfuss attempted to block the annexation known as the Anschluss. 
Dolfuss intended to use the only weapon that he had against Hitler. . .blackmail. 

Consider the following excerpt from "Inside the Gestapo" a book written Hansjurgen Koehler who 
was at one time Hitler's bodyguard: 

" When Dolfuss became Chancellor of Austria, Hitler had been the cynosure of the world's interest 
for a considerable time, yet strangely enough little was known about him. Nobody could explain how 
he came to bear the name Hitler, as his father had been called Schueckelgruber. Nobody knew how 
many brothers or sisters he had. . .the greatest mystery enveloped the Fuehrer's private life, family 
relations, origin. Chancellor Dolfuss started to investigate Hitler's secret. His task was not very 
difficult; as ruler of Austria he could easily find out about the personal data and family of Adolf 
Hitler, who had been born on Austrian soil. 

Through the original birth-certificates, police registration cards, protocols, etc., all contained in the 
original file, the Austrian Chancellor succeeded in piecing together the disjointed parts of the puzzle, 
creating a more or less logical entity. 

And there was one thing-whether true or not-which might have been a dangerous weapon in Dolfuss' 

This was what he had ascertained: 

A little servant maid from Upper Austria called Matild Schueckelgruber came to Vienna and became 
a domestic servant, mostly working for rather rich families. But she was unlucky; having been 
seduced, she was about to bear a child. She went home to her village for her confinement. Her little 
son, being illegitimate, received his mother's name and was called Alois Schueckelgruber. (In some 
documents, Schickelgruber). 

Now followed the most important and perhaps most compromising piece of the Dolfuss " collection." 
I must repeat that I have no proof of its genuineness. It may have been manufactured as a fitting 
weapon against the Nazi chief, who was not squeamish about his own weapons. Certainly it was 
rather shattering in all its consequences. 

This document aimed at clearing up the great life tragedy of a small Upper Austrian maid-after more 
than sixty years. Matild Schueckelgruber, grandmother of Adolf Hitler, had come to Vienna to get a 
job. And there something happened to her which was a common thing in the great capital, and yet a 
private catastrophe; she was bearing a child under her heart; she had to go home to her village and 
face the disgrace. 

Where was the little maid serving in Vienna? This was not a very difficult problem. Very early 
Vienna had instituted the system of compulsory police registration. Both the servants and the 
employers were exposed to heavy fines if they neglected this duty. Chancellor Dolfuss managed to 
discover the registration card. The little, innocent maid had been a servant at the. . .Rothschild 
Mansion. . .and Hitler's unknown grandfather must be probably looked for in this magnificent house. 

The Dolfuss file stopped at this statement." 

I beg to differ with Dolfuss' description of Hitler's grandmotlier. In 1837, when Hitler's father was 
born, she was about forty years old. She wasn't little. Nor was she an innocent. She did work in the 
mansion of Baron Salomon who was, if nothing else. . . sexually out-of-control. 

Salomon's son, Anselm wrote to his uncle: 

"He [Salomon] is unfortunately in such a state of moral collapse. . .it would have been much better if 
he had left Vienna. . . " [Page 466] 

The real question does remain. . . 

Was Salomon Rothschild Hitler's secret paternal grandfather? 

Hitler and the Gestapo went to great extremes capturing the original documents which would have 
shed light a great deal of light here. Chancellor Dolfuss would be assassinated in the process of 
recovering those documents. [See The Fatal File for the full amazing story of intrigue] 

Decide for yourself. . . 

Was Hitler a Madman or a Frontman? 

The world knows Hitler as a madman. The world, however, was never presented with the information 
you have just read. 

If Hitler was a Rothschild frontman... a natural question occurs. . . 

Why would the Rothschilds wipe out European Jewry? 

If you research the matter you will find that much of German Jewry was transported to Palestine with 
the help of Hitler himself. . . 

Adolph Hitler: Madman or Front man? This is the question... 


Inside The Gestapo 

Hitler's Shadow Over the World 


[An excerpt from the chapter entitled: "The Fatal File". . .] 

. . .By stubborn and tenacious work he [ von Papen ] slowly organized his agents at the police, the law 
courts, the different state institutions, and even in the Chancellery. He had someone everywhere on 
whom he could count, " just in case ..." 

This was the moment when Germany changed her policy towards Austria. The ground was well 
enough prepared to start a decisive action on a large scale. And then-suddenly it seemed as if 
everything was lost. . . . 

That was the reason why von Papen returned to Germany and had a long conference with Himmler 
and Heydrich. 

It was almost a catastrophe. 

What had happened? 

Heydrich only gave the answer to this question when I was left alone with him in the privacy of his 
office. "This Jesuit Schuschnigg," he said, "wants to-blackmail the Fuehrer. I really wouldn't have 
thought that he had it in him. . .He has a file containing data against Adolf Hitler and now he threatens 
to publish it in a ' White Book.' " 

" Well, what are the contents of this file? " 

Heydrich shrugged. 

" This impudent Schuschnigg is so sure of his position, so sure of the data contained in the File that 
he sent a copy through Mussolini to Hitler himself. Your task will be-and that's why I sent for you-to 
get the original documents of the file ... at any cost." 


" There is no but. This file has cost three lives up to now. It doesn't matter if it costs a dozen more. . . 
we have to get it." 

He took a blue file from his desk and gave me the copy of the tragic Schuschnigg documents. 

" Sit down here in my room and go through it," he told me. " These copies are all typewritten, which 
seems to prove that they have not been photographed. This is our only hope, because otherwise not 
only the originals but the negatives, would have to be destroyed." 

I sat down and began to read. I want to emphasize here and now that I have never seen the originals 
of these documents. They may have been forgeries. I have no proof that they were genuine. But they 
certainly caused such a havoc as no file in the world has ever caused before. 

Heydrich had prepared three groups. The first was headed: 

Documents collected by General Schleicher 

General Schleicher, who was the last Chancellor of pre-Nazi Germany, and who had so tenaciously 
withstood Hitler's demands, wanted to prevent the Fuehrer's coming to power. At the last moment 
when the Nazis had "become the strongest political party in Germany, he tried to make Gregor 
Strasser Chancellor in Hitler's place. During his own chancellorship he began to collect the 
documents against Hitler. 

His file dealt mostly with Hitler's war service. 

Adolf Hitler was an Austrian subject. On the 3 rd August, 1914, he sent a petition to Louis III, King 
of Bavaria, asking permission to serve in the Munich 16th Regiment, as he was living at Munich and 
did not want to go to Linz for mobilization. The different propaganda books of Nazism have always 
maintained that Hitler had spent the four years of the war in the front-line trenches, and fought in 
such a heroic way that he had earned the First Class Iron Cross. 

But the investigations conducted by Schleicher purported to have ascertained the following facts: 

Hitler never served in a trench or in the front line. After he had been attached to the 16th Munich 
Regiment (called the Lister Regiment after its commanding officer) he was trained and sent with his 
troop to the Western Front. There he was attached to the Regimental Staff, where he served as a 

Naturally the Regimental Staff was never in the front line; according to the lie of the land it took up a 
position at a distance of 4-5 or 10-15 kilometres from the trenches. Here they constantly needed a few 
efficient and trusted men. These runners had two kinds of service. First they had to care for the 
comfort of the officers and to do all the dull office work; second-and this was the most dangerous, but 
also the most coveted work,-they had to remit orders to the different company commanders. The 
runners liked this work best, because such errands sometimes took them to the hinterland or the 
neighbouring regiments. Of course, sometimes such work could become very dangerous if the 
runners had to pass through ground shelled by the enemy taking the orders to the front lines. 

"There is no doubt," the report continued, "that such service can well be construed as front line 
service. But contrary to the romantic legends that Hitler had fought in the trenches, it has been 
ascertained that he never spent a day there." 

The Schleicher documents also dealt with Hitler's rank of corporal. Whoever knew what a terrible 
scarcity of N.C. officers there was in the German Army about the end of the war, must find it highly 
mysterious that Hitler, being a good and efficient soldier, was still a corporal after four years. 

There was only one answer. If he had been promoted to a sergeant he could not have remained a 
runner. The Regiment Staff had a strictly limited strength; all supernumerary men, especially N.C. 
O.'s and officers, had to be sent at once to the front Une. 

Now either his superiors liked Hitler so much that they did not want to promote and thereby lose him; 
or it was Hitler himself who avoided promotion to keep his comparatively safe berth. 

The file included the results of the investigation which Schleicher had ordered to ascertain how Hitler 
received the Iron Cross, first class. About the end of the war it was comparatively easy to get the 
second class Iron Cross if a soldier served at the front and was honest. If Hitler had got that, nobody 
would have been surprised. But he owns the first class Iron Cross. ... 

This could be given only by the Kaiser, or the High Command of the Army, to whom the Kaiser 
relegated his prerogative during the war. Even officers received it only for outstanding achievements, 
great personal bravery, and if a corporal became the proud owner of it he must have done something 
quite extraordinary and be a hero of the first rank. Immediately after the war the history of the Lister 
Regiment was published. It enumerated all the outstanding deeds of privates and non-commissioned 
officers and recounted the heroic deeds of all the officers. But there was no mention of Hitler's name 
in this imposing book. 

Now all the Nazi propaganda pamphlets and books told the story in great detail of how Hitler was 
awarded the Iron Cross, first class, because single-handed, with only a revolver in his hand, he 
captured twelve French soldiers with their machine-gun. But why this reticence of the official history 
of the Lister Regiment about such a wonderful exploit when much less worthy deeds were described 
at considerable length? 

Careful investigation-during which all the comrades of Hitler were questioned-elucidated the fact that 
Hitler had received this high German decoration not during, but after the war. It was Field-Marshal 
Ludendorff, whose connections with the Fuehrer were well known, who awarded the Iron Cross, first 
class, to the Fuehrer, some time after the war. 

These were the contents of the Schleicher file. Hitler and his staff knew very well that the General 
was collecting these documents against him. A great many attempts were made to rob Schleicher of 
them. When, a year after his coming to power, on the 30th June, 1934, the time came to "eliminate" 
the enemies of the Nazi regime, Schleicher and his wife were among the victims. This file was not 
the least reason for Schleicher death-but afterwards when the Gestapo went carefully through his 
papers, they discovered to their dismay that the original documents were no longer in his possession. 

He had sent them to Dolfuss, Chancellor of Austria. . . . 

Documents collected by Dolfuss 

The second bundle in the blue file contained the documents collected by Dolfuss. The small- statured 
but big-hearted Austrian Chancellor must have known that by such a personal file he might be able to 
check Hitler. The great number of the documents showed what care and energy he spent on gathering 
them together. 

When Dolfuss became Chancellor of Austria, Hitler had been the cynosure of the world's interest for 
a considerable time, yet strangely enough little was known about him. Nobody could explain how he 
came to bear the name Hitler, as his father had been called Schueckelgruber. Nobody knew how 
many brothers or sisters he had. . . .the greatest mystery enveloped the Fuehrer's private life, family 
relations, origin. 

Chancellor Dolfuss, after receiving the documents collected by Schleicher, started to investigate 
Hitler's secret. His task was not very difficult; as ruler of Austria he could easily find out about the 
personal data and family of Adolf Hitler, who had been born on Austrian soil. 

Through the original birth-certificates, police registration cards, protocols, etc., all contained in the 
original file, the Austrian Chancellor succeeded in piecing together the disjointed parts of the puzzle, 
creating a more or less logical entity. 

And there was one thing-whether true or not-which might have been a dangerous weapon in Dolfuss' 

This was what he had ascertained: 

A little servant maid from Upper Austria called Matild Schueckelgruber came to Vienna and became 
a domestic servant, mostly working for rather rich families. But she was unlucky; having been 
seduced, she was about to bear a child. She went home to her village for her confinement. Her little 
son, being illegitimate, received his mother's name and was called Alois Schueckelgruber. (In some 
documents, Schickelgruber). 

In spite of his origin he grew up to be an honest, kindly man entering the civil service and becoming a 
minor clerk in a tax office. He married very early; his first wife was Anna Glaser-Hoyer. Their only 
child, Ida Schueckelgruber, died in infancy; Alois Schueckelgruber buried her at the side of his first 
wife in the graveyard of Braunau. 

His second wife was Franciska Malzsalberger. Their union was blessed with one son who bore his 
father's name. He became a waiter, emigrated to England and there married Brigid Dowling, daughter 
of an Irish cobbler. Later he divorced her and returned to Berlin, where he opened a restaurant. He 
also adopted the Hitler name when his father changed his own name. The second child, born of Alois 
Schueckelgruber senior's second marriage was called Angela ; she married a Viennese named Raupal. 

Alois Schueckelgmber was rather unlucky with his wives. Franciska also died; the honest clerk was 
not very young when he met his third wife, Clara Poltzl. Clara's father was a well-to-do farmer. He 
did not want his only daughter who was quite a heiress to marry a middle-aged man, but Clara 
insisted stubbornly. Alois was still a handsome man, and he had such a nice uniform. At last rich 
Poltzl relented; but when his future son-in-law showed him his birth certificate, he was rather 
horrified to see that Alois was illegitimate. The certificate said that the father's name was unknown, 
his mother was Matild Schueckelgmber. After that Poltzl demanded that Alois should give up his " 
shameful name " and take a new one. 

And Alois Schueckelgruber wrote a petition himself (this was also contained in Dolfuss' file) asking 
the " hochwohlgeoren " Ministry to permit him to change his name. Instead of " Schueckelgruber " he 
would like to become " Hitler." But why Hitler? 

This was a totally unusual name among Upper Austrian peasants. It was no more familiar in Galicia 
where several Jewish families called Hitler were living. How did the honest Alois hit on this rather 
Jewish name? 

Schueckelgruber himself gave the answer in his petition when he mentioned that the maiden name of 
his mother-in-law was Johanna Hitler, and he chose it at the request of his father-in-law. 

The Ministry granted the petition of the well-deserving minor clerk in the tax office. His original 
name was a rather funny one in Austria, hardly fitting a " civil servant." 

After the legal formalities had been complied with, Alois Hitler married Clara Poltzl, She bore him 
three children: Gustav, Adolf, and Paula. All three of them bore the name Hitler. 

Gustav died young and was buried in the Linz public cemetery. The second boy became the " 
Fuehrer," while Paula had been living in Vienna for a long time before she joined her brother in 

Now followed the most important and perhaps most compromising piece of the Dolfuss " collection." 
I must repeat that I have no proof of its genuineness. It may have been manufactured as a fitting 
weapon against the Nazi chief, who was not squeamish about his own weapons. Certainly it was 
rather shattering in all its consequences. 

This document aimed at clearing up the great life tragedy of a small Upper Austrian maid-after more 
than sixty years. Matild Schueckelgruber, grandmother of Adolf Hitler, had come to Vienna to get a 
job. And there something happened to her which was a common thing in the great capital, and yet a 
private catastrophe; she was bearing a child under her heart; she had to go home to her village and 
face the disgrace. 

Where was the little maid serving in Vienna? This was not a very difficult problem. Very early 
Vienna had instituted the system of compulsory police registration. Both the servants and the 
employers were exposed to heavy fines if they neglected this duty. Chancellor Dolfuss managed to 
discover the registration card. The little, innocent maid had been a servant at the. . .Rothschild 

Mansion. . .and Hitler's unknown grandfather must be probably looked for in this magnificent house. 

The Dolfuss file stopped at this statement. But in the margin of the protocol there was a note in the 
Chancellor's characteristic handwriting: 

" These data ought to cheer the writers of history who may want to publish some time in the future 
the true life story of Hitler. Here is the psychological explanation of Hitler's fanatical hate of the 
Jews. Hitler, born in peaceful Upper Austria where there was hardly any anti-semitism, was filled 
already in his childhood with a burning hatred of the Jews. Why? This may be the answer. ..." 

And now I was reading the third bunch of documents in the file, the data collected by Schuschnigg. 
He had continued the work started by Schleicher and Dolfuss. He knew very well that this file had an 
immense importance for Hitler. Hadn't it already cost the life of two eminent poUticians? And 
Schuschnigg wanted to continue his investigations in the most dangerous directions. 

His collection was in two parts. 

The first consisted of documents trying to elucidate the origin of Johanna Hitler, the Fuehrer's 
grandmother, and the facts of when and how the Hitlers came to Upper Austria. 

The second part contained documents referring to the mysterious suicide of Hitler's niece, Greta 
Raupal. Schuschnigg had succeeded in finding out more about this tragic affair than anyone else, 
although even he could not discover all the motives and details. 

These were the main contents of the blue file which I read in Heydrich's room. I must confess that I 
was rather shocked when I closed it. This file had killed men and now I had read it. What would be 
my fate-after being initiated into all these uncomfortable secrets? 

Only four living persons knew its contents-Schuschnigg, MussoUni, Heydrich, and myself. 

Who would be the first to suffer for this dangerous knowledge? 

For the time being I " only " had the seemingly impossible task of robbing Schuschnigg of the 
original documents. 

Twenty-four hours later a BerUn stamp merchant, Karl Krause, took a room in the Viennese Hotel 
Metropole. It was a very modest room. Karl Krause-your humble servant-had arrived with a regular 
passport in the Austrian capital; he had a bona fide Austrian visa; he was an honest stamp merchant 
standing above all suspicion. Should they search his hotel room during his absence they would find 
nothing incriminating; just a man interested in stamps who intended to spend a few weeks on 
business in Vienna. 

I met von Papen at the German embassy. He explained the situation frankly. Up to the time he had 
succeeded in getting two members of Schuschnigg's closest entourage into his services. One of them 
was the Baron Froehlichstal of whom it was common knowledge that he was not only Schuschnigg's 

friend, but his intimate, personal secretary and alter ego. 

The Chancellor did not make a single step without him; he could not bear the absence of the well- 
dressed, suave, gay young man for a single day. They had become friends during their student days. 
Schuschnigg had been educated at the famous Stella Matutina College of Feldkirch; when he became 
Chancellor he recruited his closest collaborators from the former pupils of this ancient institution. 
Baron Froehlichstal was known everywhere as the most devoted soldier of the Austrian ideology who 
proudly wore the red- white-red emblem of the Vaterlaendische Front; he was known as a man ready 
to die for the ideals of Dolfuss, the great thought of an independent Austria and who enjoyed the 
fullest confidence of the Chancellor. When von Papen told me that he had " won over" this man to 
our side, I could hardly restrain my admiration for his diplomatic talents. 

The other man was none other than Guido Schmidt, the young diplomat, also a former pupil of the 
Stella Matutina. He was the son of a very rich family. While in the case of Baron Froehlichstal I 
could not imagine what had made him change his loyalty, I realized what good reasons Guido 
Schmidt had for such a step. The family estates and factories of the Schmidts were all situated in the 
Sudeten German territories of Czechoslovakia. Germany was already preparing her drive and Guido 
Schmidt wanted to be sure that his patrimony would be safe in case of a German annexation. 

The situation was rather difficult at the moment. Both Guido Schmidt and Baron Froehlichstal 
informed von Papen that Schuschnigg kept the fatal file in his own flat. My task was to find out the 
best way to open the small safe in the Chancellor's study and to steal the famous documents. All this 
had to happen without attracting attention. 

But for the time being our plans were foiled before we began. It was Mrs. Schuschnigg who proved 
the obstacle with an almost miraculous intuition. Once one of my men succeeded in getting into the 
Chancellor's study disguised as a telephone mechanic, but Mrs. Schuschnigg would not leave the 
room for a moment till he had finished his "work." 

At the same time Froehlichstal and Schmidt brought disquieting news to von Papen. 

" Something's wrong," both of them said. "Schuschnigg trusts us, but he's sensing some danger. Up to 
now he has written even his most confidential letters in the Chancellery and conducted his most 
secret discussions there; but of late he has taken his important papers home and either he writes his 
letters himself or dictates them to his wife. His private conferences are at his flat, the only witness his 
wife. The same appHes to the confidential telephone conversations he has with Paris, London, 

The counter-measures we took against Schuschnigg's new tactics proved only partially successful. I 
succeeded in organizing a "watcher's group" in the Viennese telephone exchange, but its efficiency 
was not continuous. Only when our people were on duty could we control the telephone talks; the 
same applied in the General Post Office. Sometimes we managed to get one of Schuschnigg's 
personal letters for an hour, to copy it before sending it on-but this was not enough. Nor did we 
succeed in placing a microphone into Schuschnigg's study or in tapping his telephone line. 

Our progress was extremely slow and I was afraid of losing Heydrich's confidence and favour. I 
returned to Berlin to report to him and he gave me advice-almost classic in its simplicity. 

" If a man doesn't succeed, use a woman. Why didn't you try it? You must find someone who can win 
Schuschnigg's confidence-or his wife's." 

The idea was brilliant. It conformed to the best standard of spy stories. The beautiful blonde spy who 
spins her silken net around her victim, ferreting out all his secrets. ...Yes, the idea was brilliant, but 
there was no way to realize it. We could have easily found a lady-but Schuschnigg was the type of 
man who was completely unassailable even by the charms of the loveliest woman on earth. A strong 
believer, a deeply religious Catholic, an intimate friend of Prelate Seipel, he lived almost a monkish 
life; he was a recluse who seldom went to parties, did not drink. . . .he was almost a priest himself. 

And greatest of all our trouble; he was in love with his wife. . .deeply in love. She was the only being 
with whom he discussed everything, to whom he dictated his confidential letters. Sometimes when he 
talked to Rome or Paris, his wife went along to the telephone exchange and watched the operator to 
ensure absolute secrecy. 

As for Mrs. Schuschnigg-she lived almost exactly like her husband. She was suspicious, reserved; it 
would be very difficult for the most cunning woman to gain her confidence. 

And yet I had already found the woman who was destined to seal Schuschnigg's fate. She was the 
ideal choice for the difficult part. Countess Vera von Fugger. . . . 

This lovely woman in the early thirties had almost been born into high politics. Her uncle was the 
famous Count Czernin, the last Foreign Secretary of the Emperor Francis Joseph. Before the war he 
was considered as one of the chief actors in European politics. Countess Vera was educated in the 
atmosphere of high diplomacy-but after the war the famous family became very poor indeed. Only 
the illustrious name and the high rank were left. The Czernins had trusted the Monarchy too much— 
they forgot to send their money to neutral states. Czechoslovakia confiscated all their estates. It was 
the duty of the lovely Vera to re-gild the somewhat faded glory of the Czernins. And so she married 
Count Leopold Fugger von Babenhausen. 

The Count was also the scion of an ancient family. His people were very rich, but Vera's husband 
would only become so after his mother's death, and the old lady kept a tight hold on the purse-strings. 
Nora von Fugger, the mother, gave him an allowance on which he could barely subsist-if he wanted 
to live according to his rank.. His mother did not like Vera very much; she would have preferred a 
better match and rather despised the poverty-stricken Czernins. 

So after all this marriage was not a success. Vera did not attain the goal she had set herself. She was 
thirty-two. . . and old Countess Nora clung so tenaciously to life that she seemed likely to hold on for 
another thirty years. Would she have to live in poverty for all that time? Countess Vera had other 
plans-one day she simply left Countess Fugger. When a woman is thirty-two she cannot afford to 
wait if she wants to realize her dreams. ... 

But what could a divorced lady do if she had no money? The war had ended; standards had changed 
and work was no disgrace for ladies of the aristocracy. The name of Czernin sounded well enough to 
get a job for Countess Vera with the Phr»nix Insurance Company where she became a department 
leader. No work was expected of her; she simply " loaned out " the Czernin name so that the 
salesmen could do better business in the circles of landowners and monarchists. 

I could pride myself on my choice. 

Vera Fugger- Czernin was ideal from every point of view. Excellent family, wonderful manners, great 
beauty, widespread connections. She had a cunning, refined brain-and, as for the most important part, 
the whole family was very poor and so she would be willing to play the part which we set her. 

Still Schuschnigg was unapproachable. Von Papen gave a big party at the embassy and presented the 
two to each other. But they exchanged only a few, commonplace words. Nothing more. . . . 

"A very difficult task..." said Vera. "This man's defenses are too strong." 

" Yes, even she may fail," said von Papen. 

But fate came to our aid. 

Next day startled Vera read the tragic news of Schuschnigg's motor accident. Mrs. Schuschnigg, his 
devoted wife and faithful helpmate, was killed. . . . 

I know perfectly well that to this very day many people attribute this stupid and inexplicable accident 
to the Gestapo. But although I know that apart from Himmler and Heydrich nobody could tell what 
the Gestapo had done, I must maintain that in this case it was pure accident which cost Mrs. 
Schuschnigg's life. The Gestapo had nothing to do with it. 

On July 13th Schuschnigg lost his wife. While the whole of Austria sympathized with him in his 
bereavement; while von Papen visited him officially to offer the condolences of the Third Reich- we 
knew that we had made a great step forward. . . 

That hidden safe and the fatal file would be ours as soon as the Chancellor, suffering from a heavy 
spiritual depression, left his flat for the first time. His study would remain unguarded-and we could 
get the documents at last. 

For long days Schuschnigg dio not leave his rooms. When, at last, he returned to the Chancellery, we 
were startled to find out that he had cautiously removed the file himself and taken it along-not to the 
Chancellery, but to the Vienna branch of an important American bank. 

Short of burgling the vaults of the bank and killing a great many people we could not get hold of the 
coveted documents. 

Twenty-four hours later I left Vienna, disappointed in my hopes. There was nothing I could do and 
Heydrich had new work awaiting me. 

It looked as if all our work had failed. 

But three months later I was again in Vienna. And now I could see with satisfaction that we were 
again making progress. 

Von Papen had again ,worked brilliantly. 

After Mrs. Schuschnigg's death the road was more or less open for Countess Vera; now she had been 
able to get into Schuschnigg's confidence. 

During my second visit I met von Papen only for a short time. I gave him Heydrich's message; 
Countess Vera was not to forget for a moment the fatal file; she had to find some pretext and 
persuade Schuschnigg to remove it from the safe of the American bank. 

Her relation to the Chancellor was close enough by this time to make such a request possible. . .she 
could even find some plausible reason for it. Her task had been not so difficult after all. Even a 
woman of less brains and beauty could have tackled it. 

The Chancellor was a lonely man, almost broken by the blows of fate; he was living helplessly, 
unhappily in a large town; he still guarded the memory of his wife and took care of his ailing little 

It was child's play for a skillful woman to spin a net for him. And Vera solved her problem in less 
than four weeks. 

She visited the Chancellor ostensibly on behalf of the League of Austrian Catholic Women and 
expressed the deep sympathy of her whole sex. Next day she had a discussion with Schuschnigg 
representing a committee of distinguished ladies who wanted to take care of the orphaned little boy. ... 
A new orphanage had been built by the League of Austrian Catholic Women-they wanted to call it 
after Mrs. Schuschnigg who had died so tragically and, of course, needed the consent of the 
Chancellor. . .The home for crippled children wanted to invite the little Schuschnigg boy to a party. 
The Chancellor was very busy-and Countess Vera, who had brought the invitation, took the small boy 
in her own car. . . 

She was inexhaustible in producing new and new ideas. Old General Schuschnigg felt very flattered 
when the beautiful Countess Vera Czernin visited him in his villa at the shores of Lake Garda and 
asked him to accept the presidency of a new patriotic association. The retired father of the Chancellor 
was happy that he had not been wholly forgotten; a warm and pleasant friendship was born between 
him and the young Countess. After a few weeks she was a familiar guest at the villa. . .and when the 
Chancellor visited his father, he found Countess Vera there in the company of his brother, Walter 
Schuschnigg, manager of the Radio Ravag. The lovely young woman almost belonged to the family; 
the old general addressed her as his daughter, little Kurt had come to love her dearly. . . . 

It was fine and highly skilful work. . . .Countess Vera had reason to be proud. She had certainly earned 
her reward her "act" would become a classic example. 

Vienna began to take notice. There was no doubt about it ; a fine and gentle romance was being born 
at the Belvedere. The jovial Viennese were not at all shocked by the behaviour of their popular 
Chancellor. They had shared his misery and now when he seemed to find new interest in life, they did 
not grudge him his happiness. They thought that with the lovely, gay Countess Vera at his side he 
would be better able to carry on the fight for an independent Austria. 

And the later news coming from the Belvedere seemed to confirm the idea. . . .this lonely man, who 
had nobody to support and befriend him, had found the great romance of his life. He hardly made a 
secret of his feelings. 

The Chancellor and Countess Vera spent three weeks together in St. Gilgen. . . .It was only for 
appearance' sake that she kept her flat on the Graben; she spent most of her time in the Belvedere. 
Schuschnigg bought her a beautiful villa near Vienna where they stayed over the week-ends. 

And Vienna slowly got used to the idea; after the year of mourning Schuschnigg would marry the 
beautiful Countess. After all there could be no difficulty. Schuschnigg was a widower, the Countess 
legally divorced. Of course, the Church did not acknowledge such a divorce-but the Pope was free to 
give his consent in exceptional cases. 

Would Schuschnigg, the Roman Catholic Chancellor, create such an example? Yes, he would. He 
started the necessary proceedings. The Archbishop of Vienna was the first forum; he sent it on to the 
Primate of Salzburg and then the petition went on to Rome. No doubt, the Holy See will 

An idyllic time followed-the finest months in Schuschnigg's tragic life. There was no cloud on 
Austria's sky. Quiet and order within the frontiers. Since von Papen had become ambassador, 
Germany had behaved herself. He reassured Austria again and again that Germany did not want the 
Anschluss ; she only wanted to live in peace with her Austrian kinfolk. 

Guido Schmidt, the Foreign Secretary, gave optimistic interviews to the Press. There was no danger; 
Austria's independence had been guaranteed-not by the Western Powers, but by MussoHni. MussoUni 
had already shown Hitler that ten millions of Italian soldiers would occupy the Brenner if the German 
Fuehrer dared to attack Austria. 

Schuschnigg seemed to have changed. Those who met him during these months noticed the change. 
His face became brighter, he could laugh again, he had new plans and ideas... the horizon seemed to 
have opened to him, showing far and fine vistas. 

He was only in his late thirties and on the pinnacle of his career. Did the thin, bespectacled law- 
student who was taken a prisoner by the Italians during the War ever dream that twenty years later he. 
would become the dictator of Austria? Austrian school-children were already learning his Ufe-story. 

It was a brilliant career. When he returned from the Italian prison-camp, most of his fellow-students 
were idling helplessly, trying to find some place in the new life. He had already finished his studies in 
law; a few years later he became an M.P.-and the favourite of Prelate Seipel. It was Seipel who raised 
him from the rank and file; and when he lay dying he nominated Schuschnigg as his successor. 

He was hardly thirty when he became Minister of Justice in the Buresch cabinet. When Dolfuss was 
killed, he was a member of the triumvirate guiding Austria's destiny. He seemed to be the weakest, 
the softest of the three-everybody thought so and the newspapers voiced the same opinion. But a 
short time afterwards this weak man was holding the helm of the ship of state alone. Who could 
doubt that Schuschnigg was Austria's real ruler? 

During these happy months he went about his work with an easy heart. Everything seemed to be quiet 
and settled. 

A happy and contented man is always less suspicious-less cautious-than one oppressed by grief. That 
was the only explanation why the Chancellor did not notice the things going on around him. 

Von Papen had continued his tremendous work. A few months passed and there was hardly a man in 
Schuschnigg's closest circle who was not in Papen's pay. There was no magic about it; such things 
could be organized quite simply with some money and more tact. Schuschnigg had no conference, 
did not write a letter about which Germany would not have known. Appointments of civil servants 
were subject to von Papen's secret approval. If Schuschnigg chose someone, either his secretary. 
Baron Froehlichstal, or Countess Vera or Guido Schmidt notified von Papen; and the German 
ambassador always found ways and means to win the candidate for his purposes. If he did not 
knuckle under, the Countess could easily prevent his appointment. 

"This man visited von Papen yesterday," she would say. 

" He is an agent of the Nazis. . .you cannot give him the position." 

This was all. Schuschnigg smiled gratefully; he thought he had found a wonderful collaborator in the 
lovely Countess. 

Now the problem of the fatal file became important again. 

"The documents have been taken back to Schuschnigg's flat. . . .1 hope your trip will have better results 
now." Heydrich told me when he again gave me the task of procuring the compromising documents. 

The next day Karl Krause, a Berlin stamp merchant, arrived again at the Hotel Metropole and started 
to live the quiet, busy life of an honest business-man. Twenty-four hours later the microphone was 
rigged up in Schuschnigg's study which we could never install in there during the life of his wife. We 
had tapped his telephone wire; it was only the question of days or even hours before the plot which 
We had prepared so carefully and systematically would finally succeed. 

But even now something went wrong. 

The first sign of trouble was when the microphone in Schuschnigg's room became suddenly silent. 
Someone had taken it away and we knew very well that it was not Schuschnigg himself. 

This had happened at the moment when the Chancellor announced that he was going to marry the 
Countess Vera Fugger. 

We knew perfectly well that this must not happen. If Countess Vera and the Chancellor became man 
and wife we would not only lose our best agent but no doubt she would unmask the whole plot. We 
had to prevent that- at all costs. 

Von Papen had enough dummies in high positions to make the necessary moves. Schuschnigg 
suddenly noticed that everybody was against his marriage. Mayor Schmeitz-a loyal follower of the 
Chancellor- voiced it first. 

"This marriage cannot take place. There are a million unhappy matches in Vienna and husbands and 
wives all bear their crosses. All these people will say; if Schuschnigg can do it, why can't we do it, 
too? Schuschnigg must not marry a divorced woman. . .at least as long as he is Chancellor. . . " 

The intelligent Vera soon discovered that this counter-campaign had been started at the German 

I was in Papen's room when Countess Fugger was announced. So I became the witness of the most 
dramatic encounter I ever saw during my rather chequered career. 

Vera Fugger had to experience the same thing as was experienced by a thousand different secret 
agents if they revolted against their employers. I had to formulate her death warrant. 

"Countess, I am deeply sorry, but if you refuse to cooperate, I shall be forced to present the 
Chancellor with the proof of your past activity. ..." 

It was a painful scene; the most distressing I ever lived through. 

But von Papen the diplomat spoke a different language. 

He offered a seat to the Countess and tried to reassure her. 

" You must understand. Countess," he said. "Don't you love the Chancellor? You do, don't you? Well, 
then you must know that you can't become his wife as long as he holds this office. Our aims are 
identical. Go on helping us and you'll see; in a few weeks Schuschnigg will become a private 
individual and there won't be any obstacle to your marrying him. . . .Or do you want him to share the 
fate of Dolfuss ? " he added significantly. 

The unhappy woman raised her eyes, deeply startled. But the ambassador continued mercilessly: 

"You're a clever woman and know as much about the situation as we do. Schuschnigg may still resist- 
signing his own death-warrant by his obstinacy. You love him-I understand your feelings, but you 
must make sacrifices for this love. . .all of us have the same goal. Schuschnigg must leave his place 
and in that moment both of us have attained our aims." . 

Three days later the famous meeting at Berchtesgaden took place. 

Historians and publicists describing the tragedy of Austria mostly maintain that the catastrophe was 
caused by Schuschnigg's acceptance of Hitler's invitation. The Fuehrer received him, their version 
ran, as a real dictator, he showed him brutally the mobilization plan of the German troops and then 
presented him with his ultimatum. 

The truth-at least according to my knowledge-was quite different. 

The fate of ancient Austria was in a woman's hand. 

After many delays Schuschnigg decided to go to the fatal meeting, accompanied by Guido Schmidt 
and von Papen. 

He went calmly and composedly because he knew that he could balance Hitler's exaggerated 

Schuschnigg knew that Hitler had realized what a fatal weapon that file could be. Should 
Schuschnigg publish the documents in a "White Book " he would deal Hitler a mortal blow. Even if 
he did not succeed in bringing him to fall (it was hardly probable that such a book could be smuggled 
in a large number of copies into Germany) any Nazi movement abroad would be discredited in the 
moment when the Fuehrer was shown in the merciless limelight of cold facts. . .not at all 
complimentary to him. 

Schuschnigg had no other aims beyond that. After the White Book had been published there would 
hardly be a substantial group of Austrians belonging to the underground Nazi movement. 

This file, this thick bundle of documents, all original, was in Schuschnigg's study between the steel 
walls of his safe. 

And it was guarded by Countess Vera Fugger. 

Himmler and Heydrich were both at Berchtesgaden and in constant touch with the Viennese events. 
Heydrich's instructions were outspoken, decisive, and strict. I myself had to open the safe, take the 
file and prevent even Countess Vera from looking into it. 

Early in the morning of the momentous day a member of the Special Service had arrived from Berlin 
who was an artist in burglary and could open almost any safe within a few minutes-and without 
leaving any traces. 

I confess that I felt a strange excitement when I arrived with this man at Schuschnigg's flat. 

His valet led us into the drawing-room. A little later the Countess Vera appeared, behaving as if she 
already were the mistress of the house. She greeted us pleasantly; but there was some strange 
expression on her lovely face which I could not at first fathom. 

I was burning with impatience to fulfill my duty and said rather rudely when she sent the servant for 
some refreshments: 

" For God's sake, Countess, we haven't got any time for polite small talk. Everything has been 
prepared for the transfer of the documents." 

She seemed to be surprised. 

" The file? Don't you know that von Papen has made other arrangements?" 

I felt my hands growing cold; there was a clammy feeling around my heart. For heaven's sake, what 
had happened-just now when I believed that everything would be all right? 

Countess Vera seemed to be rather startled at my lack of information. 

" Baron von Kettler, von Papen's secretary, was here some time ago. I gave him the file and as far as I 
know he has left Vienna already. Von Papen thought that the documents would be in a much safer 
place in his secretary's courier's bag which won't be opened at the frontier, than in your hands. Even if 
you had perfectly organized the smuggling of the file into Germany, you might be exposed to the 
danger of an over-zealous customs officer." 

I thought she had some particularly deep game of her own. 

" I ...I don't believe you," I stammered. " How could you open the safe?" 

She smiled and showed me a key. 

" Here it is. ..the Chancellor gave me the key. The poor man told me that if there should be any 
danger I should take them away to a safe hiding-place." 

In order to convince us she led the way to Schuschnigg's study, opened the safe and showed us the 
empty inner drawer. 

What could we do ? 

I had to get in touch with Heydrich. . .at once. The whole story was extremely suspicious. . .von Papen 
must have prepared some devilish intrigue. Perhaps his secretary had already left the country and 

now, instead of Schuschnigg, Papen would be able to threaten and blackmail Hitler. . . . 

I rushed to the German embassy to ring up Heydrich. He was furious and almost roared in his 
despair. But he still had enough presence of mind to give me the instructions: I had to find out which 
route von Kettler had taken. 

We knew that he was travelling by car and I knew its number. But I did not want to alarm the 
Austrian authorities. What if von Kettler was really going to Berchtesgaden? Our organization was 
not strong enough to have an agent in every town on the Vienna-Berchtesgaden route, whom I could 
have instructed to watch out for von Kettler's car. We were more or less helpless. 

Hours went on in nerve-racking waiting. 

The same tension reigned during the famous meeting at Berchtesgaden, described so often by 
different minor actors in the drama. Heydrich told me himself it was not true that Hitler treated 
Schuschnigg rudely and brusquely. But the Fuehrer seemed to be very nervous. He asked Himmler 
every thirty minutes whether there was any news about the file. 

Schuschnigg, of course, had no idea what was going on behind his back. He behaved in a rather 
superior manner. He knew that he had a weapon in his hand which he could use to the fullest 
advantage if Hitler should prove difficult. 

The forenoon passed and lunch was served. 

In the afternoon Hitler broke off the conference; he refused to continue the discussion till the fatal file 
should have arrived. 

We had figured out in the meantime that von Kettler-in case he was trying to reach Berchtesgaden at 
all-had to pass the frontier about half-past eight in the evening. 

But it was nine o'clock and he had still not crossed the border. 

There was deep consternation both at the Viennese embassy and in the mountain chalet of the 

Another hour passed. 

Still no news of von Kettler. 

Another difficult, tense, painful thirty minutes went by. 

And at last, after thirty more minutes the news came: 

Kettler's car had reached the frontier and. . . . 

The fate of Austria was sealed! 

About 11 p.m., when Hitler knew that we were in the possession of the accursed documents, the 
discussions could begin again. But they soon took a tragic turn. 

". . .and if you do not fulfill my conditions, German troops will occupy Austria," Hitler ended. 

And now tragi-comedy followed. 

Schuschnigg replied. . . .alluded cautiously to the publication of a " White Book," which would. . . 

"Consist of empty pages," the Fuehrer interrupted him ruthlessly. He walked to a cupboard in the 
wall, opened it . . . and Schuschnigg paled. He recognized the file which he thought safely in his own 

" What happened?" he asked himself, losing all his poise and assurance. 

At the moment when Hitler received the file, my mission had ended. I had succeeded and Karl 
Krause, the Berlin stamp merchant, could return to his home-or rather to the desk in the Gestapo 

In Austria, history marched on with gigantic strides. On a memorable day Heydrich gave the 
command with a beaming face: 

" Start for Vienna..." 
Dollfuss Grave 


The significance of Hitler's Birtliplace 

Was Stalin a Rothschild,Too? 

By Clifford Shack 

The identity of Josef Stalin's father is still shrouded in mystery. 

According to the "official" story, StaUn's father was a cobbler from Gori, a city in Soviet Georgia . 
There were rumors circulating during Stalin's lifetime that his real father was the explorer 
Przhevalsky . People uttering these rumors during Stalin's reign of terror were not murdered because 
Stalin enjoyed the association. Przhevalsky was a well known Russian hero. His presumed father, 
Beso, was a drunk and a wife beater. He also beat Stalin. Although Stalin may have gotten some 
satisfaction from the rumor it was not true. While Przhevalsky did indeed visit Gori around the time 
of Stalin's conception, he was a homosexual. 

So if Beso and Przhevalsky weren't responsible for the world's greatest murderer . . .than who was? 

This very question was explored by Edvard Radzinsky who wrote an in- depth biography of Stalin. 
Given access to previously secret Kremlin files, Radzinsky noted in his book : 

"After Stalin's death, when terror disappeared, people started naming several Supposititious fathers. 
There was even one Jew, a merchant, among them. But the name most often mentioned was that of 
Yakov Egnatashvili. He was a wealthy wine merchant, a boxing enthusiast, and one of those Keke 
[Stalin's mother]worked for. Yakov Egnatashvili must have had some reason for funding Soso's 
seminary education. People said that Stalin called his first son Yakov in honor of Egnatashvili. ... I 
have seen a portrait of this Georgian hero ... he was certainly nothing like the puny Soso [Stalin's 
nickname]. . . . (Letter from N. Goglidze, Kiev)" 

This is as far as Radzinsky was able to reveal. His information is sufficient however to take the 
investigation to the next level. 

Joseph (losif) Dzhugashvili or "Soso", as his mother called him in Georgian fashion, was responsible 
for murdering millions of people. It has been said that Stalin was responsible for the murder of about 

20,000,000 people during the years 1924-1953 . Now let's face it. This guy has got to have some 
pretty powerful connections to pull something like that off. If you want to believe that his father was 
a well-connected boot maker than go right ahead. A wealthy Jewish wine merchant is also no ticket 
to the Big Show on the world stage. 

The two evil twins of the last century. Hitler and Stalin both had hidden affiliations to the powerful 
forces behind the New World Order . This should really come as no surprise. The specific biological 
nature of their hidden connection is the curiosity here. 

So who indeed was Stalin's real father? 

Well we were able to rule out the great gay Russian hero Przhevalsky. 

We could also rule out the Georgian hero. The wealthy Jewish wine merchant's power was localized 
to the Georgian wine industry . Physically he was robust while Stalin was described as puny. 

So who